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POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT


POPULATION STUDIES.
Is the general activities carried out for the purpose of acquiring knowledge concerning to various factors influencing population and population distribution
POPULATION
Number of people occupied in certain locality.
POPULATION IN GEOGRAPHY
Refer to distribution of living organisms in a certain geographical location. “Organism” human population.
Is the study of demography
Demography:- Scientific study of human population
Growth :- Increase and decrease in population
Density:- Ratio between number of people and a given area
Distribution:- General settlement pattern movement as well as the aspects of economic and social development
POPULATION DYNAMICS
Is the change in number of people in given area. Either increase or decrease caused by fertility, mortality and migration

DEVELOPMENT-Changing from low stage to more advanced one in all aspect of life i.e socially, politically, economically, culturally.
POPULATION & DEVELOPMENT
Population is related to the development process and environment. Population is both the means and goal of all development.
It is reproductive resource that transforms resources in the environment to bring development.
Population can have negative or positive effects to the development
SPECIAL POPULATION TERMS
Aging Population
It’s a population in which the number of old people (above 64 years) is higher than other age groups. Old people can give some advice to the young people and can do light work like scaring away birds from the gardens.
Aging Population has the Following Consequences:-
  1. Small size of labor force hence the resources are not utilized effectively.
  2. Changes in the pattern of consumption, i.e. goods for old people are on higher demand like hats, medical facilities, big trousers, long dresses, walking sticks etc.
  3. Increase in dependency ratio. The number of old people is greater than the working group hence dependency ratio increases.
  4. There occurs labor immobility since the old people are immobile compared to the young people who keep on moving from place to place.
  5. Decline in demand for goods that are consumed by young people e.g. dolls, nursery school facilities, small dresses etc.
EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Since independence, Tanzania has conducted four censuses in 1967, 1978, 1988, and 2002; these have been the main source of population data. These censuses have indicated that the population of Tanzania increased from 12.3 million in 1967 to 17.5 million in 1978 and reached 23.1 million in 1988, also to about 35 million in 2002. During this period, the population growth rate was estimated at an average of 3.2 per annum during the period between 1978 and declined to an average of 2.8 per annum between 1967 and 1978 and declined to an average of 2002 percent per annum between 1967 and 1978 and declined to an average of 2.8 per annum during the period between 1978 and 1988. The 1988 and 2002 censuses indicate that there is a variation between the regions, for example at a regional level the estimated annual growth rates ranged from 1.4 percent (Mtwara) to 4.8 percent (Dar es Salaam.)
Mortality rate has declined substantially in Tanzania over the decades. The main contributing factors to the decline are improved access to health care and better environmental sanitation. The crude death rate (CDR) is estimated to have environmental sanitation. The crude death rate (CDR) is estimated to have fallen from about 22 per thousand in 1967 to 15 in 1988. Infant mortality rate (IMR) per 1000 live births is estimated to have declined from 170 (1967) to 115 in 1988 and then to 88 in 1996 (TDHS, 1996). In the same period, the less than five mortality rate per thousand live births, declined from 260 to 137. The declining mortality is reflected in the rising life expectancy at birth from a level of about 40 years in 1967 to about 50 years in 1988. Inspite of this decline, mortality still remains high by world standards. Maternal mortality rate (MMR) is still high. The 1996 TDHS shows that the MMR is estimated at 529 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births.

