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LESSON NOTES PRIMARY THREE.

TERM 1

THEME: OUR SUB-COUNTY / DIVISION

SUB-THEME: NAME AND LOCATION OF OUR SUB-COUNTRY/ DIVISION.

Maps and pictures.

A map is a drawing of an object as seen from above.

A picture is a drawing of an object as seen from aside.

Examples of maps and pictures.

Object Map Pictures.

Tree

House

Pot

Table

Importance of maps and pictures.

• They help us to locate places.
• They show information of a given area.
• They represent a large area on a small piece of paper.
• They locate boundaries of places.

Differences between maps and pictures.

• Maps show only the top view of an object unlike pictures.
• A map is drawn as seen from above while a picture is drawn as seen from a side.
• Pictures are easier to understand than maps.

Similarities between maps and pictures.

• Both are drawings.
• Both represent real objects.

Elements of a good map.

These are things which help someone to read easily.

They include the following;

• key
• compass rose
• scale

Importance of elements of a map.

1. The title tells a map reader what a map is all about.
2. The key explains / interprets the symbols used on a map.
3. The scale measures the actual distance between places on a map.
4. The compass rose shows direction.

Symbols used on a map.

A bridge is used in crossing water bodies.

A quarry is a stoning area.

Why are symbols used on a map.

1. To prevent over crowdness on a map.
2. They represent real objects on a map.
3. They make map reading easy.
4. They make the map look neat.

Activity.

1. What is a map?
2. What is a picture?
3. Give two similarities between maps and pictures.
4. What is the difference between maps and pictures?
5. Draw the following maps symbols.

(a)  Tree (b) table.

6. Give one importance of maps and pictures.
7. Identify any three elements of a good map.
8. Which element helps to measure distance between places on a map?
9. Why are map symbols used on a map?
10. How useful is a key on a map?
11. Draw the following symbols used on a map. (a) quarry (b) Swamp (c) canal

Compass:

A compass is an instrument used to find directions of places.

Directions:

These are ways of telling us where things and places are found.

Cardinal points of a compass.

Cardinal points are the four major points of a compass.

Directions are measured in degrees.

Between two cardinal 900

Between cardinal and semi cardinal 450

N N – North

450 E – East

W E  W – West

S – South

S

In between cardinal points we have second points.

NW  N

NE  NE – North East

SE – South East

W  E  SW – South East

NW – North West

SW  S  SE

Groups of people who use compass direction.

• pilots
• sailors
• mountain climbers
• tourists
• rally drivers
• soldiers
• Scouts/guides
• Captains of ships

Ways of locating places without using a map.

• Using position of the sun.
• Using landmarks like hills, valleys, etc.

Note: A compass always points to the north while at rest.

Activity:

1. What is a compass? (Define)
2. What name is given to the four major points of a compass?
3. Write S.E in full.
4. Mention one example of a secondary points of a compass.
5. Name two groups of people who use a compass in their daily work.
6. Why does a pilot need a compass?
7. Write down one cardinal point of a compass.
8. A part from using a compass rose, name any other three ways of telling direction.
9. To which direction does the compass point while at rest?
10. Peter is a pilot. What does he do?

LOCATION OF OUR SUB-COUNTY:

(a)  NANGABO SUB-COUNTY

Nangabo sub-county is found in Wakiso district.

A sub-county comprises of a number of parishes.

A parish is a group of villages.

In Nangabo we have nine parishes.

These are;

• Masooli
• Nangabo
• Kabubbu
• Gayaza
• Kiteezi
• Wattuba
• Wampeewo
• Bulamu

Neighbouring sub-counties to Nangabo.

• Busukuma in the North
• Kira in the East
• Kawempe in the South
• Nabweru in the West
• Gombe in the North East.

A sketch map of Nangabo sub-county and its neighbours.

Activity:

2. Which sub-county neighbours Nangobo in the;

(a)  North West

(b) East

(c) North

3. What is a parish?
4. Identify and name any four parishes in Nangabo sub-county.

(b)   Location of our sub- county:

Kampala district:

• A sub-county is a composition of many parishes.
• It is found in Kampala district.
• Its neighbouring sub-counties are;

(a)  Kawempe division /municipality

(b)  Nakawa division

(c)  Makindye division

(d)  Rubaga division

• It is found in Kampala district. Kampala district is made up of five municipalities.
• Our school is found in the central urban municipality.

A Map showing Kampala city.

Important features found in each division of Kampala city.

(a)  Kawempe division.

• Makerere university
• Kalerwe market
• Mulago hospital
• Factories.

(b)  Rubaga division.

• Kabaka’s lake
• Rubaga hospital
• Kasubi tombs.
• Rubaga cathedral
• Mengo hospital
• Mengo palace.

(c)  Nakawa division

• Kyambogo University
• Luzira prison
• Spear motors
• Port bell.

(d)  Central division

• Bank of Uganda.
• State house
• Main post office
• Parliament
• St. Balikuddembe Market

(e)  Makindye division

• Muyenga waterfalls.
• Kibuli mosque
• Kampala international hospital
• Nsambya barracks
• Kibuli hospital

Kampala is the capital city of Uganda.

The head of a city council is called a Mayor

A municipality is also headed by a Mayor

A municipality is a city headed by local authorities.

Kampala city is headed by a body called KCCA. It is headed by the Executive director.

The Executive director of KCCA is Jennifer Musisi

Reasons why Kampala is having many people.

• Better communication facilities.
• Commercial centre of Uganda.
• Better transport facilities.
• It is the capital city of Uganda.
• Enough market.
• Better security ad cheap labour force.

Problems faced by people living in Kampala city.

• Shortage of food.
• Poor sanitation.
• High crime rate.
• Un employment.
• High levels of immorality.

Duties of the K.C.C.A

• To plan for the city.
• They clean up the city.
• They collect tax.

Activity:

1. Name the following places where our school is located.

(a)  Sub-county

(b)  District

(c)  County

2. How many municipalities make up Kampala city?
3. Name the municipalities/divisions that make up Kampala city.
4. Identify three important features found in our sub-county.
5. Name the biggest municipality in Kampala district.
6. Name the biggest market in central division.
7. Write K.C.C.A in full.
9. Give three reasons why Kampala has many people.
10. Identify problems faced by people living in Kampala.
11. Identify any two duties of the K.C.C.A.
12. What is a Municipality?

2.  PHYSICAL FEATURES:

Physical features are natural land forms in an area.

Land forms means the shape of land in an area.

Examples of physical features in our sub-county.

• Hills
• swamps
• valleys
• streams

(a)  Hills: A hill is a raised piece of land in an area.

Example of hills in Kampala and features found on them.

1. Mulago hill  – Mulago hospital (biggest in Uganda.
2. Makerere hill – Makerere University
3. Nakasero hill – Bank of Uganda, State house, Parliament building, Nakesero market.
4. Kololo hill –  Kololo airstrip
5. Namirembe hill – Namirembe cathedral, Sanyu babies home.
6. Kasubi hill  –  Royal tombs.
7. Kibuli – Oldest mosque in Kampala, Hospital
8. Muyenga hill – Water tanks.
9. Old Kampala hill – Gadaffi / Kampala mosque
10. Kikaya hill – Bahai temple.

