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SIGNIFICANCE OF OCEANS TO HUMAN LIFE
(Positive significance)
i. Manufacture of drugs and other chemicals from marine organisms, Marine organism contain many biologically active compounds, that are potentially useful for medical purpose.
ii. Energy electricity is generated by using the tidal range. The rising and falling of water can be used to generate electricity. E.g. At St. Malo in North west France, The electrical energy is known as tidal power .
iii. Parts of the sea can be reclaimed into new land to accommodate more population and give a room for agricultural and industrial expansion
iv. Many resources are extracted from the sea water, sea water supplies several materials such as fresh water, salts , bromine, and magnesium water evaporates, Eg North of Malindi – Kenya
v. Extraction of petroleum and natural gases. These have been formed by decomposition of the plant materials primarily marine plants. Hence they have been formed by submerged deposits.
vi. Oceans are the source of fish everywhere in the world.
vii. Allow the sailing of large vessels of ships. It saves as an important route way connecting the widely separated parts in the world.
viii. Used as sewage disposal system.
ix. Tourism Oceans provide sites for a variety of recreational activities. These include. Swimming surfing, water skiing, sport fishing, and cruising e.g. tropical seas are a tourist attraction because they are warm all year around.
x. Port development. Some features on the submerged coasts favor the development of deep and well sheltered natural harbors. E.g. Fiord coast in Norway
(Negative significance)
i. Infertile soils. Some emerged coastal lands are characterized by sand, gravel and bare rock, such surface cannot support proper plants growth because they are infertile.
ii. Transport barriers; deposited sands, sandbars and coral reefs are a barrier to water transport, Sometimes, ships have been wrecked after hitting some of those features.
COASTLINES
-Coast refers to the part of the landmass that is situated immediately after the sea. It is separated from the sea by a shore line. Shoreline means, a piece of land that lies in between of high tide and low tide levels.
EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1.4-WATER MASSES(5)
COAST EVOLUTION
Coast evolution means, the structural change in appearance of the coastline. Usually the structural appearance of coast varies from place to places or time to times. E.g. the structural appearance of Dar es Salaam coast differs from the Bagamoyo. The structural appearance of Dar es Salaam coast currently, is not the same as it was in many years ago. Hence the phenomena of the coast to change in it structural appearance place to place or time to time geographically described as coast evolution
The evolution of a coastline is brought by one or combination of two or more of the following factors.
1. Wave action
Wave has a considerable impact to a coastline structural change through the activities of erosion and deposition. Wave erosion may cause a coast line eroded to have features of marine erosion of like; cliff, notch, stacks, bay and others of the same consideration. Wave deposition may cause a coastline developed with features of marine deposition of like; beach, barrier beach, spits, tombolo and others.
2. Tectonic forces.
Tectonic activities have changed and may continue to change the form of appearance of coast lines through uplifting and sinking relatively to sea level. Uplift of a coast line, produces emerged coastline. Down warping produces the submerged coastline.
3. The nature of rocks along the coast
A coastline may change partly because of its nature of rocks along. For instance: the coastline with alternative rocks of hardness, one subjected to erosion, may change into indented coastline as it can be compared to a coastline of uniform rock hardness.
Beside to this, where the coastal rocks are resistant to erosion a highland coast is formed with cliffs.
4. Man activities
Human activities of like land reclaim nation harbors construction, canals construction change the natural appearance of coastlines. For example: the land reclamation in Netherlands, have changed the form of appearance of coasts along the North Sea.
5. Volcanic activities
Eruptions of volcanoes have caused some coasts to change in physical appearance as landforms related to the geological phenomena form along the coasts.
6. Glaciations.
It is considerably on the occurrence of glaciers along the coast. This leads to coast evolution in two varied ways. Firstly; the melting of ice has caused the rise of general sea level, and then made parts of coasts to immerse in water, and thus submerged coasts have been formed. Secondly glacier activities of erosion and deposition resulted into the occurrence of some physical features related to glacier erosion and deposition.
7. Organisms
Marine organisms like coral polyps have caused coasts to change in physical appearance as coral reefs develop along them.