Rural – urban migration has been a main feature of migration in Tanzania for many years. The increase in rural –urban migration has led to increasing rate of urbanization, especially in major urban centers like Dar es Salaam, Mbeya, Mwanza, and Arusha. The proportion if population living in urban areas increased from 5 percent in 1967 to 13 in 1978 and 21 percent in 1988. Between 1978 and 1988, the urban population for Tanzania increased by 53 percent. These are variations alone contained about 25 percent of the total urban population in 1988. The unprecedented migration of people from rural areas increase the burden on already over- loaded public se
rvices and social infrastructure especially in the squatter areas, which stimulate the flourishment of communicable diseases like tuberculosis, cholera and malaria. Rural –rural migration also contributes to the regional and district level variations in terms of population pressure over resources. These variations are demonstrated by differences in population densities between districts, wards and villages. The general observation is that population increase has not been in line with the land area available for human use.
EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT
EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT
This involves the registration of events like births, deaths marriages. This is a basic source of data of a population. The registration of births is used to calculate the birth rate of a country. It is also used to determine the number of persons added to a community over a period. Such figures are lacking in rural areas because numerous births are not registered. Registration of births is common in towns because children are mainly born in hospitals and birth certificates are demanded on registering children in schools. Deaths of babies are used to calculate infant mortality rates. The registration of all deaths assists in determining the number of people that are departing the population in relation to the births and this helps in economic planning. The registration of newly married couples assists in estimating the number of parents in a country. Registration of refugees is vital in knowing the rate of their inflow into a country.
In the absence of adequate capital to undertake censuses, some countries conduct national sample survey based on representative samples of the total population to secure desired information. Sample surveys are fairly representative because they seek the percentages of, for example, men, women, youth, farmers and doctors in a population. A sample survey involves a small number of people and it is therefore possible to use more detailed questionnaire and interviews that offer more accurate information. Sample surveys are usually carried out to provide information on various topics, e.g. fertility and people’s attitudes to family planning, breast – feeding, as well as on the demographic and health situation of a country. These are regularly carried out by the country’s bureau of statistics. Sample surveys are the cheapest sources of population data.
EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT
EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT
What is Population Pressure?
It is a situation in which the number of population is greater than the carrying capacity of the land and its resources. In this case the resources are fewer than the number of people and hence cannot satisfy the needs of the people in that particles . Population pressure is related to overpopulation. At a national level, Tanzania seems to have no population pressure. This is the case when one relates the available area of land to the population of the country at large. Nonetheless population pressure can be said to exist only at local levels such as family or regional level. For example the Chagga land has got a population pressure unlike other parts of central Tanzania, which are still under populated. Rufiji basin is also under populated and can support more population.
Birth Rate is the number of births per 1000 of the population. Birth Rate is a measure of fertility. Physiological capacity of a woman to conceive and given birth to a child, regardless of whether is a live birth or a still birth is called Fecundity. Lack of fecundity is called infecundity or sterility. Infertility on the other hand, refers to the inability of a woman to bear a child and this includes those who cannot give a live birth to a live baby. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility is also referred to as involuntary childlessness. Secondary infertility can also inv
oluntary. For instance when a woman has had two children and is now unable to have more due to biological or health factors. It is called secondary since it is caused by a second factor after the previous births.
EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT

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    The area which is free from diseases and pests attracts people but where pests and diseases are predominant people move away to other place. For example there are common movements of people from the central parts of Tanzania due to tse-tse fly infestation of other with healthy conditions like the southern highlands of Tanzania, etc.
Lack of income opportunities can force people out of the place to other areas while availability of income opportunities attracts people. This is manifested by rural – urban migration. For example industries in towns attract people from rural areas to urban centers.

Social Factors:-
1.The presence of relatives in certain place can attract people into a place. One can decide to go to certain place because of the presence of the brothers, uncles, sisters, etc.

2. Lack of social amenities in certain place can force people make people move away while the presence of social amenities attract people into a place. For example, availability of electricity, medical services, transport and entertainment attract people in towns and absence of these aspects in the rural areas forces them out of villages to urban areas.

3. Social conflicts, enmity, witchcraft etc force people away from a place.

4. Overpopulation forces people move a place to other areas, which are not overpopulated while under population in areas, which are having potential resource, can attract people.