Importance of hills.

• They provide good sites for settlement.
• Some hills have cultural sites e.g. Kasubi hill.
• Some hills form sources of rivers.
• Some hills are mining areas..

Dangers of hills.

• They encourage soil erosion.
• Big rocks can slide and cause accidents.
• They are hiding places for wild animals.

(b) Valleys:

A valley
is a lowland between two hills or more.

Examples of valleys in our sub-county.

Bat valley, Green valley, Kitante valley others Nakivubo valley, Lugogo valley.

Uses of valleys.

• They are good for animal grazing.
• They have fertile soils for crop farming.
• They attract tourists.

Dangers of valleys.

• They are floody during rainy season.
• They are breeding places for mosquitoes.
• They make transport difficult.

Other physical features.

Rivers , plains, lakes, mountains, plateau.

Examples of lakes in our district.

A lake is a large area of water surrounded by land.

L.Victoria (Nalubaale), Kabaka’s lake, other lakes

L. Katwe – Salt mining.

L. Victoria – biggest / largest lake.

L. Albert – Oil mining

L. George, L. Edward, L. Kyoga

Examples of rivers.

A river is a mass of flowing water e.g. R. Nile – longest river, R. Kafu, R. Katonga,

R. Kagera.

Importance of lakes and rivers.

• They are fishing grounds.
• They help in rain formation.
• Lakes are used for transport.
• They are sources of water.
• They attract tourists.
• Lakes provide sand.

Activities:

• Fishing
• Crop farming.
• Mining
• transport

Dangers of lakes and rivers.

• They are breeding places for vectors like  mosquitoes.
• They keep dangerous wild animals like crocodiles.
• Lakes with water weed make transport difficult.

Mountains:

A mountain is a block of land rising high above the surroundings.

Or A very high area of land with steep sides.

A mountain range is series of mountains connected together.

A peak is a highest point of a mountain.

Mountain  Peak

Mt. Rwenzori  Margherita

Mt. Elgon  Wagagai

Mt. Moroto  Summit

Mt. Mufumbiro Muhavura

Mountain ranges

Uses of mountains.

• They attract tourists
• They help in rain formation.
• They have fertile soils for crop farming.
• Some are sources of minerals.

Dangers of mountains /hills.

• They make transport difficult.
• They encourage soil erosion.
• Some can erupt and cause accidents
• landslides.

Activity: 1

1. What are physical features?
2. What do you understand by the term landforms?
3. Identify three physical features found in our sub-county.
4. Which landform provides man with water?
5. On which hill was Mulago hospital built?
6. Identify any four hills in Kampala.
7. Identify one important feature found on these hills.

(a)  Kololo hill,

(b)  Makerere hill

(c)  Nakasero hill

8. Give two importance of hills.
9. State two dangers of hills.
10. How are hills important to telecommunication companies?

Activity: 2

1. What is a valley?
2. Name parts marked X and Y

3. Why are people not advised to build houses in valleys?
4. State two uses of valleys.
5. Name the biggest lake in Uganda.
6. Name the manmade lake in Kampala district.
7. Write the local name for L. Victoria.
8. Mention any three uses of lakes and rivers.
9. State one danger of lakes and rivers to man.
10. Identify any two activities carried out around lakes and rivers.

Activity: 3

1. What do you understand by following terms?

Mountain =

Peak

Mountain range

2. Identify any two uses of mountains to man.
3. Give two dangers of mountains to man.
4. Identify any two mountain peaks in Uganda.
5. What type of rainfall is received around mountains?

(c)  Swamps / wetlands.

A swamp is a vegetated water logged area.

Examples of swamps.

• Nakivubo swamp
• Kansanga swamp
• Lubigi swamp

Crops grown in swamps.

• Rice
• cocoyams
• sugarcane
• cabbages

Activities carried out in swamps.

• Crop farming.
• Brick making
• fishing

Uses of swamps to man.

• They are fishing grounds.
• They support crop farming.
• They are sources of clay.
• They are sources of water.
• They help in rain formation.

Dangers of swamps.

• They are breeding places for vectors like mosquitoes
• They keep dangerous wild animals like crocodile
• They are hiding places for wrong doers like thieves.

Why people clear swamps.

• To get land for settlement
• To get land for crop farming.
• To set up industries.

Activity: 1

1. What is a swamp?
2. Give another word for swamps.
3. Identify any three crops grown in swamps.
4. Write three activities carried out in swamps.
5. Mention any three uses for swamps.
6. How are swamps dangerous to man?
7. Why do people clear swamps?
8. Mention the type of fish caught in swamps.

PEOPLE IN OUR SUB-COUNTY

(a)  Ethnic groups:

An ethnic group is a group of people who have the same origin and speak related  languages.

A tribe:

A tribe is a group of people who share origin and speak the same language.

Examples of ethnic groups.

• Bantu
• Nilohamites
• Nilotics
• Hamites

Examples of tribes.

• Baganda
• Basoga
• Banyankole
• Jaluo
• Iteso
• Acholi
• Langi
• Lugbara etc

Ethnic groups and tribes.

 Ethnic group Tribe Language Bantu Baganda, Batooro, Banyankole, Banyoro, Basoga, Bagishu, Bakiga Luganda. Lutooro, Runyankole, Lunyoro, Lusoga, Lugishu, Lukiga, Lumasaaba Nilotics Acholi, Langi, Alur, Japhadhola Achol, Langi, Japhadhola, Luo Nilo-hamites Iteso, Karamojong Ateso, Akirimojong Hamites Bahima, Batutsi Lunyankole, Runyarwanda

Activity: 1

1. Define an ethnic group.
2. Identify any four tribes in our sub-county
3. Name any local languages spoken in your sub-county
4. What is a tribe?
5. To which ethnic group do the Bahima belong?
6. Name the smallest ethnic group.
7. Identify the biggest ethnic group in Uganda.
8. …………………………………. is the official language spoken in Uganda.
9. Write down four ethnic groups found in your sub-county.

Legends:

Legends are stories of long ago.

The story of kintu.

(b)  Clans:

A clan is a group of people under one great fore father. A clan is headed by a clan head and started by a fore father.

In Buganda, the clan head is called Omukulu w’ekika.

• He registers clan members.
• He keeps clan documents.
• He solves problems among can members.
• He keeps clan property.
• He presides over clan functions.

Symbols of a clan.

• Clan name
• drum sound
• Totem
• Taboo

Forms of clans in Buganda.

• Bird form
• Animal form
• Fish form
• Insect form
• Plant form
• odd form

Examples of clans in each form.

(a)  Bird form (b)  Animal form

• Enyange clan –  Lion
• Akasanke clan –  Elephant
• Ngaali clan (crested crane)  –  Monkey

–  Omusu

–  Hippopotaro

(c)  Fish Form (d)  Odd form

• Lung fish (emamba)  –  Mutima clan
• Mud fish (emale)  –  Akatinvuma
• Enkejje –  Amazzi g’ekisasi
•  Enkebuka

(e)  Insect form (f)  Plant form

• Ensenene –  Empindi clan
• Ekinyomo –  Ekkobe clan
• Obutiko (mushroom)

Leaders are either appointed by government or elected by local people.

