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SIR APOLLO KAGGWA SCHOOLS

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Content

 

 

 


 

Our environment in Sub-County/ Division

 

Soil

Reading descriptions of words

  • Air  – living organisms – rot/decay
  • Water – arrangement – vertical
  • humus (dead plants and animals) – mineral salt
  • particles – profile – layer
  • rocks – fastest – moisture
  • clay  – slowly – steam
  • sand – moderate – mixture
  • Loam – drain  – vapour
  • Decay – erosion
  • Weathering – earthquake
  • Temperature – wind  
  • Floods – earthworm
  • Aerate – deforestation
  • Afforestation – forest  
  • Mulching – slope  
  • Terraces – grazing
  • Soil – dissolve

Soil : is the top layer on earth or Soil is a medium on which plants grow and animals live.

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Composition / components / constituents of soil.

Soil is made up of Air , water , humus , particles of rocks, mineral salts and living organisms.

Uses of Air in the soil

Oxygen supports the life of living organism in the soil.

Uses of water in the soil.

  • Helps plants to grow
  • Keeps the soil moist

How can we keep water in the soil

By mulching

3. Living organisms

Examples of living organisms : Earth worm termites , rates , red ants, snakes etc.

Importance of living organism in the soil

Helps in aeration of the soil.

Ways of keeping soil fertile

  • By mulching
  • By adding manure
  • By bush farrowing

Experiments on what makes up soil

1.  Soil contains air

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Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Water

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Bubbles

Image From EcoleBooks.com  Dry soil

 

Bubbles show the air coming from the soil

 

2.  Soil contains water

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Water droplets

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HEAT Soil

 

 

Humus : Humus is formed when dead plants and animals decay

 

3.  Soil contains humus (dead plants and animals)

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Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Humus floating on water

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Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Mixture of water and soil

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Humus floats on water

NB: Humus makes the soil fertile.

 

Uses of soil

To man

Man uses soil in many ways such as growing crops, building houses, painting, making pots, making bricks, for sale, constructing roads, making glass.

 

To plants

Plants get water and mineral salts from soil using roots, soil holds plants upright.

 

To other animals

Some animals live in soil like; rats, snakes, snails, mole, rats , squirrels, termites etc. Animals also get warmth and protection from the soil. The above animals can live in soil because there is air for breathing.

Soil texture: Is the roughness or smoothness of soil particles or it refers to different sizes of soil particles.

Soil structure

Is the arrangement of particles in soil.

 

Types of soil and their texture

Soil is made up of sand, clay and loam soil.

Type

Texture

Sand soil

  • Its rough
  • Has the biggest particles

Clay soil

  • Its smooth
  • Has the smallest particles

Loam soil

  • It’s a mixture of sand, clay and humus
  • It has moderate texture

 

 

 

 

Soil particles

Clay soil loam soil sand soil  

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Characteristics of clay soil

  • It has the smallest particles.
  • Its sticky
  • Its particles are closely packed
  • It has little humus
  • It drains water slowly

NB:

Clay soil is commonly used for modeling.

 

Characteristics of sand soil

  • It has the biggest particles
  • It has rough particles
  • Particles are loosely packed (far apart)
  • It has big/large air spaces
  • It drains water quickly

NB: Sand soil is used to make glasses

Characteristics of loam soil

  • It’s a mixture of sand and clay
  • It has a lot of humus
  • Its dark in colour

NB: Loam soil is good for crop growing because

i) It is well Aerated

ii) It contains a lot of humus

 

Movement of water through the soil

 

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 A  B  C container

 

A -Clay soil   B – loam soil C –  Sand soil

 

Observations and deductions

  1. Clay soil allows little water to go through. Why?

    It has the smallest air spaces or it has the finest soil particles.

  2. Sand soil allows water to pass through fastest. Why?

    It has the largest air spaces or it has the biggest soil particles.

  3. Loam soil allows water to go through moderately.

 

Soil formation

Soil formation is the process by which soil is formed.

Soil is formed in two ways.

  • Decomposition
  • Weathering

Decomposition: is when organic matter rot or decay. NB Bacteria help in decomposition (decaying)

Weathering: is the process by which rocks break down into small particles to form soil

Agents of weathering

  • Running water
  • Animals
  • Strong wind
  • Earth quake
  • Plants

Soil profile : Is the vertical arrangement of soil layers or is the arrangement of soil layers from top to bottom.

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com  Top soil

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Image From EcoleBooks.com  Sub soil

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Image From EcoleBooks.com  Parent rocks (gravel and stones)

 

 

Uses of soil (practical work)

  • Making pots, cups, plates, glasses, bricks (clay soil)
  • For building – sand soil
  • For growing crops (loam)

 

NATURAL CHANGES IN OUR SURROUNDING

These are changes made by God (God made changes)

 

Examples of natural changes in the animals

Growth, death, reproducing , sweating , digestion , excretion

 

 

Natural changes in plants

  • Growth of plants
  • Germination
  • Drying plants / wilting
  • Ripening of fruits

Germination in seeds

Germination : Is the growing of a seed into a seedling.

 

Natural changes around us

Floods, drought, earthquakes, land slides, storms, lightning, thunder, hail storms, soil erosion, weather changes, seasonal changes rusting

 

More about changes around us

Floods – Are heavy rains overflowing in a place.

Drought – Is a long period of too much sunshine.

Hail storm – Are small droplets of ice falling from the sky.

Earth quake – a sudden violent movement of the earth’s surface.

Landslides – Sliding down of a heavy part of the earth or rocks from a side of a hill or mountain.

Soil erosion – Is the removal of top soil by running water, strong wind, animals, man (agents)

 

Changes in the sky

  • Formation of rain
  • Movement of clouds
  • Rising and setting of the sun
  • Changes in the moon shapes
  • Changes in weather

 

Effects of changes

  • Floods, earthquakes and landslides cause destruction of homes and property, plants and animals.
  • Drought – causes hunger, diseases
  • Storms cause soil erosion

 

 

Managing changes

Floods – control

  • Digging trenches
  • Avoiding clearing swamps
  • Avoid building in drainage systems, swamps

Causes , danger and control of floods

 

Drought

  • Planting trees
  • Avoid clearing swamps
  • Digging valley dams

Desert plants sisal , cactus

Rusting

Rust is a reddish brown substance that forms on metal when a metal is exposed to oxygen and water.

Note: Oxygen and water are conditions needed for rusting

 

Examples of metals

  • Iron , steel , Aluminum , copper

Ways of controlling rusting

  • By  painting
  • By greasing / oiling
  • By enameling
  • By galvanizing
  • By keeping metals in cool and dry places.

Dangers of rusting

  • It weakens metals
  • It makes metals blunt
  • It makes water in metallic tanks poisonous
  • It spoils and changes the colour of metal.

Soil erosion : Soil erosion is the removal of top soil by its agents.

Agents of erosion

  • Running water
  • Strong wind
  • Animals

Types of erosion

  • Rill erosion
  • Gulley erosion
  • Splash erosion

Causes of soil erosion

  • Over stocking
  • Mono cropping
  • Bush burning
  • Deforestation

Ways of controlling soil erosion

a) Compound

  • By planting grass in the compound
  • By planting trees (Afforestation)

In the garden

  • By mulching
  • By crop rotation
  • Afforestation
  • Bush farrowing

     

     

  • Contour ploughing
  • Mulching
  • Planting trees/ grass
  • Crop rotation
  • Planting cover crops
  • Intercropping
  • Agro forestry
  • Bush farrowing

c) In hilly areas

  • By terracing
  • By contour ploughing

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Mulching : Mulching is the covering of top soil with dry plant materials ( mulches)

Mulches: are materials used in mulching.

Examples of mulches.

  • Dry banana leaves
  • Coffee husks
  • Dry grass
  • Saw dust
  • Dry banana fibre

Advantages of mulching

  • It keeps the soil fertile
  • It keeps moisture in the soil
  • It controls soil erosion
  • It controls weeds in the garden

Disadvantages of mulching

  • Mulches are fire hazards
  • Mulches hides pests
  • Some mulches are sources of weeds
  • Note : Pests are living organisms that spoil farmers crops. Eg monkeys , birds , rats , weevils, caterpillars.
  • Weeds: are unwanted plants in the garden.

Examples of weeds

  • Black jack
  • Star grass
  • Nut grass
  • Milk grass
  • Pig weed

Ways if controlling weeds

  • By spraying
  • By mulching
  • By slashing

    Crop rotation

    Crop rotation : is the growing of different types of crops on the same piece of land seasonally

    Illustration

     

1st season 2nd season

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Image From EcoleBooks.com Beans maize

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4th season 3rd season

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Image From EcoleBooks.com Cabbages Groundnuts.

 

Importance (advantages ) of crop rotation

  • It makes the soil fertile
  • It controls soil erosion
  • It controls crop pests
  • It controls crop diseases
  • NOTE: Crop rotation , monocropping and mixed farming are examples of farming practices.