Year
Total Population
1979
15,327,061
1969
10,942,705
Inter – censual numerical population increase 1969 – 1979
4,485,356
1. Explicit population policy refers to the document or clear statement issued by the governmental department and its commissions, which is intended to control population growth and raise the standard of life of the people in the country. Explicit polices can also stem from the laws, policy declarations by a party or directives issued by the President of a country. Explicit laws are well stipulated and strictly followed or reinforced. Such policies prevailed in China where the limit in the number of children was set and incentives were given to all those who could follow while penalties were given to those who did not follow. Other countries with explicit policies are Sweden and England. Hence the explicit policy is the elaborate statement, which spells out its rationale, objective, goals, targets, policy programmes and implementation.
Prior to adoption of the explicit national population policy in 1992, Tanzania pursued implicit population policies and programmes. These policies and programmes were reflected in actions taken by the government in dealing with various issues pertaining to population. These included policies and programmes such as settlement schemes of early 1960s, villagization programme of mid 1970s, provision and expansion of free social services (health, education and safe water), literacy campaigns, provision of family planning services as part of MCH services, limiting employment related benefits (such as tax relief) to four children, and paid maternity leave of 84 days at most once in every three years, and census taking after every ten years. As the economic crisis became severe during the 1980s, the gains achieved ealier, especially in social sectors could not be maintained.
In this policy, children and youths are defined as those aged below 25 Years. This group constitutes 65 percent of the Tanzania population. Severe budgetary cuts to the social sector have aggravated the problems of children’s accessibility to quality health and education services. Retrogressive cultural practices and breakdown of family and societal norms have exposed children to problems such as malnutrition, child labour, abandonment, prostitution and sexual abuse. In addition, the scourge of HIV/AIDS has led to an increasing number of orphans and possibly of street children. Low productivity, shortage of basic needs and lack of employment opportunities in rural areas have force young people to migrate to urban areas in hope of getting employment but the majority of whom end up in frustration because they cannot find jobs they often become loiterers, thieves and drug addicts.
Water supply is crucial to ensure sustainable economic and social development of human activities and thus human welfare. Realizing the importance of water, Tanzania adopted a 20 years programme in 1970 with the goal of supplying clean and safe water to all people within walking distance of 400 meters from the homes. However, accessibility to water and sanitation services is still poor. There is evidence to suggest that the water supply services have been declining since 1978. A sharp decline in the proportion of households using piped water was noted during the 1978/88 decade as compared to the 1967/78 period in both rural and urban areas. This decline is often compensated by a rise in the proportion using wells, especially traditional ones outside the compound. According to the 1996 Ministry of Water report, 48 and 80 percent of the rural population have access to safe water and sanitary facilities (pit latrines), respectively. In urban areas, about 69 percent of the population is served with safe water, about 75 percent have pit latrines and 10 percent have sewage connections. The main problems affecting the water and sanitation services in Tanzania include inadequate funds for construction of new and maintenance of existing water and sewerage systems, and destruction of water catchment, areas; and inadequate water harvesting techniques and facilities. Other factors include low awareness among decision – makers, planners, and sanitation; socio-cultural values and lack of appropriate working tools.
Natural resources base includes forests, land, wildlife, aquatic resources and minerals. About 50 percent of the total land of Tanzania is covered by forests and woodland, 40 percent by grassland and scrub and only 6 – 8 percent is cultivated. Aquatic resources include Lake Victoria, Tanganyika and Nyasa and a variety of other small lakes, swamps and flood plains, forming a major wetland resource. Marine resources include fish stocks, coral reefs, sandy beaches, mangrove, marine grasses, salt resources and other biodiversity. Wildlife is an important part of Tanzania’s resource endowment; about 25 percent of the total land area is designated as protected areas, including forest reserves. These protected areas form the major tourist base. Energy and mineral resources are other important components of the resource base. The major energy resources are fuel wood, hydropower and coal. There is also potential for natural gas, solar energy and wing energy. This natural resource base is deteriorating. The underlying causes for this deterioration include land degradation (caused by deforestation, overgrazing, etc) and pollution in towns and the countryside, loss of biodiversity factors include rapid population growth , land use, inappropriate land use practices, inadequate financial resources and low involvement of stakeholders in environmental management programmes. Inadequate integration of environmental concerns in the planning process also contributes to the deterioration of the natural resources base.
Water supply is crucial to ensure sustainable economic and social development of human activities and thus human welfare. Realizing the importance of water, Tanzania adopted a 20 year programme in 1970 with the goal of supplying clean and safe water to all people within walking distance of 400 meters from the homes. However, accessibility to water and sanitation services is still poor. There is evidence to suggest that the water supply services have been declining since 1978. A sharp decline in the proportion of households using piped water was noted during the 1978/88 decade as compared to the 1967/78 period in both rural and urban areas. This decline is often compensated by a rise in the proportion using wells, especially traditional ones outside the compound. According to the 1996 Ministry of Water report, 48 and 80 percent of the rural population have access to safe water to safe water and sanitary facilities (pit latrines), respectively. In urban areas, about 69 percent of the population is served with safe water, about 75 percent have pit latrines and 10 percent have sewage connections. The main problems affecting the water and sanitation services in Tanzania include inadequate funds for construction of new and maintenance of existing water and sewerage systems, and destruction of water catchment areas; and inadequate water harvesting techniques and facilities. Other factors include low awareness among decision – makers, planners, and communications on the importance of clean and safe water supply and sanitation; socio – cultural values; and lack of appropriate working tools.