• Priests
• Reverends
• Sheikhs
• Pastors
• Imams
• Bishops
• Cardinals.

• Governor (heads the bank of Uganda)
• Lectures
• Principals

• Teachers
• Senior woman

• Kabaka
• Kattikiro
• Kyabazinga
• Omukama
• Omugabe

 Kingdoms Titles Kings Buganda Kabaka Kabaka Ronald Muwenda Mutebi Busoga Kyabazinga William Wilberforce Gabula Nadiope Ankole Omugabe Bunyoro Omukama Solomon Kabamba Iguru Rwenzururu Omusinga Mumbere Wiziri Iremangoma Toro Omukama Oyo Nyimba Kabamba Irugu Teso Emorimori

• God fearing
• Exemplary
• Honest
• Patient
• Good listener
• Humble
• Respectful
• trustworthy
• faithful.

• They help to keep law and order.
• They encourage people to work hard.
• They maintain security.
• They settle cases.
• They help collect tax from people.

• Don’t fight
• Observe sanitation.
• Keep peace and order.
• Don’t mistreat others.
• Don’t drink and drive
• Don’t steal
• Report law breakers.

• Local council 1  –  Sub parish
• Local council II  –  Parish
• Local council III  –  Division / sub-county
• Local council V  –  District level.

Members of the L.C.I and II executive committee

It is made up of ten members.

The L.C.I committee is headed by a chairman / chairperson.

 Chairperson Heads the local councilChairs all council meetings Vic chairperson Assists the chairperson in all duties.Is in charge of children welfares. General secretary Records all the minutes of the meeting.Keeps official documents and files. Secretary for women and public health She is in charge of women affairs. Secretary for finance He /she is the treasurer of the council. Secretary for defence Maintains peace and security in the area. Secretary for youth affairs Mobilises the youth to participate in development. Secretary for the disabled Mobilises people with disabilities for development. Secretary for information, Education and mobilization Spreads any information required to people. Secretary for environmental protection Encourages the protection of our environment.

People represented on the LCI committee

• Youth
• Women
• Children
• Disabled

• President
• Vice president
• Prime minister
• Chief justice
• The speaker of parliament
• I.G.P
• Executive director
• Lord mayor
• Mayor.

Activity: 1

1. What is a clan?
3. Identify any four symbols of a clan.
4. Mention any two forms of clans.
5. Name two clans under each form.

(a) Fish form  (b) Animal form  (c) Plant form (d)  Insect form

7. Mention any three types of leaders/
8. Identify four qualities of a good leader.
9. Mention two roles /duties of leaders.
11. State one duty/ role of prefects at school.

Activity: 2

1. Identify examples of;

2. How many members make up LC1 committee?
3. Write LC in full
4. Which LC1 member is responsible for;

(a_  Children  (b)  Youth  (c)  Security  (d)  Women

5. Mention any two posts on the LC 1 committee
6. Mention two groups of people represented on the L.C1 committee
7. Who chairs LC 1 meetings?

THEME: 2

LIVELIHOOD IN OUR SUB-COUNTY

Economic activities.

These are activities done by people to get money.

Examples of economic activities.

• Farming
• Fishing
• Welding
• Pottery
• Building
• Mining
• Brick making
• Stone mining
• Carpentry
• Transport

Farming:

Farming is the growing of crops and keeping of animals.

Types of farming.

• Mixed farming
• Fishing farming
• Subsistence farming
• Diary farming
• Horticulture
• Floriculture
• Plantation farming
• Poultry farming

Mixed farming:

This is the growing of crops and rearing of animals on the same piece of land.

Dairy farming:

This is the rearing of cows for milk production.

Milk products include;

• ghee,
• butter,
• cheese, i
• ce cream,
• yorhut.

Subsistence farming.

This is the growing of crops and rearing of animals for home consumption/use.

Floriculture:

This is the growing of flowers.

A florist is a person who sells flowers.

Horticulture:

This is the growing of vegetables and fruits.

Fish farming: is the keeping of fish.

Poultry farming:

This is the keeping of domestic animals.

Poultry are domestic animals e.g. ducks, hens, turkey.

Poultry products: eggs, meat, feathers.

Problems faced by farmers.

• pests and diseases
• drought
• floods
• expensive farm tools.
• infertile soil.

is the buying, selling or exchanging of goods or services.

• Shoes,
• phones,
• television,
• clothes.

• Barter trade: is the exchange of goods for goods or services.
• Legitimate trade: Is the buying and selling of accepted goods and services.
• Monetary trade: Is the buying and selling of goods using money.

Activity:

1. Define the following terms.
• farming
• poultry
• economic activities
1. Identify any four things people do to get money.
2. Give three products got from milk.
3. What is the work of a florist?
4. Name any two items of trade.
5. Mention any two poultry products.
6. State one advantage of mixed farming to a farmer.
7. Who is a farmer?
8. Write two problems faced by farmers.
9. Who is a carpenter?

Fishing:

This is the catching of fish from water bodies.

A fisherman
is a person who catches fish from a water body.

A fish monger
is a person who sells fish.

Types of fish.

• Tilapia
• mudfish(caught in swamps, commonly in Uganda)
• lungfish
• Nileperch (biggest)
• Silverfish

Method of fishing.

• Use of fishing nets
• Use of fishing spears
• Use of fishing hooks.

Local ways of preserving fish.

• By smoking
• By sun drying
• By salting

Modern ways of preserving fish.

• By tinning/canning
• By refrigeration

Problems facing fishing.

• Fish poisoning
• Dangerous aquatic animals.
• Poor transport

Importance of fish.

• Fish is a source of food.
• Fish is a source of income.

Importance of fish.

• Fish is a source of food.
• Fish is a source of income.

Reasons why people carryout economic activities.

• Sources of food.
• Source of income.
• Create employment opportunities.

Carpentry

A carpenter is a person who makes furniture.

Things made out of wood are called furniture e.g. chairs, tables, bed etc.

A carpenter works in a workshop.

Pottery

A potter is a person who makes things out of clay.

Things like pots, charcoal stove, flower vase

Activity

1. What is fishing?
2. What is the work of a fishmonger?
3. Who is a fisherman?
4. State two methods of catching of fish.
5. Give two ways of preserving fish locally.
6. How is fishing important to people.
7. Give two reasons why people carryout economic activities.
8. Mention two things made by a carpenter.
9. Who is a potter?
10. Draw and name two things made by a potter.

Social services and their importance.

Social studies are services provided by the government to make people’s lives better.

Examples of social services. Hospitals

• Education
• Health
• Security
• Communication
• Transport
• Banking
• Insurance.

Social service centres

• Schools

• Airports
• Police stations
• Banks

Education services.

Education is the way of acquiring knowledge and skills.

Places which provide education.

• schools
• University
• Colleges

People who provide education.