 

Man made changes (ARTIFICIAL CHANGES)

These are changes made by man.,

 

Examples of man made changes

  • Planting trees
  • Cutting down tree
  • Growing crops
  • Killing animals
  • Accidents
  • Painting buildings
  • Building
  • Construction of roads

 

Effects of man made changes

 

Good effects

Bad effects

  • People get shelter
  • Easy transport
  • Houses look good

Drought

Causes floods

Causes soil erosion

Causes dealth

 

Managing changes brought by man

  1. Accidents

An accident is a sudden happening that harms someone’s body.

Examples of common accidents

  • Burn
  • Scalds
  • Bites
  • Stings
  • Cuts

Causes of accidents

a) At school and home

– Carelessness

– Playing bad games

– Running down and up stairs

– Fighting

b) On the road

– Not following road signs

– Over speeding

– Over loading

– Playing on the road

Ways of controlling accidents

a) At home and school

– Avoid fighting

– Avoid playing bad games

– Avoid playing with sharp objects

b) On the road

– Following road signs

– Avoid over speeding

– Avoid over loading

 

(Afforestation)

Is the planting of trees where they have never existed

Reasons why people plant trees.

  • To get firewood
  • To get charcoal
  • To get poles
  • To get shade
  • To get timber
  • Trees help in rainfall formation

Things we get from forests

  • Fruits
  • Poles
  • Firewood
  • Timber
  • Herbal medicine
  • Flowers

Note: A group of trees growing together is called a forest.

 

 

 

Forests in Uganda

Forest

Where we find it

Mabira

Mukono/ Buikwe district

Bugoma

Masindi

Budongo

Masindi

Buhweju

Rwampara

 

Types of wood trees

a) Hardwood trees.

These are trees whose wood lasts for along time.

Examples of hardwood trees.

  • Mvule
  • Mahogany
  • Eucalyptus
  • Mugavu
  • Teak
  • Misambya
  • Oak

Soft wood trees

These are trees whose wood do not last for along time.

Examples of soft wood trees

  • Kirundu
  • Enzingu
  • Wattle
  • Misizi
  • Mutuba (ficus)
  • Jackfruit tree

NOTE: The bark of Mutuba tree is used to make bark clothes

Ever green trees:

These are trees which bear cones (corniferous ) e.g fir . pine , cedar.

Deforestation

Deforestation is the cutting down of trees on a large scale (massively)

Reasons why people carryout deforestation

  • To get charcoal
  • To get firewood
  • To get poles
  • To get timber
  • To make space for farming

    Dangers of deforestation

  • It causes soil erosion
  • It leads to drought
  • It destroys habitats for wild animals

Things we get from wood.

  • Tables
  • Desks
  • Chairs
  • Beds
  • Doors
  • Windows frames

    Killing animals

  • Pouching is the illegal hunting of wild animals or This is the hunting of wild animals without permission.
  • Ways of preventing the killing of animals.
  • Putting up strict laws against poaching
  • Fencing game reserves.

 


WEATHER

Weather is the condition of the atmosphere of a place at a given time.

There are four types / conditions / kinds of weather

  • Windy weather
  • Sunny weather
  • Cloudy weather
  • rainy weather

 

Weather makers – these are the aspects, factors or elements of weather.

  • Wind blow
  • cloud cover
  • Sunshine
  • Rainfall
  • temperature
  • humidity
  • air pressure

 

The weather chart

Sunny

Rainy

Windy

Cloudy

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Importance of weather

Rainfall – it provides rain water to animals and plants.

Sunshine – It dries crops (seeds), provides heat for drying clothes,

– vitamin D

Clouds – nimbus clouds form rainfall,

– makes the weather cool.

Items used in different kinds of weather.

  • Rainy weather: Umbrellas, gum boots, rain coats.
  • Sunny weather : Umbrellas , light clothes , sun glasses , sandals
  • Cloudy weather: Sweater , Jackets overall
  • Windy weather : sun glasses

    Importance of weather makers

  • Rainfall – it provides rain water to animals and plants
  • Sunshine – it dries crops (seeds), provides heat for drying clothes
  • Vitamin D
  • Clouds – nimbus clouds form rainfall.
  • Makes the weather cool.

    Weather instruments

    Weather instruments are instruments which are used to show or measure the different factors of weather.

    Weather instruments

Instrument

Name

Use / function

 

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Image From EcoleBooks.com Measuring cylinder

Rain gauge

Used to measure the amount of rainfall received

 

 

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S E

Wind vane

Used to show the direction of wind

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Anemometer

Measures the speed of wind

 

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Wind sock

Shows the strength of wind

 

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Atmospheric

pressure

Mercury

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Barometer

Measure air pressure

 

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Sunshine recorder

Show the number of hours it shines

 

 

Thermometer

A thermometer is used to measure temperature.

 

Types of thermometer

a) Clinical thermometer

clinical thermometer is used to measure the human body temperature.

 

 

 

Diagram showing a clinical thermometer

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Bulb bore

 

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Mercury stem

Kink / constriction / Namur bend

b) Six’s thermometer / minimum and maximum thermometer.

Six’s thermometer is used to measure the highest and lowest temperature of the day.

Stevenson screen

A Stevenson screen is used to keep delicate weather instruments.

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Its painted white to reflect heat.

Examples of delicate weather instruments

  • Barometer
  • Thermometer

The seasons

A season is a period when an area receives the same weather condition for a long time.

There are two seasons in Uganda.

  1. Wet
    season – an area receives a lot of rainfall.
  2. Dry season – an area receives too much sunshine.

 

Activities done during each season by farmers

Wet season

Dry season

  • Planting seeds
  • Weeding
  • Pruning
  • Thinning
  • Land clearing
  • Harvesting crops
  • Drying seeds
  • Watering

Theme

 

Sub-theme

 

 

 

 


 

Air and the sun

Reading descriptions of words

Air atmosphere objects  

Sun weight translucent

Gases properties glass

Oxygen pressure transparent

Nitrogen occupy umbra

Carbondioxide space penumbra

Rare gases bubbles   cools

Mixture compressed heat

Percentage Support winnowing

Breathing/respiration  natural

Burning heat

Fire extinguisher  light

Preserve energy

solar  Artificial

Fertilizers Nutrients

Electrical

 

 

Air concepts and its properties

Air is a mixture of gases

Components / parts of air

  • Nitrogen,
  • Oxygen,
  • rare gases (argon , helium , xenon , neon , hydrogen , krypton
  • carbondioxide

Percentages of gases in the atmosphere

A graph showing the percentage of gases in the atmosphere

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Percentage of air

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Nitrogen oxygen rare gases carbondioxide

Component of Air

 

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Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Oxygen 21%

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Carbondioxide 0.03%

 

 Nitrogen 78%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Properties of air

  1. Air has weight

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Image From EcoleBooks.com balloon with no air  

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balloon with air

 

 

 

 

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The balloon with air goes down because air has weight.

 

  1. Air exerts pressure

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  Hard paper

 

When you turn the glass upside down, the hard paper does not fall off because air pressure pushes it up.

When taking a drink e.g. soda using a straw, the pressure pushes the drink up the straw.

 

  1. Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comAir occupies space

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  1. Air can be compressed

Compressed air is used in car tyres to support the weight of the car. It is also used in balls, balloons, floaters and sprays.

 

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Compressed airImage From EcoleBooks.com in the ballon

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Importance of air

Oxygen

  • supports life (breathing, respiration)
  • It supports burning

 

 

 

 

 

An experiment to show that air supports burning

Image From EcoleBooks.com Glass

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When the candle is burning, it is supported by oxygen. A glass cuts off the supply of oxygen and then it gets used up in the glass.

The gas the remains in the glass is carbondioxide.

NB: The gas produced by a burning candle is carbondioxide.

 

Carbondioxide

  • It puts out fire because it does not support burning. A fire extinguisher uses carbondioxide to put out fire. (carbondioxide extinguishes fire)

Places where we find fire extinguishers

  • schools
  • hospitals
  • banks
  • hotels
  • Vehicles
  • petro stations

 

Picture of fire extinguisher

 

 

Carbondioxide is used to preserve drinks like soda, beer and tinned food.

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com carbondioxide

Plants use carbondioxide in the process of making their own food. (photosynthesis)

 

Nitrogen –

  • Nitrogen helps in formation of artificial fertilizers
  • Nitrogen provides nutrients to plants through minerals.

Rare gases – used in electrical bulbs.

 

Wind (moving air)

Wind is moving air or wind is air in motion

Uses of wind

  • Wind cools our bodies
  • Wind moves things e.g. boats, kites
  • Wind is used in winnowing
  • Wind moves wind mills

Uses of wind mills

  • Used to pump water from the ground
  • Used to generate electricity

Dangers of wind

  • Strong wind destroys crops.
  • Strong wind breaks tree branches.
  • Wind spreads diseases like flu, cough tuberculosis , measles , mumps etc
  • Wind rises dust
  • Wind destroys houses
  • Wind causes soil erosion

 

The sun

The sun is the main source of heat and light energy

It also provides solar energy

 

Sources of light

  • Natural sources of light (God made sources) e.g. the sun, stars, glow worms (caterpillars), fire flies, shooting stars, volcanic mountains
  • The moon s not a natural source of light because it reflects light from the sun.