Agriculture is an important sector to the economy of Tanzania. According to the 1997 Tanzania Agricultural Policy, the sector contributes 60 percent of the export earnings and accounts for 84 percent of the labour force. Performance indicators show that growth rates have been fluctuating over the years with a general trend of decline. For example, between 1965 and 1970, annual growth rate was about 4.5 percent, declined to 0.6 percent during the period 1981 – 1985 but it improved to 3.9 percent in 1996. Food production constitutes the main source of food security particularly in the rural areas. However, it is estimated that about seven million people in the country are chronically food insecure. Also, about 40 percent of the population lives in drought and food prone areas and hence face transitory food insecurity and malnutrition.
Tanzania’s education system still provides few education and training opportunities to the youths after completing their primary education. While the total enrolment in primary schools represents 78 percent of all primary school age children, the transition to secondary school is only 17 percent. Unfortunately, the situation is now worse that it was during the 1960’s. For example whereas in 1963, 29.2 percent of primary school leavers entered secondary schools (public and private), this proportional declined gradually to 3.4 percent in 1984. However, there was a gradual rise to 10.5 percent in 1988 and to 14.6 percent in 1995. Currently, about 83 percent of primary school leavers entered secondary schools education. These primary school leavers are forced into adult life when they are still too young. Girls in particularly marry early and start bearing children. In addition, quality of school performance has deteriorated. For example, from 1993 to 1996 less than 25 percent of Form IV students obtained division I – III passes in their secondary school ‘O’ level examinations. Also, over half of all primary school leavers got scores below 20 percent in their Standard VII School leaving examinations.
In most recent years, Tanzania has witnessed a growing recognition of the need for more accurate, comprehensive and timely statistical data. The driving force for improving the data collection operations of the Government has come from individual ministries which have become increasingly aware that in – depth studies containing both quantitative and qualitative analyses are essential for rational and effective planning and decision making process. Although population censuses have remained the major sources of population data, they have been supplemented by national surveys including Demographic Survey conducted in 1973, and Demographic and Health Surveys, demographic estimates relating specifically to fertility and mortality as well as family planning and health – related data were obtained.
The training in demography and population studies was introduced in the institutions of higher learning in the late 1980s. The University of Dar es Salaam, Mzumbe University and the Institute of Rural Development Planning (IRDP), Dodoma, have been offering courses in demography and population studies at various levels, and of late, integrating the topic of gender.
Advocacy and Information, Education and Communication (IEC)
Implementation of the 1992 National Population Policy did not achieve much due to lack of support particularly in areas of gender equality, equity and empowerment of women, and the integration of population, variables into the development programmes. Advocacy and IEC shall be used to shape attitudes and promote behavioral change in population issues.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE NATIONAL POPULATION POLICY
Goals of the Policy
The main and overriding concern of the population policy is to enable Tanzania achieve improved standard of living and quality of the life of its people. Important aspects of quality of life include good health and education, adequate food and housing, stable environment, equity, gender equality and security of individuals. The main goal of the policy is to influence policies, strategies and programmes that ensure sustainable development of the people. The sub – goals of this main goal are to contribute to:-
1. Sustainable economic growth and eradication of poverty;
2. Increased and improved availability and accessibility of high quality social services;
3. Attainment of gender equity, equality and social justice for all individuals;
4.Harmonious relationships among population , resources utilization and environment; and
5. Improvement, availability and timely dissemina
tion of population information.
Objectives of the Policy
1.To harmonize population and economic growth;
2. To promote an integrated rural – urban development
3.To promote employment opportunities;
4. To promote gender equity, equality, and women empowerment;
5. To transform socio – economic and cultural values and attitudes that hinder gender equality;
6. To enhance proper upbringing of children and youths;
7. To promote the well- being of the elderly and people with disabilities;
8. To improve the capacity of the country to address refugees problems;
9. To promote public awareness on individual sexual and reproductive health and rights;
10. To promote and expand quality reproductive health care services;
11. To increase agricultural production;
12. To improve nutritional status of the people;
13. To promote integrated and sustainable use and management of natural resources;
14. To improve the preparedness and management of disasters and emergencies;
15. To ensure adequate supply of safe and clean water
16. To encourage the private sector, NGOs and religious organizations to invest in provision of education;
17. To promote and provide equitable and quality education;
18. To improve population data collection and research, and their timely,
19. To improve training in population issues;
20. To create an enabling environment that will facilitate acceptance of population issues namely; reproductive health, population and development and gender concerns; and
21. To mobilize necessary resources for implementation of the National population Policy