• Teachers
• Lectures
• Tutors
• Professors

Levels of education.

• Nursery
• Primary
• Secondary
• University

A University is the highest institution of learning.

Examples of universities.

• Kyambogo University
• Makerere University
• Mbale Islamic university etc.

N.B: UPE is Universal Primary Education.

Health services

Places which provide medical care/ health services.

• Hospitals
• Pharmacy
• Dispensary
• Clinic
• Drug shop

People who provide health services.

• doctors
• nurses
• midwives

People who work in hospitals.

• Surgeon   –  Operates sick people
• Oculist –  Treats sick eyes
• Dentist  –  treats our teeth
• Midwives  –  Helps pregnant women to give birth.
• Nurse –  Cares for sick people.

N.B:

1.   A veterinary doctor treats sick animals.

2.  Mulago hospital is the biggest.

3.  An ambulance is a vehicle which carries sick people to the hospital.

Security services:

• People who provide security
• Police
• Soldiers (army)
• Prison officers
• L.D.Us

The police keep law and order.

The army protect the lives of people in a country.

Prison officers keep law and breakers in safe custody.

The L.D.U’s protect the lives of people in an area.

• A police station is headed by OC- Officer in-charge.
• The biggest police station in Uganda is Central Police station (C.P.S)
• The head of the police in Uganda is Kale Kayihura.
• The title given to the head of the police is the Inspector General of police (I.G.P)

How the police keeps law and order.

• By arresting suspects.
• By controlling traffic jam.
• Controlling riots.
• Putting out big fires.
• Investigating cases.
• Controlling crowds.

Sections of the police.

• Dog section
• Air force
• anti riot police
• C.H.D

Activity 1

1. What do you understand by the social services?
2. Give three examples of social services.
3. Name any two social service centres.
• school
• university
• country
1. Mention any two health workers.
2. Why do we need a hospital in a community?
3. Give the work of the following;
• surgeon
• midwife
• nurse
• dentist
1. What is the work of the police?
2. Write in full;
• O.C
• B.O.U
• C.P.S
• I.G.P
1. Mention three groups of people who provide security.

Transport services

Transport is the movement of people and goods from one place to another.

Types of transport.

• Air transport
• Railway transport
• Water transport

• It is the commonest type of transport.

Means of transport

• car
• lorry
• bicycle
• bus
• motorcycle
• pedestrians

• Drivers
• cyclists
• pedestrians
• riders

• Cross busy roads at the zebra crossing
• Do not play on the road.

• Murram
• tarmac

• Driving when you are drunk

• Cross at a Zebra crossing
• Avoid playing on the road.

• It is common
• It has no timetable.
• It is cheap.
• It reaches door to door.

• It is affected by traffic jam.
• Murram roads are slipperly during rainy season.

Water transport

Means of water of transport.

Ship, boat, ferry, canoe.

• It carries bulky goods
• It is not affected by traffic jam.
• It is the cheapest.
• It not affected by traffic jam

• It is slow.
• It is not flexible.
• It is affected by bad weather.

Air transport. (Quickest means of transport)

Means of air transport

• aeroplane
• helicopter,
• parachute
• jet

Uganda international airport is found at Entebbe.

• It is fast.
• It is comfortable.
• It carries perishable goods over long distance

• It is expensive.
• It is timetabled.
• It is affected by bad weather.

Railway transport.

Means – train.

• It carries bulky goods.
• It is not affected by traffic jam.
• It is cheap.

• It is timetabled.
• It is affected by bad weather.
• It is not flexible.

Animals used for transport

• Donkey
• Camel
• Horse

Types of goods;

1. Perishable goods – These are goods that go bad easily.
• Fruits
• Vegetables
• Flowers
• Fish
• Meat
1. Bulky goods: These are heavy goods.
• Cars
• Motor cycles
• Machines
1. Fragile goods: These are goods that break easily.
• eggs
• glasses
• pots
• clay cups
• clay plates

Activity 1

1. Give the meaning of the work transport.
2. Mention the four types of transport.
3. Draw and name two road signs.
4. Who is a pedestrian?
5. Give any three causes of road accidents.
6. What is the use of a zebra crossing to a road user?
7. Write two advantages of each type of transport.
• air
• water
1. Where do we find Uganda’s international air port?
2. What is the work of a pilot?
3. Which type of transport carries perishable goods?
4. Give two examples of perishable goods.
5. How is a donkey useful to the people in hilly areas?
6. Mention the two types of roads.

Communication services:

Communication is the sending and receiving of messages.

Forms of communication.

• Verbal – Telephones, Television, Radios, Mouth to mouth
• Non verbal : – Gestures, Smoke, Drumming, Whistling.
• Written;- Emails, Magazines, News papers, letters.

Local means of communication.

• talking  –  blowing horns
• Making smoke –  Whistling
• ringing the bell –  Clapping
• Gestures

Modern means of communication

• telephone
• newspaper
• television
• telegram
• telefax

Examples of newspaper printed.

• New vision
• Bukedde
• Etop
• Monitor
• Red paper
• The sun
• Observer
• Orumuri
• Rupiny

N.B: Group owned newspaper include; Newvision, Etop, Orumuri and Bukedde.

Why most people do not read newspapers.

• They are expensive to buy daily.
• Some people do not know how to read.

• Beat Fm –  Kaboozi Fm
• Top Fm –  Simba Fm
• Star Fm –  C.B.S Central Broad casting service
• Impact FM –  Capital Fm
• Kingdom Fm –

• For communication
• For entertainment
• They educate people

Television stations.

• Star television
• Urban
• Bukedde
• NBS
• WBS

Government owned Tv stations include UBC, Urban, Bukedde and star TV.

Uses of televisions:

• For communication.
• They educate us
• For entertainment
• It is audio visual

• They are expensive to buy.
• They only use electricity.
• They are no television signals in some parts.

Examples of telecommunication companies.

• Airtel
• MTN
• U.T.L
• Africell
• K2 telecom
• Vodafone

Importance of social services in our sub-county

• They create jobs.
• They make people’s lives better.

Problems in providing social services.

• Some schools do not have enough teachers and materials.
• Some parents do not want to take their children to school.
• Over loaded vehicles cause accidents.
• Hospitals do not have enough health workers.

Solutions to the problems.

• The government should employ more teachers.
• The government should employ more health workers.
• Better roads should be constructed.
• Corrupt leaders should be sacked.
• More hospitals / health centres should be built.

Activity: 1

1. Define the term communication.
2. Give two examples of each;
• Local means.
• Modern means
1. How was a drum useful to the people of long ago?
2. How are social services important to people?
3. Give one reason why most people do not use newspapers.
4. Write the following in full;

C.B.S

U.B.S

5. Give two uses of radio’s
6. Name two television stations in Kampala.
7. Write one newspaper sold in your area.

Important places in our sub-county

These are places which provide special services.

• Schools –  Markets
• Hospital –  Banks
• Museum –  Salon
• Hotel –  Petrol station
• Police station –  Shops
• Theatre –  Tourists
• Sports ground  –  Supermarket.
• Courts of law

Banks:

A bank is a place where people keep their money safely.