 

Artificial sources of light (man made)

  • torches
  • electric bulbs
  • candles
  • mobile phones
  • match boxes

 

Effects of the sun

Uses of the sun to animals

  • Helps to see (light)
  • Tells direction
  • It helps in formation of rainfall
  • It dries clothes
  • It is a source of solar energy
  • Provides vitamin D

 

Uses of the sun to plants

  • Helps plants to manufacture (make) food.
  • Helps plants to grow well.

Dangers of the sun

  • Prolonged sunshine causes drought.
  • Too much sunshine dries crops.

    Changes bought by the sun on the earth

  • It causes day and night
  • Drought

    Day is the time between sun rise and sun set.

    Night is the time between sun set and sun rise

    Qn. What causes day and night? the rotation of the earth.

Plants need sunlight to grow

Image From EcoleBooks.com  Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com

sun rays

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Box

A Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Image From EcoleBooks.com  

Image From EcoleBooks.com

A plant bends towards the hole where sunlight is.

Shadows: A shadow is a region of darkness formed when light falls on an opaque object

Formation of shadows

Shadows are formed with light falls on an opaque object.

Shadows are formed when an opaque object stands in the way of light.

Opaque objects:

These are objects which do not allow light to go through them.

Examples of opaque objects

Walls, books, trees, tables, desks etc

Translucent objects

These are objects which allow light to go through them e.g. clear glass, colourless polythene, sun glasses.

Transparent objects

These are objects which allow little light to pass through them e.g clear glass, water and air.

Parts of a shadow

A shadow has two parts.

a) Umbra – the darker part of a shadow

b) Penumbra – the lighter part of a shadow

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com   umbra

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com  penumbra

Characteristics of shadows

  • Have two parts (umbra and penumbra)
  • Shadows are always formed on the opposite side of the source of light.
  • Appear shortest at noon or mid-day.
  • Appear longest in the early morning and late evening.

 

Uses of shadows

  • Shadows tell time
  • Shadows show direction
  • Shadows give us shade

How shadows are formed

 source of light Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com1. Opaque object  

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Image From EcoleBooks.com shadow

 

 

2. Image From EcoleBooks.comsource of light

 

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com  Shadow Image From EcoleBooks.com  opaque object


 

Sub Theme

Image From EcoleBooks.comWater

Reading descriptions of words

  • Rainfall dark public promote
  • Formation feathers stagnant condition
  • Cycle piles Water resemble
  • Vapour measure Sunrays aspects
  • Nimbus source Clouds generate
  • Evaporation irrigation Heat fencing
  • Ice  disposal Gaseous waste
  • Stratus proper Cirrus products
  • Cumulus collect Masses direct
  • Nearest station Furthest elements
  • Humidity types Temperature
    • Layers transport

Water cycle : Is the process by which rain is formed

Water cycle/ rainfall formation

  • The sun heats the water body.
  • The water gets heated up and starts evaporating (rising up).
  • The vapour rises up and then condenses to form nimbus clouds.
  • The condensed vapour becomes heavy and then falls down as rain.

 

Diagram showing the water cycle

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com  Image From EcoleBooks.com   sun rays   nimbus clouds

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Condensation

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Rain

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Steam vapour Image From EcoleBooks.com
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Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com Evaporation

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com  Water body

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Condensation: is the process by which vapour changes to water.

Transpiration : Is the process by which plant lose water to the atmosphere through leaves.

An experiment to show how rainfall is formed

Teacher to draw the experiment

 

  • The charcoal stove represents the sun.
  • The water in the kettle represents the water body.
  • Evaporation takes place inside the kettle.

 

NOTE: Evaporation is the changing of water into gas.

  • The cold water in the bottle condenses the steam to water.
  • The water droplets represent rain.

    Types of rainfall.

  • Relief rainfall
  • Convectional rainfall
  • Cyclonic rainfall

 

NOTE: Vapour is water in gaseous form and ice is the water in solid form.

 

Importance of rain

To man/ animals/ plants

  • Plants get water used to grow.
  • Animals get water for drinking.
  • Rain fills water bodies.
  • Rain cools the weather.

 

Dangers of rain

  • Too much rainfall destroys crops.
  • Too much rainfall causes floods.
  • Too much rainfall kills animals.
  • Too much rainfall destroys buildings.
  • Too much rainfall causes soil erosion.

 

Clouds

Clouds are big masses of water that form in the sky.

 

There are four types of clouds.

  • Nimbus
  • Cumulus
  • cirrus
  • stratus.

 

Nimbus clouds

  • Dark grey in colour, appear nearest the earth and bring rain.

 

Stratus clouds

  • They spread in the sky with calm flat layers and are a sign of fair weather.

 

Cirrus clouds

  • Appear furthest (highest) in the sky. Resemble (look like) feathers.

 

Cumulus clouds

  • They are white in colour and resemble cotton piles.

 

Uses of clouds

  • Form rainfall (nimbus clouds)
  • Protect us from too much sunlight.
  • Make the weather cool.

 

Water sources

There are two types of sources of water

  1. Natural sources or God made sources e.g rain, lakes, rivers, oceans swamps etc
  2. Artificial sources or man made sources e.g. tanks, bore holes, fountains, dams, spring ,etc

 

Importance of water

  • For domestic use e.g. cooking, bathing
  • For transport
  • For generating electricity (hydro)
  • For cooling machines
  • For irrigation/ watering crops

 

 

Ways of protecting water sources

  • By fencing sources
  • Putting laws
  • Planting grass around them
  • Proper disposal of waste products
  • Adding chlorine to water sources to kill germs.

 

Water harvesting

Ways of collecting water

  • By using tanks
  • Using jerrycans
  • Tapping from the roof
  • Using dams
  • Tapping from trees

 

Ways of contaminating water sources

Urinating in water sources.

Putting rubbish in water sources

 

Sanitation

Sanitation is the general cleanliness of a place where we live (public cleanliness)or is the cleaning of a place where we live or stay.

 

Important of sanitation

  • It reduces the spread of germs.
  • It promotes public health.
  • Little money is spent on treating people.
  • People live longer.
  • Vectors are controlled.

 

Ways of promoting proper sanitation

  • Cleaning latrines or toilets.
  • Proper disposal of rubbish.
  • Slashing around our homes.
  • Draining away stagnant water.
  • Sweeping our compound.
  • Building plate stands.
  • Fencing water sources.

Why do we smoke latrines?

  • To reduce bad smell
  • To prevent house flies.

 

Things used to keep proper sanitation

  • Brooms, soap, water, ash, dustbin, hoes, rays, rakes, brushes, wheel barrows, spades

 

Qualities of a good house

  • A good house should have windows, doors, strong roof, ventilators and a verandah.

 

Qualities of a clean home

A good home should have;

  • A kitchen
  • Bathroom
  • Latrine or toilet
  • Rubbish pit
  • Plate stand
  • Well ventilated house

 

Germs

Germs are small living things (organisms) that cause diseases.

There are four types of germs.

  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Fungi
  • Protozoa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SIR APOLLO KAGGWA SCHOOLS

P.3 LITERACY I LESSON NOTES TERM II – 2016

ENVIRONMENT

Environment are things / around us. Surroundings is another word to mean environment

Component of the environment

Environment is made up of two components namely:

  • Living components
  • Non – living components

Living components

Non living components

Plants

Animals

Air

Water

Soil

 

  • Living things

What are living things?

THEME:  LIVING THINGS IN OUR SUBCOUNTY

 

Reading descriptions of words

 

Breath

Wastes

Respond

Reproduce

Feed

Stimuli

Thorax

Spiracles

Antennae

Tasting

Laying

Feathers

Beaks

Swimming

Gills

Cold blooded

Hooves

Buttons

Manure

Prestige

Dowry

Buffalos

Tourists

Taboos

Giraffes

Wetland

Water logged

Crocodiles

Tortoises

Earthworms

Hides

Aquatic animals

A pond

Protection

Monitor

Shelter

Slugs

Friendship

Wriggling

Gliding

Maggot

Nostril

Ventral fin

Caudal fin

Pectoral fin

Dorsal fin

Corners

Senses

Nile perch

Silver fish

Proteins

Belts

Salting

Refrigerator

Scratching

Warmth

Flightless

Web feet

Penguins

Geese

Swans

Poultry

Pigeons

Sucking

Regarded

Scorpions

Harmful

Spoil

Weevils

Wax

Swarm

Proboscis

Nectar

Dragonflies

 

THEME:  LIVINGTHINGS IN OUR SUBCOUNTY

 

What are living things?

Livingthings are things which have life.

Examples: cows , goats , oranges , mangoes , beans , birds , insects etc

Groups of living things.

  • Plants
  • Animals

Characteristics of living things

  • They breathe
  • They feed
  • They move
  • They reproduce
  • They pass out wastes
  • They respond to stimuli
  • They grow and change

 

Non-living things:

These are things which do not have life.

e.g stones, soil, water , timber , etc.

 

Characteristics of non-living things

  • They do not breathe
  • They do not feed.
  • They do not move
  • They do not reproduce
  • They do not pass out wastes
  • They do not respond stimuli
  • They do not grow and change.

 

Animals

Types of animals in our division

 

There are two types of animals in our subcounty and these are;

  1. Domestic animals
  2. Wild animals

 

Domestic animals:

Are animals which are kept in homes.