STRATEGIES
Based on the identified priority issues, the following strategies will be adopted to achieve the National Population Policy goals and objectives.
Integration of Population Variable in to Development Planning
1. Integrating population variables in development planning;
2. Creating awareness to the masses of the link between population, resources, environment, poverty eradication and sustainable development
3. Building the capacity of planners at district and national levels in mainstreaming population issues in development plans with gender perspective;
4. Encouraging the private sector and local communities to be actively involved in initiating, implementing and financing population programmes;
5. Improving productivity of small scale farmers and industries; and
6. Promoting non- agricultural production in rural areas.

Population Growth and Employment
1. Creating enabling environment for investors in all sectors, especially in the rural areas,
2. Promoting self – employment opportunities in the informal sector;
3. Providing labour market information to employers and job seekers;
4. Promoting labour intensive industrial development and
5. Promoting viable family formation

Problems of Special Groups in Social:-
The Elderly:-
1. Encouraging the private sector, NGOs and religious organizations to invest in provision of social service especially health for the elderly;
2. Establishing social security measures that address problems of the elderly; and
3. Encouraging traditional community based support networks to the elderly.

Children and Youths
1. Encouraging the private sector, NGO’s and religious organizations to invest in provision of social services for the children and youths;
2. Development talents and capabilities of children and youths; and
3. Development policies and laws that support of family stability.

People with Disabilities
1. Encouraging the private sector, NGO’s and religious organizations to invest in provision of social services for people with disabilities;
2. Developing talents and capabilities of people with disabilities;
3. Establishing social security measures that address problems of people with disabilities; and
4. Developing National Policy on People with Disabilities.

Refugees
1. Establishing preparedness plan for handling refugees.

Gender Equity, Equality, and Women Empowerment:-
1. Promoting participation of women in decision making;
2. Increasing awareness of the society about the importance of education for all children especially the girl child, and boys under difficult circumstances;
3. Promoting women employment opportunities and job security;
4. Eliminating all forms of discrimination and gender based violence;
5. Encouraging women and men to participate equally in household chores;
6. Ensuring mainstreaming of gender concerns in development plans and policies;
7. Carrying out advocacy activities on gender and population issues; and
8. Advocating the value of the girl child and boys under difficult circumstances and creating a conducive environment for strengthening their image, self- esteem and status; and
9.Promoting societies positive gender knowledge, attitudes and practices.

Reproductive Health
1. Promoting measures to eradicate harmful traditional practices including female genital mutilation (FGM);
2. Sensitizing the public on the benefits of productive health to all individuals;
3. Promoting and expanding the scope of reproductive health advocacy, IEC programmes;
4. Encouraging the participation and involvement of communities in th
e provision of reproductive health care services;
5. Improving the quality and efficiency of reproductive health care delivery system;
6. Establishing specific reproductive health services to cater for the adolescents, youths, men and the elderly;
7. Offering comprehensive reproductive health services addressing neglected problems including infertility, STDs, post- natal care, and abortion complications; and
8. Improving immunization coverage and strengthening management of childhood illnesses.

Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development
Environmental Conservation
1. Integrating environmental considerations in developments plans;
2.Promoting an integrated approach to planning and management of natural resources;
3.Preventing and controlling environmental degradation; and
4.Promoting disaster management skills / techniques.