Why people keep money in banks.

• For future use
• For safety
• To get interest

Types of banks

Central bank / Bank of Uganda

Commercial banks

Central bank

• It is headed by the governors.
• It controls all other banks.
• It makes / prints new money / currency.

Commercial banks. Examples.

• Stanbic  –  Gold trust bank
• Centenary  –  Postbank
• Crane –  Bank of Baroda
• Eco bank  –  Bank of Africa etc

Importance of commercial banks.

• They keep money safety.
• They give loans.
• They keep important documents like land titles, certificates.
• They employ people.

Museum

This is a place where things of long ago are kept.

Things kept in a museum;

• bones
• coins
• spears
• skulls
• drums
• knives
• bow and arrow

Importance of a museum:

• It attracts tourists.
• Children go and study the things of long ago.
• It is a source of foreign exchange.

Markets:

A market is a place where we buy and sell things.

Examples of markets.

• Nakasero market.
• St. Balikuddembe, (Owino) biggest market Wandegeya

Important of markets.

• We buy things from the market.
• We sell things in the market.
• Government gets taxes from the market.

Post office:

It is where people send and receive letters.

P.O. Box – Post Office Box

Importance of a post office.

• To sell stamps.
• To send letters and parcels.
• To keep money in the post bank.

Tourist sites.

A tourist is a person who visits places of his/her own interest.

Tourist sites are places where people go to see things of their interest.

Examples of tourist sites.

• Museum
• Game parks
• Waterfalls
• Lakes and rivers
• Kasubi tombs
• Mountain peaks.

Police station.

It is where suspects are arrested.

Schools

It is a place where children go to learn.

Why the government introduced U.P.E

• To fight illiteracy among children.
• To help poor parents take children to school.

Theatre

It is a place where people go for entertainment .

A place where dances, singing, plays and drama.

Fuel

It is where fuel is sold like diesel, petrol examples are, shell, Kobil Gapco, total etc.

Hospital

It is a place where people go for treatment.

Activity:

1. Mention any two important places in our sub-county
2. Write P.O.Box in full.
3. Why are markets important to a farmer?
4. Name the biggest market in the central division.
5. State two importance of a museum.
6. Write two things kept in a museum.
7. What name is given t a car that carries sick to the hospital?
8. Why do people keep money in the bank?
9. Which bank prints new currency?
10. Write two examples of commercial banks.

Common abbreviations.

B.O.U  –  Bank of Uganda.

I.G.P  –  Inspector General of Police.

L.C –  Local Council

K.C.C.A  –  Kampala District Commissioner

R.D.C  –  Resident District Commissioner

U.P.E  –  Universal Primary Education.

P.L.E  –  Primary Leaving Examination.

U.N.E.B  –  Uganda National Examinations Board.

NEMA  –  National Environment Management Authority

UWEC  –  Uganda Wildlife Education Centre.

U.P.D.F  –  Uganda people’s Defence Force

C.R.E  –  Christian Religious Education.

I.R.E  –  Islamic Religious Education

S.S.T  –  Social Studies.

C.B.S  –  Central Broad Casting Services

C.P.S  –  Central Broad casting station

O.C –  Officer in charge

D.E.O  –  District Education Officer

MOESST  –  Ministry of Education Sports Science and Technology.

DDE  –  District Director of Education

C.D.F  –  Chief of defence Forces

UJCC  –  Uganda Joint Christian Council

UMEA  –  Uganda Muslim Education Association

TASO  –  The Aids Support Organisation

UMSC  –  Uganda Muslim Supreme Council

LESSON NOTES TERM II

THEME: MANAGING RESOURCES IN OUR SUB-COUNTRY

/ DIVISION.

Resources:  These are things man can use to satisfy his needs.

Examples of basic resources.

• Water
• time
• money
• food
• fuel

Money is the medium of exchange.

Places where people keep money.

• Banks
• Safe box
• Wooden box/ metallic box
• Pillow
• Cracks

Coins and notes.

Coins

• Fifty shillings
• One hundred shillings
• Two hundred shillings
• Five hundred shillings.
• One thousand shillings

Notes:

• One thousand shillings
• Two thousand shillings
• Five thousand shillings
• Ten thousand shillings
• Twenty thousand shillings
• Fifty thousand shillings (biggest note)

How people get money:

• Through selling goods.
• Through singing and acting
• Through transporting people
• Through farming activities
• Through donations.
• Through teaching.

How people misuse money.

• By buying drugs of dependency. e.g. Mira, Marijuana
• Killing other people for money

Uses of money.

Money is used for;

• Paying school fees.
• Paying house rent.
• Paying electricity and water bills.

Plant resources: e.g. fuel.

A Fuel is anything that burns to give heat and light.

Fuel can be got from plants i.e. charcoal and fire wood.

Other examples of fuel are;

• Diesel
• paraffin
• petrol

Plant resources

These are two major plant resources.

• crops
• forests

Forests:

A forest is a large area where trees grow together.

Types of forests.

• Natural forests
• Planted forests

Natural forests:

Natural forest is the type of forest which grow without the help of man.

Examples of natural forest.

• Mabira
• Budongo (The biggest natural forest)
• Bugoma
• Maramagambo etc

Trees species that grow in natural forest.

• Mahogany
• Mvule
• Rose wood
• Musizi
• African wall nut etc
•

Planted forests

Planted forest is the type of forest which grow with the help of man.

Examples of planted forests.

• Lendu
• Eucalyptus
• Maguga
• Mafuga
• Magamaga
• Nabyeya etc

Trees in planted forests.

• pines
• Eucalyptus
• Jute trees
• Conifers
• Cypress
• Fir etc

N.B:  Planted forests provide soft wood.

Natural forests provide hard wood.

Things we get from soft wood

• Paper
• Sugar paper
• Black board ruler
• Pencils
• Soft boards
• Musical instruments like drums. tube fiddle, bow harp, soft boards, long drum etc,

Activity: 1

1. Define the term resources.
2. Identify any three examples of basic resources
3. List two examples of commercial banks.
4. Apart from a bank, mention other three places where people keep money.
5. Why do people need money?
6. Name the biggest shillings note in Uganda.
7. Which bank prints new money?

Activity: 2

8. List two examples of fuel got from plants.
9. What do you understand by the term forest?
10. Mention the two types of forest.
11. What type of wood is got from?
• Natural forests
• Planted forests
1. Give one example of nature forest and planted forest.
2. Identify three products got from soft wood.
3. What term is used to refer to forests that grow by the help of man>
4. Write down any two examples of trees in planted forests.
5. Name the biggest natural forest in Uganda.

Importance of forests.

• Source of wood for fuel
• Source of wood for timber.
• Source of herbal medicine
• Source of income through tourism
• Help in rain formation.
• They control soil erosion.
• They act as shelter for animals.

Dangers of forests.

• They are breeding places for vectors.
• They are hiding places for pests and dangerous animals.
• They occupy land for farming.
• They are hiding places for thieves/rebels.

The type of rainfall received around forests is convectional rainfall.