Examples;

  • Cows
  • Dogs
  • Goats
  • Sheep
  • Rabbits
  • Donkeys

Reasons why people keep domestic animals.

  • To get meat
  • To get milk
  • To sell and get money
  • For transport
  • For protection

 

Animals kept for transport

  • Donkey
  • Camels
  • Horse
  • Oxen

Animal

Products

Things we make

Goats

Cow

Skins and hides

Belt , drum , shoes , watchstraps , handbags

Milk

Yoghurt, butter , cheese , ghee

Hooves and horns

Glue , buttons, bungles , necklaces

Bones

Animal feeds

Sheep

Wool

Woolen blankets , sweaters , stockings , jackets , scurvies

Mutton

 

Pigs

Pork

Bacon and ham, lard

Rabbits

Fur

Blankets

meat

 

Ways of caring for domestic animals

  • By giving them food and water
  • By cleaning their houses (shelter)
  • By treating them when sick
  • By building them shelter.

Wild animals

  • Are animals which live in the bush.

 

Examples:

  • Antelopes
  • Giraffes
  • Elephants
  • Buffalos
  • Zebras
  • Leopards

 

Uses of wild animals

  • They attract tourists
  • Some wild animals give us skins eg snakes , leopards , lions .
  • Some wild animals gives horns eg antelopes , rhinos , buffalos.
  • Elephants give us ivory.

 

Dangers of wild animals

  • Some wild animals can eat people e.g lions , leopards, etc.
  • Some wild animals can also eat domestic animals.
  • Some wild animals destroy our crops

Habitats

A habit is a home of a livingthing.

Types of habitats

  • Animal habitats
  • Plant habitat

Animal habitats

An animal habitat is a place where an animal lives.

Examples of animal habitats

  • Compound eg. goats , rabbits , geckoes
  • Plants eg caterpillars , slugs , butterflies , chameleon
  • Forest / bush eg monkey , buffalo, elephants
  • Swamps eg mud fish
  • Water eg whales, dophin
  • Garden eg rats , squirrels etc

Animals in swamps and in water:

  • A swamp is a water logged area with some plants in it or
  • A swamp is a wetland with vegetation in it.
  • A swamp can be called a wetland.

 

Water animals ( Aquatic animals)

Animals that live in water are called aquatic animals.

 

Examples

  • Fish
  • Crocodiles
  • Hippopotamus
  • Frogs
  • Slugs
  • Crab

 

A POND

A pond is a small pool of water.

Some ponds are natural and others are manmade.

A pond can be found in homes , schools and hotels.

 

Examples of animals in a pond

  • Fish
  • Frogs
  • Slugs
  • Snails

AN AQUARIUM

An aquarium is a glass tank where fish and other water animals are kept in our homes.

 

Places where an aquarium can be found:

  • Hotels
  • School compounds,
  • homes, etc

Diagram of an aquarium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Animals without legs

  • fish
  • Snakes
  • Slugs
  • Earth worm

Animals which lay eggs

  • Lizards
  • Tortoise
  • Chameleon

Animals and their young ones

Animal

Young

Home

Cow

Goat

Rabbit

Sheep

Pig

Horse

Chicken

Lion

Fish

Calf

Kid

Kitten

Lamb

Piglet

Foal

Chicks

Cab

Fry

Byre

Shed

Hutch

Pen

Sty

Stable

Coop

Den

Water / aquarium

Animal movements

Way f movement

Animals

Crawling

Lizards

Chameleon

Tortoise

Hopping

Frogs

Grasshoppers

Locusts

Toads

Flying

Butterflies

Houseflies

Bees

Walking

Cows

Dogs

Hens

Man

Gliding

Snail

Slug

Snake

Wriggling

Caterpillar

Earthworms

Maggot

Swimming

Fish

Ducks

Swans

Geese

 

Why animals move from one place to another

  • To get food
  • To get water
  • To get protection
  • To get shelter
  • To look for their young ones
  • To look for friendship
  • To look for new homes

External parts of a fish

 

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H  

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 k  a b  I  c

  1. Pelvic fin
  2. Pectoral fin
  3. Ventral/anal fin
  4. Tail/caudal fin
  5. Dorsal fin
  6. Lateral line
  7. Nostril
  8. Mouth
  9. Eye
  10. Scale
  11. Gill cover/operculum
  12. Anus

 

USES OF PARTS OF A FISH

  1. The dorsal fin protects the fish from enemies.
  2. The eyes are used for seeing.
  3. The gill cover protects the gills.
  4. He tail fin helps the fish to turn to different directions.
  5. The scales protect the body of a fish.
  6. The nostrils are for smelling.
  7. The mouth is for feeding /getting food.
  8. The lateral line detects sound waves.
  9. Pectoral and pelvic fins are used for breaking speed and going up or down wards in water.
  10. Gills are used for breathing.

NB : Fins help a fish to swim in water

 

Examples of fish common in Uganda.

  • Tilapia (engage)
  • Nile perch (empuuta)
  • Cat fish
  • Silver fish (mukene)
  • Lung fish
  • Mud fish

 

Use of fish

  • Source of proteins
  • Scales are used to make bags and belts.
  • Fish helps to control mosquito larvae
  • Helps in manufacture of animal feeds
  • Some people get jobs e.g fish mongers
  • For selling

 

Methods of catching fish

  • fish hawks
  • Fishing nets
  • Fishing baskets

FISH PRESERVATIONS

Preservation

Preservation is the way of keeping food for a long time without going bad.

 

Morden methods of preserving fish

  • Canning / tinning
  • Refrigeration

     

 

Local methods

  • By smoking
  • By salting
  • By sun drying

Qn: Why do we preserve fish?

  • For future use
  • To prevent wastage

SUB THEME BIRDS

 

The external parts of a bird.

Image From EcoleBooks.com a b

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com j

i

 

l

d

 

 

 

c

g

e

 

  1. Comb/crown
  2. Eye
  3. Wing
  4. Tail feathers
  5. Spur
  6. Claws/nails
  7. Leg
  8. Wattle
  9. Beak
  10. Nostril

 

Functions of parts of a bird.

Beak –   It picks food from the ground (feeding)

  • It is used for protection

Wings  –  used f or flying

Legs –  for walking

Claws –  for protection

Spur –  for fighting/ protection

 –  seeing

 –  for flying

 –  giving birds shape

 –  cover body of a bird.

 –  Give birds colour

 –  Feathers give birds warmth

 

 

Characteristics of birds.

  • Birds breathe by means of lungs
  • Birds are covered with feathers.
  • Have beaks
  • Have claws
  • Reproduce by laying eggs

Note:  Swimming birds have webbed feet which help them to swim on water.

 

Examples of swimming birds

  • Ducks
  • Geese
  • Swans

 

Types of birds

  • Domestic birds
  • Wild birds

 

Domestic birds

  • Are birds kept in our homes .
  • They are also called poultry.

 

Examples

  • Ducks
  • Pigeons
  • Peacocks
  • Guinea fowls
  • Chicken
  • Parrots
  • Turkeys

 

Wild birds.

  • Are birds found in the bush.

 

Examples

  • Weaverbirds
  • Kites
  • Crested cranes
  • Eagles/crows

 

Habitats of birds

  • A habitat is a home of a living thing.
  • Birds live on trees, nests, burrows.

 

Uses of birds to people;

  • Birds provide meat e.g chicken, turkey
  • Provide manure
  • Provide feathers
  • Provide bones used to make animal feeds
  • Used f or cultural purposes e.g paying dowry
  • Used for tourist attraction

    Caring for birds

    Providing food , water , shelter to birds

 

Parts of an insect

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Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com  a

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 i

 h

Image From EcoleBooks.com

g

 

  1. Feelers/antennae
  2. Proboscis
  3. Eye
  4. Wing
  5. Leg
  6. Spiracles
  7. Abdomen
  8. Thorax
  9. Head

 

The three main body parts of an insect

  1. Head  – It is where the eyes, feelers and proboscis are found.
  2. Thorax  – It s where the legs and wings are attached.
  3. Abdomen  It is where we find the spiracles.

 

Functions of parts of an insect

  1. Feelers  –  for feeling
  2. Proboscis  –  used for sucking food and water
  3. Wing –  for flying
  4. Spiracles  –  for breathing

 

Characteristics of insects

  • Insects have three main body parts
  • Have three pairs of legs
  • Have jointed legs
  • Have feelers for feeling and smelling
  • Have segmented bodies

Note:  spiders, ticks and mites have two main body parts and eight legs. They are not insects.

 

Harmful and useful insects

  • Some insects are harmful or dangerous to man

 

Examples:

  • Of harmful insects
  • Wasps
  • Crickets
  • Locust
  • Mosquitoes
  • Termites
  • Bees
  • Houseflies
  • Red ants
  • Cockroaches

 

 

Useful insects to man

  • Bees
  • Grasshoppers
  • White ants
  • Locusts

 

INSECT HABITATS (HOMES)

Insects that live in the soil

  • Termites
  • White ants
  • Red ants

 

Insects that live on plants

  • Butterflies
  • Caterpillars

 

Social and solitary insects

Social insects are the insects that live , move and work together.