Water Sanitation
1. Rehabilitating existing water and sanitary systems;
2. Exploring and exploiting new potential water sources; and
3. Promoting disaster management skills/techniques.

Agricultural, Food and Nutrition
1. Ensuring accessibility and ownership of land to small holder farmers;
2. Promoting
modern farming practices and improving appropriate agricultural technologies and infrastructure;
3. Extending credit facilities to small- holder farmers;
4. Ensuring food security at national and household levels;
5. Enhancing food and nutrition education to the community;
6. Eradicating cultural barriers to improvement of nutritional status;
7. Controlling micronutrients deficiencies; and
8. Controlling protein energy micro nutrition

Education, Data Collection, Research, and Training Education
1. Encouraging community participation in the provision of quality education;
2. Facilitating participation of the private sector, NGOs and religious organizations to invest in the provision of education;
3. Promoting and ensuring equitable distribution of education opportunities in order to correct gender and regional imbalances;
4. Improving the teaching – learning environment
5. Providing universal primary education to all children; and
6. Reducing illiteracy rate.

Research, Data Collection and Training
1. Intensifying efforts in the collection, processing, analysis and timely dissemination of population information;
2. Promoting the use of information on population in the planning process
3. Undertaking training programs
for personnel in the field of data collection, analysis and research in population and development and
4. Promoting on the job skills training in population.

Advocacy and Information, Education and Communication (IEC)
1. Coordinating population advocacy efforts by Government and development partners to ensure efficiency in the implementation of the National Population Policy;
2. Promoting debate on population issues among decision makers and parliamentarians through population for a;
3.Strengthening participation of NGO’s in advocating population issues;
4. Establishing an institutional framework to co-ordinate the population IEC and advocacy activities through the three levels of individual, group and mass communications;and
5. Improving the quality of advocacy and IEC interventions through capacity building and by developing culturally acceptable IEC materials.

CHINA
Population
China is generally said to be overpopulated since it has insufficient food, minerals and energy resources to support its high population. It is the most populous in the world followed by India. The people in China frequently suffer from natural disasters e.g. drought, floods and famine as well as diseases.
They are also characterized by low incomes, poverty, poor living conditions and high levels of emigration. By 1990, 23% of the world’s population lived in China.
Why China Experienced High Rates in 1950’s?
1. The government encouraged high birth rate under the philosophy that “a large population gives a strong nation” and hence people were encouraged to have as many children as possible. This was called as pro- natal approach
and there was confidence that China could feed her population however rapidly it increased.
2. At the same time death rates were falling due to improved food supplies and medical care.

Population Control in China
1. During the 1960’s the population increased by 55 million after every three years.
2. The rate family planning programmes were introduced in the 1970s in which the government encouraged family planning services, which could promote maternal and child health benefits as well as economic and ecological advantages. The slogan ‘Later, longer, fewer was introduced and this implied later marriage, a longer interval between births and fewer children. The family planning services were community based. By 1975 the average family size had fallen to three children. But the government still considered it as too big.
3.In 1979 the anti – natalist – one child- per family policy was introduced by the government. With this policy the government hoped to reduce natural increase to zero by the year 2000 and hence avoid the population growth beyond 1200 million.

Fulfilling that the following was done:-
1. The single child policy offered specific incentives for parents only having one child and penalties for those who had more than one child. Glory Certificates were introduced and these entitled a couple and their child to various financial, employment, educational and other benefits in exchange for promise to have no further children after the first – born . (A child could have free education, priority to housing, pension etc.)
2. Abortion become compulsory
3. Marriage was set to 22 years for males and 20 years for females, the couples were pressurized to accept official promoted norms and more over application could be made for some people who wanted to marry or seek permission for having a child.

Constraints to the Policy:-
1. In rural areas the policy faced resistance since some feared that by accepting the policy there could reach a time when the society could have too many dependent old people and too working young people.
2. In many rural localities the single – child policy has never been strongly enforced and in 1987 the government began to relax in enforcing the policy. Following the resistance, the people in rural areas were allowed to have two children but urban dwellers to maintain a single child.
However, despite all these attempts to reduce population the number of people has been growing and the population is higher than what was intended and will continue growing up to above 1500 million before 2025.