CLASSIFICATION OF COASTS
Coasts are extremely varied due to several determinant factors of like; marine action, organisms, earth’s movements and others. The earth’s scientists have classified coasts according to their varied considerations. The most striking criteria which have been employed to classify coasts include the following.
1. Change in sea level, devoted by Johnson 1919
Neither the level of the land, nor the level of the sea remains unchanged. One of these changed and produced either submerged or emerged coastlines. Considerably to this, coasts are classified into the following forms.
· Submerged coasts
· Emerged coasts
· Neutral coasts
· Compound coasts
Submerged coasts
These are the coast lines whose lower parts immersed in water due to the rise of the sea level.
Submerged coasts are sub divided into two and include;
· Submerged lowland coast
· Submerged highland coast
Lowland submerged coasts form following the fall of lowland coast as the sea level rises. Highland coast produced after the fall of highland coast line due to the rise in sea level.
Emerged coasts.
These are the coastlines that have been produced after the fall of the sea level, and rise of the coastal land. These are also classified into lowland and highland emerged coastlines. Low land emerged coasts are produced after the lower parts of highland coasts to become out of water as sea level falls while the highland coasts are produced after the lower parts of highland coast to become out of water as sea level changes.
Compound coasts.
Those with a mixture of at least two or more of the features of submerged and emerged coasts. i.e. the coastline is observed to have characteristics of both emerged and submerged coastlines.
2. According to the structural appearance relatively to other coastal features
With respect to this consideration, coastlines broadly classified into the following types.
· Discordant coast line
· Concordant coast line
Discordant Coast line
It is the coastline that extends across the trend of the mountain ranges and valleys. Usually the coastline is irregular with many inlets. Discordant coastline has alternative terms of transverse and Atlantic. The later is because such high proportion of this type of coast is around the Atlantic Ocean.
Concordant Coast.
It is a coastline that lies roughly parallel to the mountain ranges and valleys. When such a coast is submerged, produces the Dalmatian coast. A concordant coast is very common in areas of around Pacific Ocean and that is why they are alternatively known as pacific coasts.
3. According to the relationship between coast and other processes of erosion and deposition
This was devoted by Sheppard in 1963. According to the approach, gives two types of coast
Primary coasts
The coasts where the influence of sea has been minimum. The coasts characterized by the presence of features not formed by marine action
Secondary coasts
Where marine processes have been dominant. The coasts are characterized by the presence of the depositional and erosion marine features of like.
4. Advancing and retreating coasts (Valentine 1952)
-It assumes that, a coast can be fitted into two of the following forms.
Advancing coasts
-The coast line that whose level rises as a result of marine deposition or uplift of the land
Retreating coasts
-The coastlines that appear to diminish because of marine erosion or submergence of the coastal land

1.5 CORAL COAST
-It is a coast which is made up of skeleton of the small marine organism is known as coral polyps consist of lime stone rocks resulting from skeleton of marine organism.
-Is a limestone rock which accumulates from the sea to the land.
Coral polyps
– Are living organism found on the marine and live in sheath like sacs composed of calcium carbonate (CaCo3) which they extract from ocean water. Coral:
-Is the limestone rock made up of the skeleton of very small marine organism called coral polyps
Characteristics/coral polyps thrive under this condition.
i. Found in sea temperature around 21oc-30oc
ii. Sediment free salty water
iii. Found in lower tides. Sunlight which penetrate to a depth of at least 50m.
iv. Enough supply of oxygen and food (plankton ) v. Coral features normally develop at latitude of 30N and 30S because of warm ocean currents.
TYPES OF CORAL REEFS
Coral reefs are of various structure and in this basis broadly categorized into three types involving.
i. Fringing
ii. Barrier
iii. Atoll
· i. FRINGING REEF: (Connected to coast)
-This consists of a plat form of a coral connected to and built out form a coast. The plate form surface is usually flat or concave and its outer edge sleepily to the sea floor.
-The lagoon is shallow separating the coast and edge of e.g. fringing reef along the coast of the reef Kenya and Tanzania.
EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1.4-WATER MASSES(5)
EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1.4-WATER MASSES(5)
EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1.4-WATER MASSES(5)
EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1.4-WATER MASSES(5)
· ii. BARRIER REEF.
– Similar to the fringing reef except that it is located several kilometers from the shore and is separate from it by a deep –water lagoon. The coral of a barrier reef is often joined to the shore, although the lagoon may be too deep for coral to grow on its bed.
EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1.4-WATER MASSES(5) EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1.4-WATER MASSES(5)


iii. ATOLL:
A circular coral reef usually broken in several places, surrounding a shallow lagoon.e.g. Aldabra atoll that lies between Zanzibar and Malagasy
  • It is concave shaped. (atoll formed in deep-sea )
EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1.4-WATER MASSES(5)
Importance of coral Reefs (value)
i. Provide habitat for fish species and protection
ii. They are used as raw materials in manufacturing of cement in the cement industries (limestone)
iii. They attract tourist and lead to the earning of foreign currency.
iv. They are used as decorations in different building e.g. marble, some well shaped pieces of coral rock are usually stuck on the walls of the building with cement.
v. They also lead to the formation of island which can be used by man for different purpose like settlement or recreation.
vi. They also protect the coast against the strong waves, which can cause coastal land degradation and destruction of property.
vii. Source of income since some people collect coral stone and sell them.
Problem posed by coral reef in the world.
i. They are great barrier to navigation.
ii. Piece of coral rock that breaks during coral quarrying especially by using dynamite and the solution of coral rocks due to the presence of acidic material lead to water pollution.
iii. Coral reef can block the waves and lead to the failure in the formation of attractive beaches.
iv. Coral masses and discourage the growth of plants (sea weed) that tends to pollute, disco
urage, fishing, swimming and navigation.
CORAL REEFS FORMATION THEORIES
The classification of coral reef theories is divided into two major groups.
i. Those theories which require a change of sea level relative to reef foundation
ii. Those theories that hold that coral reef may develop without a change in sea level relative to the reef foundation.
Under the 1st group
1. DARWIN`S THEORY
Of sinking land area and consequent rising sea level. Under those condition it is started the corals grown upward and outward converting fringing reef into barrier reef and final atolls.
These depend on the subsidence of land masses. As an island subsides, the coral reef grows upward and outward keeping pace with the subsidence.
EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1.4-WATER MASSES(5)
2. DALY`S THEORY
– The glacial control theory develops by Daly postulate a rising sea level due to the return of water to the sea following periods of glaciations.
This is based on the changing level of the searching and after the last ice age.
a.
EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1.4-WATER MASSES(5)
Under the 2nd group
MURRAY`S THEORY:
– The formation of the barrier reef doesn`t involve subsidence. He argues that coral reefs might have grown as a result of deposition of the coral debris on the seaward sides of the fringing reef. The deposited materials eventually form a base for further growth of polyps.
-The material deposited on the main hills or plateaus reduce the depth of the oceans thus making them sunlight and consequently the condition becomes conducive for polyps habitation. As these polyps die, they lead to the growth of coral reefs.
GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF CORAL REEFS
-As it has been already discussed coral reefs are in abundant supply on the esteem sides of the major land masses in the latitudes position in ten teen 30 North and South where sea temperatures reasonably high as warm ocean currents how nearly the coasts.
-The specific areas with coral reef include the following
-Along the edges of continents, E.g Along the edge of Australia where there is the greatest Barrier Reef of the world.
-Around island shores in the pacific ocean e.g. New Guinea and Caledonia
-Around the shores of volcanic peak especially in central and western pacific e.g. Fiji and Samoa islands.
-In the Atlantic Ocean in the west Indian Archipelago where there ia a group o f Island
-Around some islands in the Indian ocean e.g. Mauritius and Seychelles
Significance of coral reef to human being (constructive significance)
-They are used a raw materials to manufacture cement
-They are for building decorations
-They provide attractive sceneries and thus form the basis for tourism.