 

 

Examples

  • Bees
  • Red ants
  • Termites
  • Wasps
  • Black ants
  • White ants

Anti – social insects (solitary insects)

  • Are insects which do not live, move and work together.

 

Examples

  • Houseflies
  • Locusts
  • Mosquitoes
  • Cockroaches
  • Dragon flies
  • Butterflies
  • Moth
  • Grass hoppers

NOTE: Moth pollinates flowers at night

 

Other insects habitats.

  • Bees  –  bee hive
  • Spider  –  web

 

 

CARE FOR INSECTS, BIRDS AND ANIMALS

Care for bees

  • By providing a hive
  • By planting flowers for nectar
  • By providing water.

 

Types of bees.

  • Worker bees
  • Drone bees
  • The queen bees

 

Note: A group of bees is called a swarm.

 

Uses of bees to man

  • Bees provide honey
  • Bees provide bee wax
  • Young bees are eaten

 

Importance of honey

  • Honey is used as medicine e.g syrup
  • Honey is used to make some foods sweet
  • People sell honey and get money
  • It is a source of carbohydrates

 

 

Products from the wax

  • Candles
  • Shoe polish
  • Some cosmetics
  • After shave
  • Crayons

 

Ways of caring f or birds.

  • Treating birds
  • Keeping bird’s records
  • Providing food to birds
  • Building birds’ houses
  • Vaccinating birds
  • Protecting eggs

 

Signs of a sick bird

  • It is sleepy
  • Has dull feathers
  • It dos not want to eat food.

 

Note:  Poaching is the hunting of wild animals without permission

  • Treating sick animals in the wild life centre
  • Providing food to animals.

 

 

SUB THEME:  PLANTS

Reading description of words.

  • Seed
  • Develop
  • Germination
  • Seedling
  • Condition
  • Necessary
  • Moisture
  • Temperature
  • Warmth
  • Epigeal
  • Hypogeal
  • Cotyledon
  • Dicots
  • Monocots
  • Thatching
  • Chlorophyll
  • Upright/erect
  • Clasping
  • Underground
  • Flower
  • Habitat
  • Nursery bed
  • Harsh
  • Weeding
  • Spraying
  • Chemicals
  • Thinning
  • Transplanting
  • Mulching
  • Fencing
  • Rotation
  • Photosynthesis
  • Legumes
  • Cereals
  • Firmly
  • Reproductive
  • Suffocate
  • Harbor
  • Excess
  • Pests
  • Pesticides
  • Premature
  • Pruning
  • Transplant

     

  • Manure

Plant

Plants are anything on earth’s surface

Examples of plants

  • Maize plants
  • Bean plant
  • Cow pea plant

Reasons why they are called plants

  • They make their own food
  • They have chlorophyll

 

GROUPS OF PLANTS

  1. Flowering plants

    Are plants which bear flowers e.g maize, beans, grass, tomatoes, peas, etc.

  2. Non-flowering plants

    Are plants which do not bear flowers e.g ferns, conifers, mosses, liver worts

     

Characteristics of plants

They grow , reproduce, feed, breathe, excrete.

 

Plants habitats

Plant habitat is a place here plants grow or are found

 

N.B a habitat is a home of a living thing.

 

Plants in school compounds.

  • Pawpaw
  • Avocadoes
  • Mangoes
  • Palms
  • Trees, flowers, etc

 

Plants in swamps

  • Papyrus
  • Yams
  • Rice
  • Sugarcanes, etc

 

Plants in desert/dry areas

  • Cactus
  • Sisal

Plants which grow water

  • Waterhyancith
  • Water lily
  • Water cabbage

 

Plants that grow on rocks

  • Liverworts
  • Ferns
  • Mosses

 

SCHOOL GARDEN

 

Factors to consider when setting up a school garden

  • It should be near a water source
  • Should be near the school
  • It should be in an open space

 

 

 

Importance of a school garden

  • Children learn about crop i.e for study purposes
  • Children get food from the grown crops
  • The surplus is sold and generates income to the school.
  • Children learn how to dig.

 

 

NURSERY BED

Nursery bed is a small piece of land where seedlings are raised before taking them to the main garden.

 

Importance of a nursery bed.

  • Protects the seedlings from harsh conditions e.g too much sunshine, strong wind and heavy rains.
  • It is easy to care for the seedlings.
  • The shelter prevents water from evaporating
  • It is easy to select good seedlings.

 

Examples of crops grown in a nursery bed.-

  • Tomatoes
  • Cabbage
  • Loofah plants
  • Passion fruits
  • Onion
  • Orange
  • Egg plants
  • Green pepper
  • Spinach
  • Trees

 

Caring for crops in a nursery bed.

  • Watering/irrigation
  • It provides water to plants mainly in dry seasons

    Spraying

    This is the application of chemicals on seedlings to control pests, diseases and weeds.

WEEDING

This is the removal of unwanted plants from the garden.

A weed is un –wanted plant in the garden.

 

Examples of common weeds

  • Black jack
  • Star grass
  • Spear grass
  • Sodom apple
  • Finger millet
  • Goat grass
  • Wondering jew
  • Elephant grass
  • Nut grass

Importance of weeds to man

  • Some weeds are eaten as food
  • Some weeds are used as herbal medicine
  • Some weeds are feeds to domestic animals.

Ways of controlling weeds

  • By up rooting
  • By mulching
  • By slashing
  • By spraying
  • By digging

Dangers of weeds in the gardens

  • Weeds hide dangerous pests.
  • Weed lead to low crops yields
  • Weeds compete with plants for sunlight, water and nutrients.

 

Thinning

  • Is the removal of excess crops from the garden to create space.

 

Hardening off:

This is the making of seedlings get used to harsh conditions.

 

Transplanting

  • Is the transfer of seedlings from the nursery bed to the main garden.

 

Mulching

  • Is the covering of top soil with dry plant materials.

 

Fencing:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.comDiagram of a flowering plant

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.comleaf  fruit

 

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com flower

 

lateral bud

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com  stem

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com  roots

 

 

systems of plants

  • Shoot system
  • Root system

Parts of a flowering plant.

  • It has 3 major namely leaves, stem , roots

     

    LEAF

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

(leaf blade)

 

Uses of leaves to plants

  • They make food for the plant.
  • Some leaves store food
  • They help plants during transpiration

Note : Plants use stomata for breathing

Types of leaves

a)  Simple leaves

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comIllustration

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

Examples of plants with simple leaves

  • Mango plant
  • Orange
  • Jack fruit

Image From EcoleBooks.comb) Compound leaves

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

 

 

examples of plants with compound leaves

  • Bean plant
  • Cassava plant
  • Soya bean
  • Acacia plants
  • Molinga plant

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

It is the process by which green plants make food I the presence of sunlight and carbondioxide.

NB: Food made by plants is called starch.

 

Conditions necessary for photosynthesis

  • Chlorophyll (Green colouring matter that trap sunlight)
  • Image From EcoleBooks.comCarbondioxide These are raw materials of photosynthesis
  • Water
  • Sunlight (provide energy to plants)
  • N.B Transpiration is the process by which green plants lose water to the atmosphere through the leaves.

By – products of photosynthesis

a) Oxygen

b) Starch

Uses of leaves to animals.

  • Leaves are eaten as food
  • Leaves are used as herbal medicine
  • Some plants have leaves used for thatching houses
  • They are used for decoration
  • People sell leaves and get money.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

STEM

Types of stems

  1. Upright stems//erect stems

    Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com  node

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com  internodes

These types of stems are found in woody plants like

  • Mahogany
  • Eucalyptus
  • Ficus tree
  • Mango tree
  • Muvule

 

  1. Climbing stems

They are also called weak/clasping stems.

Examples of plants with climbing stems

  • Passion fruits
  • Vanilla
  • Some bean plants
  • Loofah plants
  • Water melon
  • Pumpkin
  • Some yams
  • Cucumber

 

 

How climbing plants climb others.

  • By twinning /clasping
  • Using hooks or thorns
  • Using tendrils

 

Plants using tendrils  Plants using hooks  by twinning

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com  Tendrils

 

 

 

 

  1. Underground stems

    These are stems found below the ground e.g

  • Spear grass
  • Couch grass
  • Ginger

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com  Adventitious roots

 

internodes

USES OF STEMS

  1. To plants
  • stems store food for the plants
  • Transport and food
  • Support branches and leaves
  • Stems make plants to stand

 

  1. To animals
  • Stems are eaten as food
  • Provide animals medicine
  • Provides building materials
  • We get timber/poles from woody plants

 

Roots

It is part of a flowering plant found under the ground.

 

 

 

 

 

TYPES OF ROOTS

(a Tap roots

Image From EcoleBooks.com  

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com  Main roots

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com  Root hairs

 Lateral root

Image From EcoleBooks.com  Root cap

Root systems

There are two types of root systems namely:-

a) Tap root system

b) Fibrous root system

 

N.B. Root cap

– protects the growing tip of the root.

Examples of plants with tap root system (legumes)

  • Beans
  • Peas
  • Soya
  • G.nuts
  • Simsim

 

 

  1. Fibrous roots

They are common in cereals/grains e.g sorghum

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com  Fibrous roots

 

Examples of plants with fibrous roots

 

  • Maize
  • Sorghum
  • Millet
  • Wheat
  • Rice
  • Barley
  • Oats
  • Some grasses
  1. Prop roots

    They develop from the stem of the plant

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com  Prop roots

 

NOTE: The function of prop root is to give extra support to the plant.