POPULATION CONTROL IN UK
Britain is the home of industrial revolution hence it witnessed a high natural increase in population between 1760 – 1880. This economic prosperity led to the decline of death rate since there was an improvement in medical care, improved sanitation and water supply, improved food production (in quality and quantity), improved transport.
From 1880 to date birth control programmes were introduced so as to slow down population increase. The birth rates were kept low through family planning, which included the use of contraceptives, sterilization, abortion and government incentives for smaller families. Lower birth rates were also due to the influence of increased industrialization and mechanization which led to the influence of increased industrialization and mechanization which led to the need of fewer labourers, increased desire for material possessions (car, holiday bigger homes) and less desire for larger families, education and emancipation of women enabling them to follow their own careers rather than being solely child – bearers.
The impacts of birth control are that the population is aging (consisted of old people and fever young people). The aging of the population will later bring problems in labour supply since the old people will not be able to work effectively and even reproduce well.

POPULATION AND RESOURCES
Population and resources are so interrelated since they both affect each other. Human life depends on the ability of the resource to sustain it and human has some impacts on the existence of sustainability of the resources. So the number of people, distribution of population, the structure of population, the ability of the resource to sustain it and the techniques of production used are so important aspects when considering the population and resource relationship.
On this basis the area can be said to be having optimum population or over population or under population. This depends on the extent to which the resources are used and the way in which they are used.

Optimum Population
It is the population in which the number of the people is in balance with the available resources. In this state when the population is working with all the resources there will be the highest per capital economic returns – i.e. the highest standard of living and quality of life. Optimum population can be maintained if the exploitation of new resources or development of other forms of employment keeps pace with the increase in population. If the population becomes too large the law of diminishing returns starts to operate.

Overpopulation
Overpopulation occurs where there are too many people in relation to the resources and technology locally available to maintain in ‘adequate’ standard of living. Bangladesh, Ethiopia, parts of China, Brazil, and India are said to be overpopulation as they have insufficient food, minerals, and energy resources to sustain their population. They often suffer from localized natural disasters such as drought and famine.
They are characterized by low incomes, poverty, poor living conditions and often-high level of emigration.

Overpopulation is caused by:-
High Birth Rate, Immigration
These depend on the factors like availability of resources like fertile land and mineral deposits, traditional attitudes (caused by low education) among the societies of regarding that a big number of children is prestige or assurance for labour in the future, outbreak of wars in the neighboring areas, improved health services etc.

Effects of Overpopulation
1. Increase in the dependency ratio: This means that number of young population who can’t work is larger than the working population.
2. Pressure for resources: Large number of people press strain on resources like land leading to land fragmentation, mineral and forest causing exhaustion and hence slowing down of development.
3. Unemployment: Too many people cannot be absorbed in the economic sectors and hence a big number of people remain jobless.
4. Emigration: People migrate from the areas with high population to areas with low population where there is no pressure for resources. For example people are moving from Kilimanjaro to other parts of Tanzania like Morogoro and Tanga.
5. Poor housing and health services: Overpopulation brings about the problem of housing whereby the houses are poor overcrowded. This problem is so common in Dar es Salaam especially Manzese, Kariakoo, Ilala, Buguruni and Vingunguti.
6. Decline in the life expectancy: The life- span decline because of the problems like poor health services, poor food. Therefore, people die even before reaching old age. Ignorance of the people, unsanitary conditions and lack of financial resources has contributed to the decline of the life – span.
7. Slowing down of industrial growth this occurs due to unskilled labour and poor market since majority of the people have poor income. Also, people can’t work properly due to poor health.
8. Increase in Crimes: As a result of unemployment incidences of crimes increase. For example in areas of high population theft and killings are common.
9. Easy spread of Diseases: When the population is high diseases spread very rapidly. AIDS has been a common problem due to prostitution, which has been taken by some jobless girls or women as a source of income.
10.Increase of Beggars: Beggars also increase due to unemployment and this is a common problem in Dar es Salaam.
11. Overpopulation: Causes the problem of congestion in the streets, hospitals, schools and transport vessels.