-Provide good breading stations for fish
-They have resulted into the formation of beautiful islands which used for recreational purposes
-They protect the coasts against erosion by marine waves
Destructive significance
-Coral plat forms encourage the growth of weeds which have a lot of setbacks
-Coral reefs impose barrier to navigation
-Contribute a lot to coast zone degradation because of being exploited
-They impose difficulties in fishing activities
1.6 WATER USES AND MANAGEMENT
1) WATER USES
Water uses understood as the utilization of water resource to meet various needs. Water is our most precious resource. Water is vital to life. Humans, plants, and animals are made up of mostly water. All living things would die in the absence of water.
There many ways that we use our water these include:
-Water is used domestically for drinking, washing clothes, cleaning, bathing, cooking, and other domestic uses. It is estimated that 8% of worldwide water use, is for house hold purposes.
-Power generation; water is used to generate power which supplied to the industries, commercial areas and residential areas. Of all the electricity in the world, about 20% is generated by H.E.P.
-Water is used the manufacturing industries. In manufacturing industries water is used to wash raw materials and for cooling the industrial machines. Moreover, water is heated and steam is used to run machines, in other industries water is used to cool metals. It is estimated that 22% of worldwide water use, is for industries purpose
-Water of larger bodies is used to serve communication. They are used as important route ways to transport people and goods from one area to another. Many people use boats and ferries to commute to and from every day. People also enjoy going on cruise ships or just going sailing.
-Water is also used outdoors for washing cars, watering lawns, filling swimming pools.
-Every town and city, whether small or big, uses water, cities use water for fire fighting street cleaning, and watering public areas such as parks, grass, shrubs, and flowers.
-Recreation is another way that we use and enjoy, Many people enjoy fishing, boating, sailing canoeing, sailing, rafting, and swimming, as well as many other recreational activities that depend on water. However, recreational water use is usually a very small but growing percentage of total water use.
Generally as already pre described water is a vital resource to human life as well as th
e general ecological system. Thus there is a need for water to be properly conserved and managed.
2. WATER MANAGEMENT
Population growth together with changes in lifestyle and economic development in many countries has heightened the pressure on water resources that are already limited. Moreover, Environmental problems, especially climate change, add to those pressures. Furthermore, poor water management can be a source of conflict. Therefore, water being an essential resource for all life on the Earth planet, there is a need of making sure that, water resources used equitably, by making proper plans on how water can be retained and distributed to meet the numerous demands by people. This is what understood as water management.
Water management is the activity of planting, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources. In an ideal world, water management planning has regard to all the competing demands for water and seeks to allocate water on an equitable basis to satisfy all uses and demands, In water management much effort is put on optimizing the use of water and in minimizing the ornamental impact of water use on the natural environment.
IMPORTANCE OF WATER MANAGEMENT
i. Water management ensures the supply of water to all people demanding with balance to the needs to industry and environment
ii. It makes restorage and monitoring the amount of water
iii. It ensures water quality and sanitation
iv. To ensure sustainable and fair access to clean water suitable for all purposes, which meets, in particular, the basic needs of the most disadvantaged population
v. To ensure fair and appropriate distribution of water between users of different kinds
vi. To solve the problem of water use conflict
vii. To prevent wastage and pollution of water
viii. To protect the
wetland areas
viii. To protect and conserve the water resources areas
METHODS OF WATER MANAGEMENT
There are about four methods for water resources management, They include:-
· 1) Conservation
· 2) Allocation of water charges
· 3) Retrofit water conservation
· 4) Behavioral practices
1. Conservation
-Water can be conserved by harvesting rain water, ground water recharge and recycling waste water.
-Rain water harvesting system involves the collection of water from the surface which directly receives rainfall. The water harvested is stored in tanks or diverged to artificial recharge system.
-Ground water recharge; It is by allowing percolation of water into the ground, this is achieved by planting trees and construction of lakes.
-Recycling of waste water, waste water can be recycled by being retreated with chemicals to become clean and safe for reusage.