Examples of plants with prop roots

  • Sorghum
  • Maize
  • Millet and some grasses

 

  1. Adventitious roots
  2. These also develop from the stem of the plant. They are common in plants like onions, some yams

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com  Adventitious roots

 

Uses of roots to plants

  • Hold the plant firmly in the soil
  • Absorb water and mineral salts from the soil
  • Stores food for t he plant

 

Uses of roots to animals.

  • It is a source of food
  • It is used as herbal; medicine
  • Controls erosion like he buttress roots
  • Some people sell roots and get money

 

The flower

A flower is the reproductive part of a plant.

Parts of a flower.

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Petal

Image From EcoleBooks.com Stigma

Image From EcoleBooks.com Style

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Anther head

Image From EcoleBooks.com Filament

Image From EcoleBooks.com Sepal

Image From EcoleBooks.com Ovules

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Ovary

Receptacle

Image From EcoleBooks.com Flowerstalk

 

 

NOTE: Pistil is the female part of a flower

Stamen is the male part of a flower.

Uses of flowers to people.

  • They are used for decoration
  • Bees and birds get nectar from flowers
  • They are eaten as food
  • They are used for making perfumes
  • They are used for making colours
  • They are used as herbal medicines

 

Uses of flowers to plants

 

  • They help a plant to reproduce.

SEEDS

A SEED IS A DEVELOPED OVULE

External parts of a bean seed

 

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com
Scar / hilum

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Micropyle

 

Testa (seed coat)

Image From EcoleBooks.comInternal parts of a bean seed

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comPlumule

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comCotyledon scar

Image From EcoleBooks.com Micropyle

Image From EcoleBooks.com Radicle

Groups of seeds

Monocotyledous seed

Dicotyledonous seeds

 

Uses of seeds

  • Seeds are eaten as food.
  • Seeds are used for planting
  • They are sold
  • They are used as medicine
  • They are used I making crafts
  • They are used for making vegetable oil.

 

Dangers of plants

Some plants are poisonous e.g Sodom apple to cattle

Some pare thorny and therefore damage the skins of animals.

Some plants harbor/hide dangerous animals and pests

Plants can be weeds hence compete for nutrients with crops.

Some water weeds cause suffocation of fish in the water.

 

Crop growing

 

Steps of clearing land

-slashing: shortening of grasses or some bushes using a slasher

– digging /ploughing- breaking up of soil in preparation for planting

 

Planting :  It is putting a planting material in the soil

  • Seeds are selected for planting
  • Afterwards seedlings are cared for.

 

Methods of planting

  1. Broadcasting method:  Is the planting of seeds by scattering them at random on land.
  2. Row planting: Is the growing of plant material in lines.

 

Caring for crops

Weeding:  The removal of unwanted plants from the garden.

Staking:  giving extra support to plants with weak stems.

Pruning:  Removal of excess branches from the plant.

Thinning :  Removal of excess plants from the garden to create space.

Mulching:  is the covering of different crops on the same piece of land seasonally.

Spraying:  Application of chemicals on plants to control pests and diseases.

 

  • Harvesting removal of ready crops from the garden during dry season.
  • Drying harvested crops.

 

Storing harvested crops

 

Granaries  Silos  

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Material used to make a granary

a) grass , pole reeds, banana fibres

crops stored in a granary

sorghum , Rice , maize , millet

storage : pests , rats and weevils

Marketing

It is the selling of crops

 

Places of marketing

  • Markets
  • Shop
  • Vending

 

PESTS AND DISEASES

4 pests is an animal which destroys farmers’ crops.

Examples

  • Monkey
  • Rats
  • Weevils
  • Goat
  • Birds
  • Cows

Pests control measures

  • Weeding
  • Crop rotation
  • Using scare crows
  • Spraying using pesticides
  • Row planting
  • Early planting

NOTE: Crop rotation , early planting and proper spacing are natural methods of controlling pests

 

Removing infected parts from the plant

Uprooting the plants which are severely attacked .

 

  • Crop diseases
  • Mosaic ,
  • potato blight ,
  • rust ,
  • blast ,
  • panama smut and rot

 

Effects of diseases to plants.

  • They cause the crop to rot.
  • Crops wither
  • Crops dry out before time
  • Fruits ripen prematurely
  • Leaves fall off or become pale.
  • Roots dry

Disease control measures in crops.

  • Practice crop rotation
  • Weeding
  • Early planting
  • Prune/remove the diseased parts
  • Uproot the infected crops and burn them.
  • Spray crops with medicine to control the diseases.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GARDEN TOOLS

IMPORTANCE

WAYS OF CARING FOR GARDEN TOOL

Rake

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 


 

  • For collecting or gathering rubbish

 

 


 

  • Keeping tools in a dry place.

 

 

 

  • By painting the tools.

     

     

     

 

  • By oiling garden tools

 

 

 

  • By greasing the tools.

     

 

  • By cleaning tools

     

  • before storing them.

Image From EcoleBooks.comWatering can

 

 


 

  • Watering crops

Image From EcoleBooks.comForked hoe

 

 


 

  • For digging hard soil and stony areas

Trowel Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

 


 

  • For transplanting

hoe

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 


 

  • For digging
  • For weeding

panga

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com

  • For cutting down small trees.
  • For harvesting ready crops

Spade

 

 


 

  • For carrying soil

Image From EcoleBooks.comSlasher

 

 


 

  • For slashing

sickle

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 


 

  • For cutting grass

 

Image From EcoleBooks.comPrunner

 


 

  • For prunning

Garden fork Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 


 

  • For turning manure

Image From EcoleBooks.comWheel barrow

 

 


 

  • For carrying soil
  • For carrying and transporting tools and harvested crops.

 

Seed germination

Is the process by which a seed develops into a young plant.

A young plant is known as a seedling

 

 

Conditions necessary for germination.

  • Water , air , warmth

 

Types of germination

  • Epigeal
  • Hypogeal

Hypogeal germination is where the cotyledons remains under the ground in the soil.

It is common in cereals or monocots e.g maize , millet , sorghum , rice , wheat , barley

 

 

 

Diagram to show hypogeal germination.

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com  Level of soil

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com  Cotyledon in the soil.

 

 

 

Epigeal germination is the type of germination where cotyledons come out of the ground (beans , g.nuts, etc)

 

 

Diagram to show epigeal

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com  Cotyledons above the ground

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note: Plant a bean and maize to show the types of germination.

  • Germination , burning , rusting and breathing (life) all use a common gas called oxygen.

An experiment to show the condition needed for germination.

Things needed

  • 3 tins
  • Cotton wool
  • Seeds (beans , maize)
  • Ice
  • Oil

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • In tin A the seeds will not germinate because there is no warmth.
  • In tin B, the seeds will not germinate because there is no air . The oil prevents air from entering to reach the seeds.
  • In tin C, the seeds will not germinate because there is no water (moisture)
  • In tin D, the seeds will germinate because there is air, water and warmth. The cotton provides warmth.

 

 

 

 

 

 

SIR APOLLO KAGGWA SCHOOLS

PRIMARY THREE LITERACY I

TERM III – 2016 LESSON NOTES

VECTORS

What are vectors?

Vector are animals that spread disease causing germs.

Vectors are germ carriers.

Common vectors in our environment.

Mosquitoes

House flies mad dog

Black flies tsetse flies

Lice ticks

Fleas bed bugs

Characteristics of vectors.

Vectors carry germs.

Vectors live in dirty places.

Some vectors suck blood

Most vectors are insects.

Mosquitoes

There are three different types of mosquitoes.

These are;

Mosquito

Disease it spreads

Female anopheles mosquito

Malaria

Culex mosquito

Elephantiasis

Aedes mosquito/ tiger

Dengue fever/ yellow fever

  

Characteristics of mosquitoes

Mosquitoes lay their eggs in stagnant water / still water.

Mosquitoes live in bushes.

Mosquitoes have a proboscis used for sucking blood.

Mosquitoes are insects and move by flying.

EXTERNAL PARTS OF A MOSQUITO

Compound eyes proboscis

Feeders (Antenna)

Wings

Thorax

Leg

Abdomen

Life cycle of a mosquito

Culex mosquito

Anopheles mosquito

Eggs larva( wriggler)

 

 

 

Adult pupa

Eggs larva ( wriggler)

 

 

 

Adult pupa

A female mosquito lays eggs in stagnant water. Eggs hatch into larva, to pupa and pupa grow into adult.

 

MALARIA

Malaria is spread by a female anopheles mosquito.

Mosquitoes carry germs called plasmodia which cause malaria.

 

Signs and symptoms of malaria

High body temperature

Vomiting

Stomachache

Diarrhoea

Loss of appetite

General body weakness

Headache

Joint pain

Anaemia ( Lack of enough blood in the body)

Chattering of the teeth

 

Control and treatment of malaria.

Sleep under a treated mosquito net.

Drain away stagnant water

Put oil on stagnant water.

Spray with insecticides.

Slash the bushes around the home

Introduce fish in pond to eat mosquito larvae.