Why people carryout deforestation

• To get land for farming.
• To get land for settlement.
• To set up industries.
• To get fuel
• To get fuel

Why is deforestation a bad practice.

• It can lead to soil erosion.
• It can lead to drought
• It can lead to desertification.
• It can cause soil infertility.
• It destroys habitat for wild animals.

N.B: Deforestation is the massive cutting down of trees without replacement.

Common terms used in vegetation.

Vegetation-  The plant cover of an area.

Afforestation  –  Is the planting of many trees where they have never been.

Re-Afforestation-  Is the planting of trees where they have been cut.

Types of vegetation.

• Natural vegetation
• Planted vegetation

Examples of natural vegetation.

• Forests
• grasslands
• bushes
• shrubs
• wood lands

How people destroy vegetation.

• Through burning the bush
• Through over cultivation
• Through cutting down trees
• Through swamp drainage
• Through overgrazing.

Importance of grassland.

• Grassland is used for animals grazing
• Grassland provides grass for thatching animals.
• Grassland is good for crop growing.

How grass is useful in our school environment.

• It controls soil erosion.
• It makes the school look nice.
• Some grass is a source of herbal medicine.

Activity: 1

1. State any three importance of forests.
2. Identify two dangers of forests to people.
3. Give the meaning of the following terms;
• Deforestation
• Afforestation
1. Why do people carryout deforestation?
2. Write the following in full;
• Nema
• NFA
1. Why are plants useful to people?
2. Draw a map symbol for a;
• Forest
• Swamp
1. Why is deforestation a bad practice?
2. Write down two examples of plants found in our school compound.
3. Define the term vegetation.
4. Give two examples of natural vegetation.
5. How is grass useful in our school compound?
6. What type of rainfall is received around forests?
7. How do people destroy vegetation?

Water:

• Sources of water.
• Rain
• Lake
• River
• Stream
• Sea
• Ocean
• Borehole

Uses of water.

• For cooking –  For transport
• For washing –  For watering crops
• For mopping –  Water is sold to get money
• For bathing –  For making soft drinks.
• For drinking

Ways of saving water.

• Through building water tanks.
• Through constructing valley dams.
• By closing taps when not in use.

Time:

How people manage/use time properly

• By doing the given work carefully.
• By making a time table.
• By planning for the given task.

How people spend time.

• Through working
• Through visiting sick people.
• Through playing games and sports.
• Through playing music
• Through worshipping God
• Through watching films.
• By drinking alcohol
• through over sleeping
• Through gambling.

Time table.

• A time table helps teachers to keep time.
• It helps learners to know the next subject.
• It stops teachers from dodging lessons.
• It shows the activities carried out in the classroom.

Wall clock

A wall clock tells time.

It helps learners to always be time conscious.

Saving resources

Saving is keeping of something for future e.g. money.

Ways of saving resources.

• By keeping money in the bank wooden/ metallic box.
• By repairing
• By recycling
• By planting
• By budgeting
• By preparing enough food
• By switching off power when not in use.

Recycling:

Recycling is the treating of waste materials so that is can be used again e.g.

• plastic
• polythene bags
• papers
• metals.

Reasons why people save.

• For futures use
• To avoid wastage
• To improve on standards
• To meet our needs

Record keeping.

Record is the written information about something /event for future use.

Record keeping is the keeping of written information about something /event for future use.

Activity:

1. What is the main natural source of water?
2. Write at least any three sources of water
3. How is water useful to man?
4. How is a timetable useful at school?
5. Give the use of a rain gauge at a weather station.
6. Name the type of clouds that give us rain.
7. Why is it bad to depend on much wood fuel in our community?
8. State two advantages of electricity to people.
9. Which type of electricity is got from running water?
10. What is land considered as a basic resource?
11. Why is land considered as basic resource?
12. How can people manage time?
13. Define the term saving.

Reasons why we keep records.

• For future use.
• For information.
• For reference
• For evidence
• For easy planning and budgeting.

Items whose records are kept at home / school daily.

• Electricity,
• water
• food
• medicine

Examples of records.

Register, Mark list, Duty rota, time table, bank slips, Report card, Baptism card, Immunisation card, Land title , Marriage certificate, will, Bible, water bills etc

Importance of record keeping.

• It helps in proper budgeting.
• It helps to save.
• It helps in proper use of resources.

Spending resources.

This is the way we use our resources.

Spending.

Is the use of money to pay for something.

Things we spend on;

• water,
• food
• clothes
• shoes
• fuel
• school fees
• rent
• transport
• medical

Ways of spending wisely.

• By budgeting
• By negotiating
• By comparing prices
• By comparing quality
• By comparing quantity

Reasons why people make budgets

• To avoid wastage
• To improve on standards
• To meet set targets.

Activity

1. Suggest three reasons why people save resources.
2. Outline three ways of saving resources.
3. What is record keeping?
4. Give one reason why people keep records.
5. what is saving?
6. Mention four things on which we speed money.
7. State three ways of spending wisely.
8. Give the meaning of spending.

Projects:

These are activities carried out in order to get knowledge, skills, money.

Examples of projects.

• Bee keeping  –  piggery
• Poultry keeping  –  floriculture
• Brick laying  –  Ranching
• Tree planting  –  Dairy farming etc
• Rabbit keeping  –  Pottery
• Bees provide honey –  bakery

Bee keeping /apiculture

Apiculture is the keeping of bees.

Things needed to carry out apiculture;

• hives
• apiary
• land
• money

Importance of keeping bees.

• They provide honey
• They provide wax
• People sell honey and get money.

Uses of bee wax.

• Wax is used to make candles.
• Wax is used to make shoe soles.

Uses of honey.

• Honey is used as medicine.
• Honey is eaten.
• Honey is sold to get money.

Things needed to start a project ( Preparing for a project)

• Money
• time
• land
• knowledge and skills
• Labour
• Water

How to manage a project.

• By recording.
• By researching
• By checking (supervising)
• By being committed
• By making a proper budget

Importance of carrying out a project.

• To get money
• Source of food.
• To get kills.
• Provides jobs.
• To get knowledge
• Used for research

Activity 1

1. Identify any three examples of projects.
2. Write four things needed to start a project.
3. How can one manage a project?
4. Which insect give us honey?
5. State one use of honey.
6. State three uses of trees to people.
7. Give reasons why people keep money in the bank.

THEME: KEEPING PEACE IN OUR SUB-COUNTY

Living in peace means being in harmony with others or staying in an area without wars, quarrels etc.

Ways of living in peace.

• Respecting each other
• Playing with one another
• Participating in work
• Following rules and regulations.
• Knowing other people’s differences e.g. blindness, deafness etc
• Sharing and showing love to each other.

People who help to keep peace.

• Police
• soldiers
• LDUs
• LCs
• Chiefs

Class rules:

• Always use /speak English
• Keep the classroom clean.
• Respect each other.
• Take care of your property

Laws that help us to keep peace in our sub-county.

• Do not steal
• Do not fight
• Report law breakers
• Do not move at night
• Do not dumb rubbish any where
• Do not abuse others.

Examples of school rules.