How can the Problem of Overpopulation be solved?
Population Problems
Population problems in the undeveloped countries:-
1. Low level of technology which inhibits agricultural efficiency and the development of industries. Because of low technology in these countries resources are not used property and the traditional methods are still predominant.
2. Under- population is another problem. In some areas good resources are lying idle due to the low population that can utilize those resources for example Brazil and Congo.
3. Unbalanced development: This manifested by the imbalance in the level of development between the rural and urban areas. The urban areas are more developed than rural areas as a result of differences in the technological levels. Rural areas are characterized by low level of technology, which leads to poor production.
4. Poor food supply due to agricultural performance. Agricultural (agrarian) crisis has been caused by low level of technology, overpopulation, under population, poor agricultural policies, poor capital availability, poor transport system, poor education services leading to mass scale illiteracy, and natural hazards like drought, floods and global warming. Also, food crisis is caused by restlessness of people like the refugees, marginalization of women in the ownership of land, etc.
5. There is low life expectancy due to poor health services, poor sanitation, poor nutrition, poor medical services, early marriages and diseases like HIV-AIDS, malaria, meningitis etc.
6. There are housing problems especially in the urban areas where there is overpopulation. In the urban areas the number of people is too large to accommodate such that some houses are overcrowded and some other people are homeless. Rural – urban migration has greatly added to the magnitude of this problem.
7.There is low per capital income since many people are not employed due to the fact that the economic sectors are fewer than the number of people especially in towns. In rural area poor production due to the use of low technology has contributed to the predominance of low income per capital. Worse still, the crops produced in the rural areas face the problems of poor marketing system (low prices), poor storage facilities, pests and diseases that lead to great losses etc.
8. Population is migratory (restless). People especially the young are always on movement to urban areas leading to rural depopulation and agricultural decline.

Solutions to the population problems in the underdevel
oped countries
1. There should be infusion of capital, probably in form of foreign aid, to finance development in these countries.
2. There should be improvement in the marketing system both locally and internationally by giving good prices to the farmers.
3. Educating farmers and inculcating in them modern skills of production.
4. Improving transport and communication so as to open up the areas which are under populated.
5. There should be control of population growth by keeping low or encouraging the decline in birth rate through family planning programs and delays in marriages.
6. Formulating and reinforcing strict and practicable policies on economic and social development. Policies should focus on enabling people to utilize resources rationally thereby organizing their activities while considering the necessity of improving the environment.

Population Problems in the Economically Advanced Countries
Underdeveloped countries do not have monopoly of population problems though their problems are more wide spread and more difficult to solve. It is , however, worthwhile to note the problems of industrial and urbanized countries, some of which are becoming increasingly more serious. These problems include:
1. Ageing of population. Is a serious problem in the advanced countries like U.K. due to low birth rate, low death rate, and high life expectancy there is an over-increasing proportion of older people in the population. Hence there will be fewer people to support the elderly. The elderly people are dependent on small working, population. Ageing leads to problems like provision of pensions and other extra health services, pose financial problems and economic decline.
2. Small work force, Due to low birth rate labour force expands very slowly while industrial and other employment opportunities continue to multiply. As the work force is well educated there is a problem of unskilled labour since the majority of workers are skilled. Hence, the workforce is relatively small while wages are high. Hence, there has been migration of workers from countries like Italy, Yugoslavia, Turkey and Greece to Germany and Switzerland where there are insufficient workers.
3. Rural depopulation. There is movement of people from the rural areas to urban centers since the urban centers provide amenities such as shops, entertainment, better medical services, water supply, education which cannot be matched with the country districts. Employment is usually easier to find in urban areas than in rural areas. In some areas farms are even abandoned. Hence, the rural areas suffer a decline in the living standards if no mechanization is used.
4. Urbanization problems. As the urban areas expand the pressure on transport, water supplies, sewage and refuse disposal grows. The industries produce smoke and chemical, which cause air and water pollution. There problems of traffic congestion and noise pollution. Tension created due to urban problems lead to far higher incidence of mental illness than in the developing countries. Another problem is the decrease in the arable land due to the urban sprawl. This leads to the decline in agriculture.
5. Environmental problems like acid rain in Germany due to industrialization are another problem that leads to soil pollution.
Problems Common to both LDC’s and HDC’s
1. Uneven distribution, uneven development, overpopulation and under- population exist in both categories.

2. Resources are not evenly distributed.




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EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT

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