Treat malaria early to prevent spreading.

 

Medicine used to treat malaria

Factory drugs Local drugs

Chloroquine Mululuza

Quinine bombo

Co – Artem Kigaji

Fansider

Places where we can get factory made drugs

  • Clinics
  • Pharmacies
  • Dispensaries
  • Hospitals

 

HOUSE FLIES

 

 

 

 

 

Features of a house fly

  • It has three main body parts i.e head, thorax. Abdomen
  • Houseflies lay their eggs in dirty rotting places.
  • It has a hairy that enables it to carry germs.
  • It has a proboscis for sucking food.

 

Life cycle of a house fly

 eggs  larva ( maggot)

 

 adult (imago)  pupa

A house fly has four stages of growth called complete
metamorphosis i.e

Eggs – larva – pupa – Adult

List down other insects that have four stages of growth.

House flies butter flies wasps

Mosquitoes tsetse flies

Bees Fleas

 

The larva stage of a housefly ( maggot) is useful to man because it helps to decompose faeces in latrines.

The adult stage is dangerous to man because it spreads disease germs.

Adult stage and larva stage are called active stages because they move and feed.

Pupa stage is dormant because there is no feeding or movement.

 

Ways of controlling houseflies in our environment

  • By spraying them
  • By smoking latrines
  • By burning rubbish
  • By mopping toilets / latrines
  • By covering our food
  • Ensuring proper disposal of faeces.

Diseases spread by houseflies

  • Trachoma
  • Typhoid
  • Diarrhoea
  • Dysentery
  • Conjuctivitis
  • Cholera

Diagram of a cockroach

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COCKROACH

Features of a cockroach

  • It is a brown winged insect.
  • It has a flat abdomen.
  • It lays its eggs in dark corners.
  • It is mostly found in dirty places.

 

Name the places where cockroaches live.

  • Pit latrine
  • Cracks of walls
  • Drawers
  • Book shelves
  • Cupboards
  • Pit latrines.

 

Name the things that are eaten by cockroaches.

  • Books
  • Papers
  • Faeces
  • Clothes
  • Dark dirty stores

Life cycle of a cockroach

 

Egg Nymph

 

 

Adult

Name the three stages that a cockroach undergoes to grow.

  1. Eggs
  2. Nymph
  3. Adult

List down the insects that undergo 3 stages of growth.

Cockroaches locusts Dragon flies white ants

Grasshoppers termites Crickets

Dragon fly

Give the difference between a nymph and an adult cockroach.

Nymph  Adult

  • Has no wings –  Has wings
  • White in colour –  brown in colour
  • Less active –  more active
  • Smaller –  bigger

 

Identify the diseases spread by a cockroach.

  • Diarrhoea
  • Dysentery
  • Cholera
  • Leprosy
  • Polio
  • Typhoid

Mention ways of controlling the diseases spread by cockroaches.

  • Spray the cockroaches suing insecticides.
  • Practice proper hygiene
  • Provides enough light in rooms
  • Cover the food that has remained
  • Warm left over food.

 

Tsetse fly

  • It is a black hairy insect with a broad abdomen.
  • It is found in bushes and produces its larva near water sources.
  • Mature tsetse flies spreads nagana to cattle and sleeping sickness to man.
  • A tsetse fly feeds on blood by sucking with its sharp proboscis.
  • Both nagana and sleeping sickness are caused by germs called trypanosomes.

Life cycle of a tsetse fly

A tsetse fly undergoes four stages if growth. i.e complete metamorphosis ( eggs, larva, pupa, adult)

NB Eggs of a tsetse fly hatch into larva from inside the abdomen.

 

Signs and symptoms of sleeping sickness.

Persistent fever

Sleepy all the time

Lack of appetite

Loss of weight

 

General body weakness

How can tsetse fly be controlled from our environment.

  • By using tsetse fly traps
  • By spraying with insecticides
  • By clearing bushes near our homes.
  • Avoid very early and late grazing of animals.

 

Diarrhoea, Dysentery, cholera and typhoid.

All the above diseases are water borne diseases because they are spread through drinking contaminated water.

 

Signs and symptoms.

  • Abdominal pain
  • Watery stool
  • Headache
  • Dehydration
  • Loss if body weight
  • Severe vomiting.

 

Note

Diarrhoeas is the frequent passing out of watery stool many times a day.

Dysentery is the frequent passing out of watery stool with blood in it.

 

Typhoid is mostly spread through drinking unboiled water.

 

Ways of controlling diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid and cholera.

Dispose wastes in latrines.

  • Keep toilets and latrines clean.
  • Keep cooked food covered.
  • Boil water for drinking
  • Proper disposal of faeces
  • Burn rubbish
  • Spray insecticides to kill house flies.
  • Treat sick people early with antibiotics.

 

Trachoma

  • It is spread by a house fly.
  • It is caused by germs called Chlamydia virus
  • It affects eyes.

 

Signs and symptoms of trachoma.

  • Itching eyes
  • Eyes turn red.
  • Tears come out of the eyes.
  • Difficult to look in light.
  • Painful eyes.

 

Control and treatment of trachoma.

  • Observe personal hygiene.
  • Spray the house flies
  • Do not share face towels and basins.
  • Avoid shaking hands with infected people.
  • Keep eyes clean.

 

Yellow fever

Yellow fever is spread by aedes/tiger mosquito.

Signs and symptoms.

Eyes turn yellow.

Passing out yellow urine.

Itching skin.

General body weakness.

Feeling sleepy.

 

How can yellow fever be controlled?

Spray the aedes mosquitoes with insecticides.

Drain stagnant water.

Sleep under treated mosquito nets.

Carry out fumigation

 

 

 

Table showing diseases with their germs.

Disease

Causing germs

Malaria

Plasmodia

Cholera

Vibrio cholera

Typhoid

Salmonella typhi

Trachoma

Chlamydia

Elephantiasis

Filaria worm

Sleeping sickness

Trypanosomes

Nagana

Trypanasoma

BIlhazia

Schistosoma / bilharzias flukes

Dysentery

Shigella

 

Other diseases, vectors and their control.

Vector

Disease

Control

Rat fleas

Bubonic plague

Trap and kill rats

Lice

Relapsing fever

Spray with insecticides

Ticks

Relapsing fever

Spray with insecticides

Itch mites

Scabies

Spraying

Mad dog ( rabied dog

Rabies

Vaccinate dogs

Water snails

Bilhazia

Boil water for drinking / avoid swimming in dirty water

Black flies/ simulium flies / Jinja flies

River blindness

By spraying

 

The 4Fs

Diseases spread through the 4Fs

  • Diarrhoea
  • Dysentery
  • Cholera
  • Typhoid

Write 4 Fs in full.

  • Faeces
  • Flies
  • Food
  • Fingers

Diseases spread through the 4Fs are also called diarrhoeal diseases and they dehydrate the body.

Dehydration

What is dehydration?

Dehydration is the condition when the body does not have enough water in the body.

What causes dehydration?

  • Severe vomiting
  • Too much diarrhoea

List down the signs and symptoms of dehydration.

  • Pale skin
  • Loss of weight
  • A pinch on the skin goes back slowly
  • General body weakness
  • Sunken eyes
  • Joint pain
  • Little or no urine at all
  • Little or not tears.
  • Sunken fontanel (soft spot on the head)
  • Dry lips

Treatment of a dehydrates person.

Provide a lot if juice.

Give ORS

Mineral salts lost during dehydration

  • Sodium
  • Potassium

Write ORS in full.

ORS – Oral Rehydration solution.

Oral Rehydration salts.

Why are patients given ORS?

To replace the lost water and mineral salts to the body.

NOTE : Rehydration is the putting back lost water and mineral salts in the body.

Steps taken to prepare ORS

Steps 1  Wash your hands with clean water and soap.

Step 2 Put 1 litre of clean boiled water into a clean container.

Step 3 Add 8 tea spoons of sugar and 1 tea spoon of slat.

Step 4  stir the mixture to dissolve completely.

Term used in preparation of ORS

a) Solutes

a solute is a substance which is dissolved by a solvent.

Examples of solutes

  • Sugar
  • Salt

b) solvent

A solvent is a substance which sisolves a solute eg water.

c) A solution

A solution is the mixture if a solute and a solvent.

Examples of solution

  • Sugar solution
  • Salt solution
  • Sugar salt solution (SSS)

Things (items ) used in preparation of ORS ( SSS)

  • Sugar
  • Salt
  • Clean boiled water

NOTE: Sugar and salt are items that dissolve in water

 

Questions

  1. What is the first step taken to prepare ORS.
  2. Name the items used to prepare ORS.
  3. How many tea spoons of salt are needed to prepare ORS.
  4. During preparation of ORS, state the;
    1. Solvent
    2. Solutes

ORS prepared locally is called SSS. Write SSS in full.

 

HIV / AIDS

 

AIDS is an STD ( Sexually Transmitted Disease)

AIDS is called a deadly disease because it has no cure.

AIDS is caused by a virus called HIV.

 

AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

HIV  –  Human Immunodeficiency virus

 

State the signs and symptoms of AIDS.