• Always be smart.
• Keep the school clean.
• Always be punctual.
• Always speak English.
• Be regular at school.
• Put on school uniform

People who keep peace at school

• Teachers
• Gate keepers
• Prefects
• Security guards
• Class monitors.

Weapons used to keep peace.

• gun
• spear
• bow and arrow
• baton

Importance of living in peace.

• It creates unity in an area.
• It creates friendship
• It makes people know each other.

Child rights.

• A child is anyone who is under eighteen years of age.
• Child rights are rights that protect the interests of children.

Examples of children’s rights.

• The right to education.
• The right to medical care.
• The right to have a name.
• The right to clothings.
• The right to eat food.
• The right to belong to a clan /tribe.
• The right to shelter.
• The right to freedom of speech.

Importance of children’s’ rights.

• They promote peace.
• They help to create unity and friendship.
• They help children grow up as good citizens.
• They promote good morals.
• They protect children from child abuse.

Activity:

1. List three people who keep in your sub-county
2. What are child’s rights?
3. Outline two ways of keeping peace.
4. Identify two importance of keeping peace.
5. Write at least four examples of children’s rights.
6. Name the LC1 member responsible for;
• Women
• children
• Security
1. Give two importance of children’s right.

Child abuse:

Child abuse is the denial of children’s rights.

Examples / forms of child abuse.

• Burning a child.
• Kidnapping.
• Defilement.
• Denying a child food.
• Child labour
• Child battering.
• Child sacrifice
• Denying a child education.

Causes of child abuse.

• Poverty.
• Death of parents.
• Wars.
• Drunken parents.
• Separation of parents.
• Early marriage.

People who practice child abuse.

• Rapists
• Witch doctors
• Rebels
• Murderers
• Kidnappers
• Some teachers
• Some parents.

Effects of child abuse.

• Death
• Shame
• Lameness
• Early pregnancy
• Street life
• Early marriages
• School dropouts.

Ways of avoiding child abuse.

• Parents should stop over drinking.
• Parents should be together
• Children should move in groups.
• Children should avoid gifts from strangers.
• Reporting those who abuse children’s rights.
• Teaching children their rights.
• Teaching people the dangers of child abuse.

Children responsibilities

• Respecting elders, parents and teachers.
• They should keep law and order.
• they should promote good behaviour
• They should respect the rights of others.
• They should support children with special needs.

Importance of children’s responsibilities.

• They promote a peaceful learning
• They help to keep time in doing activities.
• They help children grow up a good citizens.
• They help to create development
• It promotes confidence.
• It promotes friendship.
• It helps in time management.

Activity:

1. What is child abuse?
2. Mention four examples / forms of child abuse.
3. Outline three causes of child abuse.
4. State two effects of child abuse.
5. Suggest two ways of avoiding child abuse.
6. Write down any four children responsibilities.
7. Give the importance of children responsibilities.

Activities carried out by children at home.

• Fetching water
• Collecting fire wood
• Cleaning the compound
• Slashing the compound.

Street children.

Street children are helpless children living along the road or on streets.

Causes of street life.

• Death of parents
• Broken families
• Indiscipline among children
• Wars
• Harshness of some parents.

Effects of street life.

• It leads to early pregnancy
• It leads to poor sanitation.

Basic needs

Are needs man cannot live without e.g. food, water, clothes and shelter.

Problems in meeting family needs.

• Laziness
• Ignorance
• Unemployment
• Over population
• Instability
• Drought
• Landscape.

LESSON NOTES TERM III

THEME: CULTURE & GENDER IN OUR SUB-COUNTY

Culture: These are customs and beliefs of people in a given society.

Things that make up culture.

• Language  –  Music, dance and Drama
• Dressing  –  Customs and norms.
• Taboos
• Marriage
• Greetings
• Child- rearing
• Legends
• Burial ceremony

Examples of cultural practices.

• Circumcision  –  Marriage
• Detoothing  –  Naming
• Tattooing  –  Dressing
• Paying bride price –  Burial
• Women mutilation –  Music

Activity:

1. Explain culture.
2. State things that make up culture.
3. Give examples of cultural practices in various tribes.

CUSTOMS:

These are accepted behaviours / norms in a given society.

Tribes and customs practised.

Baganda

• Kneeling while peeling.
• Girls greeting while kneeling.
• Paying bride price
• Girls not climbing trees.

Bagisu

• Paying bride price
• Circumcising

Acholi

• Tatooing
• Paying bride price.

Iteso

• Paying bride price
• Detoothing

Sebie / Sabiny

• Female genital mutilation
• Paying bride price

Activity:

1. Define customs.
2. Give examples of customs practised by these tribes.
• Baganda
• Bagisu
• Acholi
• Iteso
• Sebei/ Sabiny

Importance of culture.

• It promotes good morals.
• It promotes unity
• It promotes friendship
• It promotes development.

Ways of promoting culture.

• Through initiation
• Through music, dance and drama
• Through attending funerals.
• Through using local language.
• Through teaching children importance of culture.
• Through sharing roles and responsibilities.

Activity

1. Give the importance of culture.
2. How can culture be promoted?
3. How can a child of P.3 promote culture?

Ways of promoting culture.

• Naming children after their grandparents.
• Good storage of cultural items.
• Teaching young ones culture.
• Through inheritance.

Dangers of cultural practices.

• They lead to spread of H.I.V i.e. circumcision and inheritance of wives.
• They lead to human sacrifice.
• They lead to idol worshipping.

Activity:

1.  Suggest ways how culture can be preserved.
2.  How are cultural practices dangerous to people?
3.  Give one way in which circumcision can lead to spread of HIV.

Taboos

These are forbidden things in a given society.

Food taboos: These are forbidden types of food in a given society.

Examples of taboos.

• Pounding of night
• Sitting on glinding stone.
• Sitting at night.
• Sweeping at night.
• Whitsling at night.
• Girls climbing trees.

Activity:

1.  Define these terms;
• Taboos.
• Food taboos.
1.  Give any four examples of taboos.
2.  How is sitting on a glinding stone dangerous?

Examples of food taboos.

• Baganda women of long ago eating chicken and eggs.
• Baganda of grasshopper clan eating grasshoppers.
• Women eating lung fish.

Religious food taboos.

• Moslems eating pork.
• S.D.A s eating pork and fish without scales.
• Moslems taking alcohol.
• Moslems eating meat which is slaughtered by a non moslem.
• Eating meat of an animal that has died.

Dangers of food taboos

• It stops people from eating good foods.

Activity:

1.  Give any four examples of food taboos.
2.  Identify and write any two religious food taboos.
3.  How are food taboos dangerous to people?

Importance of food taboos.

• They promote good morals / discipline.
• They create order in a community.
• They prevent accidents / damages.
• They preserve animals.

Baganda  –  Matooke

Banyankole  –  Millet

Bakiga –  Sweet potatoes.

Iteso –  Millet.

Bakonzo  –  cassava

Activity:

1.  How are taboos important in a community?
2.  Identify the traditional dishes among the tribes below.
• Baganda
• Banyankole
• Bakiga
• Basoga
• Iteso

Marriage

This is the legal Union of a man and a woman to become a husband and a wife.