  • Loss of weight
  • Chronic cough
  • Loss of appetite
  • Chronic appetite
  • Skin rash
  • Skin cancer
  • Herpes Zoster ( Kissipi)
  • Mouth ulcers

How is AIDS / HIV spread from one person to another?

  • Through unprotected sex with an infected person.
  • Through blood transfusion.
  • Through breast feeding
  • At birth from the mother to the unborn baby.
  • Through sharing sharp instruments.
  • Through cultural practices like circumcision.

Ways though which AIDS (HIV) cannot b spread

 

NOTE: PMTCT stands for prevention of mother to child transmission

How can AIDS / HIV be prevented from spreading.

Be faithful to your partner.

Abstain from sex.

Use condoms,

Screen blood before transfusion.

PMTC in pregnant women.

Sterlize sharp instrument before use.

 

Effects of AIDS/ HIV

To an individual

  • Death of a person
  • A person is isolated
  • A person can commit suicide
  • Psychological torture.
  • Loss of job

 

To a family

  • Loss of a family member
  • Loss of income during treatment
  • Children become orphans.
  • It leads to poverty.
  • Grief to family members

 

How can we care for HIV/ AIDS patients.

  • Give guidance and counseling.
  • Show them love
  • Do not isolate them
  • Give them a balanced diet.
  • Maintain proper hygiene and sanitation.

Organizations which care AIDS victims

a) TASO – The AIDS support organization

b) Mild May Uganda

c) Uganda Cares

d)  ACP – AIDS control programme

other examples of STDS

  • Gonorrhea
  • Syphilis
  • Candida

 

PIASCY

Write PIASCY in full.

PIASCY – Presidential initiative on AIDS strategy for communication to youth.

PIASCY messages.

PIASCY messages help to protect the Youth from AIDS.

State the PIASCY messages.

  • Say no to bad touches.
  • Do not take gifts from strangers.
  • Do not move in lonely places.
  • Say no to early marriages.
  • Follow your religion and stay safe.
  • Know and observe your responsibility.
  • Boys and girls respect a virgin.
  • HIV and AIDS kill, protect your self.

 

SOURCES OF ENERGY

 

What is energy?

Energy is the ability to do work.

There are two main sources of energy.

  1. Natural sources
  2. Artificial sources

Natural sources of energy.

Natural sources are sources made by God.

 

Examples

  1. Wind
  2. Water
  3. Sun
  4. Food

How is wind a source of energy?

  • Wind moves kites, parachutes and balloons.
  • Wind moves wind mills.
  • Wind sails boats and ships.
  • Wind is used for winnowing.
  • Wind generates electricity.
  • Wind dries clothes.
  • Wind drives machines.
  • Discuss making a kite and parachute.

 

How is water a source of energy?

  • Water generates hydro – electricity.
  • Water is used for cooking.
  • Water is used for transport.
  • Water is used for washing clothes.
  • Water is used for mopping.
  • Water is used to mix chemical in factories.
  • Water is used to cool machines.

Forms of energies got from the sun

  • Heat energy
  • Light energy
  • Solar energy

 

How is the sun a source of energy?

The sun enables us to see.

The sun helps in rainfall formation.

The sun helps plants to make their won food.

The sun helps us to dry seeds, clothes and fish.

The sun provides solar electricity.

The sun give us light.

The sun makes us warm.

 

How is food a source of energy?

Helps us to grow.

Makes us healthy.

Helps us to be strong.

Helps us to build our body.

 

Artificial sources of energy.

Artificial; sources of energy are made by man.

 

Examples of artificial sources.

  1. Fuel
  2. Electricity

What is a fuel?

Fuel is anything that burns to produce heat energy.

Examples of fuels.

  • Diesel  – fire wood
  • Petrol  – paraffin
  • Wood  – coal
  • Charcoal – natural gas.

 

Uses of fuels

Petrol and diesel are used to run vehicles.

Paraffin helps in cooking ad lighting.

Fire wood and charcoal are used in cooking.

Fuel are used to rum machines.

 

Electricity

Uses of electricity

  • For running machines.
  • For cooking
  • For washing clothes
  • For producing light.
  • For producing heat.
  • For hair dressing.

Types of electricity

  • Hydro electricity : generated from running water
  • Solar electricity : generated from the sun
  • Thermal electricity : generated from burning fuels

Items that use electricity in our homes

  • Televisions
  • Flat irons
  • Computers
  • Radios
  • Cookers
  • Fridges
  • Electric bulbs
  • Oven

Dangers of electricity

  • It shocks us
  • It burns houses
  • It spoils machines

 

Energy conservation.

Energy conservation means saving energy.

 

Ways of saving energy.

  • Using energy saving bulbs.
  • Switching off electrical appliances after use.
  • Put out fire when not in use.
  • Planting trees.

 

Switching off bulbs during the day.

Importance of saving energy.

  • To avoid wastage.
  • For future use
  • To save money.

Dangers of energy and ways of avoiding them.

 

Danger

Ways of avoiding them

1

Electric shocks

Proper installation / insulating electric wires

2

Fire out break

Using fire extinguisher

By proper use of fire.

3

Strong wind ( storms)

Plant trees for wind breaks.

Constructing strong buildings.

4

Drought

Planting trees.

Irrigating the land.

5

Floods

Constructing wide channels

6

Famine

Planting more food crops.

Storing food for future use.

 

Accidents and First Aid

What is an accident?

An accident is a sudden injury on the body.

Accidents on the road.

Types of accidents

Road traffic accidents

  • Fractures
  • Burns
  • Scalds
  • Cuts
  • Near drowning
  • Stings
  • Poisoning
  • Bites
  • Fainting

Road traffic accidents:

These are accidents which happen (occur) on the road.

Traffic : is the movement vehicles and people in an area.

Write down the causes of road accidents.

  • Carelessness
  • Poor roads
  • Over speeding
  • Overtaking in corners
  • Driving while drunk
  • Driving vehicles in poor mechanical conditions.
  • Over loading
  • Playing on the road.
  • Bad weather
  • Road users who can be knocked on the road.
  • Pedestrians
  • Drivers.
  • Cyclists
  • Animals

Ways of controlling road traffic accidents.

  • Avoid over speeding
  • Avoid playing on the road.
  • Do not drive while drunk.
  • Repairing the road.
  • Avoid over loading.
  • Following road signs.
  • Avoid over taking in corners.
  • Observing the high way code
  • Using fly overs

     

Mention any road traffic signs and draw them.

  • Humps ahead
  • School ahead
  • Traffic lights
  • Parking
  • No parking
  • Corner a head
  • Zebra crossing

 

Accidents at home and school.

Mention the common accidents at home.

  • Cuts – poisoning
  • Burns – choking
  • Scalds – electric shocks
  • Bruises – near drowning
  • Near drowning – fractures
  • Bites

 

Identify the things that cause accidents at home.

Sharp objects like knives, razor blades.

  • Broken bottles
  • Nails
  • Pins
  • Water bodies
  • Poison
  • Electricity

Give the cause of accidents at home and school .

  • Climbing trees.
  • Playing with sharp objects
  • Over running
  • Playing with fire.
  • Poor storage of medicines.
  • Playing with electricity.
  • Fighting
  • Carelessness
  • Playing near water bodies.

 

Ways of controlling accidents at home and school.

  • Keep medicines out of rich of children.
  • Avoid climbing trees.
  • Void playing with broken bottles.
  • Avoid playing with sharp objects.
  • Avoid over running.
  • Keep young children away from the kitchen.
  • Avoid playing near water bodies.
  • Avoid playing with electrical appliances.
  • Avoid fighting

 

First Aid

What is first aid?

First aid is the first help given to an injured person before taken to the nearest health centre.

NOTE: An ambulance is the special vehicle used to carry a casualty to the nearest health centre.

Why is it important to give first aid?

To save life

To reduce pain

To stop bleeding in case it occurs.

To promote quick recovery.

To prevent further injuries.

 

Who is first aider?

A first aider is a person who gives firs aid to a casualty.

 

Who is a casualty?

A casualty is an injured person.

 

State the qualities of a good firs aider.

  • Should be clean.
  • Should be kind.
  • Should be helpful.
  • Should be quick / fast .
  • Should be empathetic.
  • Should be knowledgeable

 

First aid box

What is a first aid box?

This is a box where first aid tools/ items are kept.

Items found in the first aid box are called first aid Kit.

 

Mention the things found in a first aid box.

  • Bandages  – safety pins
  • Plaster  – iodine
  • Spirit – gauze
  • Cotton wool  – gloves
  • Razor blade  – – pain killers
  • Pair of scissors

 

Draw some items found in the first aid box.

 

Give the importance of items found in the first aid box.

  1. Bandage – To tie broken bones, sprains and strains
  2. Iodine – To heal the wound by drying.
  3. Spirit – To kill germs on the wound.
  4. Cotton wool – To clean the wounds and cuts.
  5. Plaster – To cover the wound or cut.
  6. Razor blade / pair of scissors. – To cut the plasters and bandages.
  7. Pain killers _ To reduce pain.
  8. Gloves – To prevent contaminating the health worker.

A first aid kit

A first aid kit is a collection if items used to give first aid.

Qn: What is the importance of each of these items?

a)  A first aid kit?

b) A first aid box?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




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