Types of marriage.

• Religious marriage
• Civil marriage.

Reasons why people marry.

• To produce children
• To get love
• To get comfort
• It is God’s will.
• To start families.

Activity:

1.  Define marriage
2.  State the three types of marriage.
3.  Give four reasons why people marry.
4.  How are children important in marriage?

Customary Marriage.

This is the type of marriage that takes place at parent’s home and it involves paying dowry.

Religious marriage

This is the type of marriage that takes place at places of worship and involves sharing of vows between partners. It is always presided over by a religious leader.

Civil marriage:

This type of marriage takes place in courts of law.

Dowry/ bride to the woman’s family by the man before marriage.

Items of dowry.

• Cows  –  Fridge
• goats  –  Cooking oil
• money  –  Vehicles
• television –  Cupboards
• sugar  –  Clothes
• salt  –  Chairs.

Activity:

1.  Explain the following types of marriage.
• Customary marriage
• Civil marriage
• Religious marriage
1.  What is meant by the term dowry?
2.  Identify and write any five items taken as dowry.

Importance of dowry.

• It promotes friendship between families.
• It creates love between partners.
• It brings respect to a man.
• It creates trust.
• It brings confidence to a man.

Dangers of dowry.

• It makes a woman to be a slave.

Child birth.

A woman who produces twins is called Nalongo and a man is Salongo.

When a child is born initiation ceremonies are done to introduce him/ her in a clan.

Name of twins.

Buganda:

Boys Girls

Wasswa  Babirye

Kato Nakato

Bunyoro

Boys Girls

Isingoma  Nyangoma

Kato Nyakato

Busoga

Waiswa  Babirye

Tenywa  Khaudha

Ankole

Boys Girls

Kakuru Nyangoma

Kato Nyakato

Iteso

Boys Girls

Opio Apio

Activity:

1.  How is paying of dowry important?
2.  Suggest any one danger of dowry.
3.  What name is given to the;
• Mother of twins in Buganda.
• Father of twins in Buganda.
1.  How are twins called in the following regions?
• Buganda
• Teso
• Busoga
• Bunyoro

Gender;

Gender is a state of being a male or a female.

Family: This is a group of people related by blood, marriage or adoption.

Types of family.

• Nuclear family.
• Extended family.

Nuclear family: This is the type of family with parents and the children.

Duties of a father.

• Provides security
• Provides basic needs.
• Disciplines children
• Name new born children.

Duties of a mother.

• Produces children
• Takes care of young ones.
• Looks after a home.
• Imparts good morals.

Activity:

1.  What is a family?
2.  Give the types of family you know.
3.  Mention the duties of the following people in;
• Nuclear family.
• Father
• Mother

Duties of children

• Slashes the grass
• wash the utensils
• Clean the house
• Fetch water
• Carry the baby

• It is easy to manage
• It is easy to provide basic needs.
• Children get enough parental love.

• Children may fail to know their relatives.

Activity

1.  Give the duties of children in a family.
2.  How is it advantageous to have a small sized family?
3.  Write one danger of having a nuclear family.

An extended family

An extended family is the type of family where we find parents, children and other relations.

• There is enough labour
• There is enough security.
• Children are brought up by many people.

• It is expensive to manage.
• Families with big numbers are associated with disunity.

Activity

1. Suggest the advantages of extended family.
2. How is an extended family disadvantageous?
3. How is having a big family a problem?

Duties of mother and a father.

• providing basic needs. –  Taking care of children
• Protecting children. This is termed as shared responsibility.
• Cooking food.

Duties of boys in A.T.S

• Hunting
• Fishing
• Grazing animals
• Slashing
• Chopping firewood
• Building houses.

Duties of girls in A.T.S

• Carrying babies.
• Taking care of the elderly.
• Cooking food.
• Helping their mothers.

Reasons for such duties.

• Girls were described as weak compared to boys.
• Girls were more delicate than boys.
• Girls were trained to be mothers.

Gender equity

This means the treating of both male and female as equal.

This include;

• Fair distribution of work.
• Fair distribution of money.
• Fair justice

Activity

1. How have duties of females and males changed today?
2. In which way can women and men be treated fairly?

THEME: BASIC TECHNOLOGY IN OUR SUB-COUNTY

Technology: This is the scientific and practical way of doing things.

Types of technology:

• Modern technology.
• Local technology

Natural and artificial materials.

Natural materials.

These are things got from natural environment.

Examples of natural materials.

• Palm leaves  –  Skins
• Banana fibres  –  Papyrus reeds
• Clay –  fruits
• Water –  Leaves
• Sand –  Bark cloth

Activity

1. Define technology.
2. Give the two types of technology.
3. What are natural materials?
4. Identify and name examples of natural materials.

Sources of natural materials.

• Swamps  –  Lakes
• Bush –  Gardens
• Thickets
• Forest

• ropes  –  shoes  –  door mats
• mats  –  belts  –  clothes
• baskets –  bark cloth –  bags
• pots  –  hats
• juice  –  papyrus mats

Importance of making things from natural materials.

• for selling
• for eating
• for playing with
• for decoration
• for developing skills
• for learning purposes.
• For wearing.

Activity.

1. Give any four sources of natural materials.
2. Identify and name five things made out of natural materials.
3. How is making such things important?

Crafts:

These are things made out of local materials.

Materials  Products

• Skins  –  Belts, hats, shoes
• Banana fibres –  ropes, baskets. door mats
• Palm leaves –  mats, hats, baskets, satchel
• Sisal  –  ropes
• Raffia  –  ropes, mats, baskets, raffia
• Papyrus reeds –  papyrus mats, hats.
• Clay  –  pots, charcoal, stoves.

Activity

1. What are crafts?
2. How are crafts important to people?
3. Identify and give the products got from the material below.
• Banana fibres
• Clay
• Palm leaves
• Raffia
1. Draw and name any two products from animal skins

Artificial material

These are manmade things used to make other products.

• Straws polythene
• plastic
• wax
• leather

Products from artificial

• Candles –  mats
• toy cars –  toys bicycles
• bags  –  flowers
• hats  –  artificial flowers.
• dolls

Importance of making products.

• for sale
• For playing with
• for decoration
• for developing talents
• for wearing e.g. necklaces, bracelets, earring.

Activity

1. Why are artificial materials called so?
2. Give examples of artificial materials.
3. Mention examples of products got from artificial materials.
4. How are the above products important?

Sources of artificial materials.

These are factories such materials are got after recycling.

Examples of recyclable materials.

• papers
• plastic
• metallic
• polythenes

Processes of making things out of natural materials

Process  Material  Products

• Pounding –  maize , sorghum  flour
• Grinding –  wheat, millet, cassava flour
• Squeezing –  oranges, pineapples  juice
• Blending –  mangoes, carrots, passion fruits sauce
• Cooking –  leaves herbal medicine

Activity:

1. Practical lesson of making crafts.
2. Practical lesson of pounding to produce flour.
3. Practical lesson of blending juice.

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