2. Allocation of water charges.
-This method is by two system of the following
(i)Ratio utility billing system
Under this system water costs in residential areas like apartments distributed according to each resident based on allocation formula such as number of occupants, square footage, Number of water fixtures, number of bathroom, size of apartment (2bhk, 3bhk) or charge a fixed amount per apartment . However the system has significant disadvantage as residents or consumers won’t understand the true cost or unit of water consumed by their family members
(ii) Sub-metering
A typical sub-metering system consists of a meter to measure usage of a specific utility for each unit and wireless system to transmit the data to a central computer to allow for remote reading. This system enables residents or owners to pay for the water they use rather than paying a fixed amount. For effective water management, this system is recommended as this automatically encourages people to conserve water.
3. Retrofit water conservation
-Retrofitting involves the replacement of existing plumbing equipment with equipment that uses less water.
4. Behavioral practices
-Behavioral practices involve modifying water use habits to achieve more efficient use of water thus reducing overall water consumption. Changes in water use behavior can be implemented without modifying existing equipment. Behavioral practices involve water conservation measures such as replacing or repairing leaky facets. Awareness activities to promote sustainable management of water resources etc.
Implementation approach to water management
Five activities have been identified and are required to achieve integrated management of water resource. They include the following.
1. Awareness and participation. Users must be aware of the importance of water as a resource and their responsibilities in relation to sound management of this precious resource.
2. Institution capacity building. The success of activities depends largely on the capacity, resources and expertise of the instructions concerned. Support must be provided for the institutions responsible for water management. The main institutions for water management include. Urban or municipal water authorities and river basin project institution
3. Demand based management, It is not enough to manage only water distribution; supply must also be managed. The challenge is to reduce demand while increasing output through initiatives as reuse of water, protecting water resources etc.
4. Expanding the knowledge base, the necessary knowledge and information are essential for drawing up effective policies.
5. Coordination among donors must be strengthened
WATER RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT IN TANZANIA.
Tanzania has great growing demand for water sources. Access to safe water is essential for addressing poverty and health proble
ms. The poor, most of whom live in rural areas, have limited access to clean water for domestic use and crop production and adequate sanitation. Moreover One third of the Tanzania receives less than 800 mm of rainfall and embraced to semi arid areas. Only one third of the rest of the country has precipitation of above the rest of the country has precipitation of above 1,000mm. Also the long dry season normally extending from June to October, has an effect on low river flows and drying of water reservoirs.
In response to such prevalence, there is need for the water resource available in the country to be well managed to assure water supply to people for their varied needs.
Water resources available
-Tanzania has both surface and ground water sources. Surface water sources include; lakes rivers, ponds wetland reservoirs and others
1. Lakes;
-The country has a number of fresh water lake, they include; Victoria, Tanganyika, Nyasa, Rukwa, Natron, Eyasi and Manyara.
2. River
-Tanzania also has a number of rivers which drain into ocean and lakes, They include; Pangani, Wami, Mkondoa, Ruvu, Rufiji, Ruaha, kilombero, Mbarangandu, Matand, Mbwamkulu, Lukuled and Ruvuma all of which drain into Indian Ocean, Others include Malagarasi drains into lake Tanganyika, Songwe and Ruhuhu draining into lake Rukwa; Meri, Maru and Kagera draining into lake Victoria
3. Wetlands:
-Tanzania has 5,439,000 ha, of lakes and swamps which represent 5.8 percent of the total land surface but this number excludes seasonally inundated flood plains.E.g Rufiji,Ihefu,Jangwani in Dar es salaam.
4. Ground water Resources
-Ground water a major source of water for many areas in Tanzania and actually the most viable alternative supplement in the central and northern parts of the country/ the drier regions of Dodoma, Singida, Shinyanga, Tabora, Mwanza, Mara, Arusha coast and Southern Kilimanjaro.
-Most of the water resources in Tanzania are managed by the water projects
RIVER BASIN DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN TANZANIA
-River development projects are the schemes which developed for different purposes. They
are established to meet a number of goals such as floods control, water supply for domestic consumption, industries and irrigation schemes
River basin projects are implemented by doing the following:
-Construction of dams for retaining water
-Dredging of the river i.e Removal of silts or mud from the river
-Clearing of vegetation where economic activities are taking place
-Planting of trees on the sides of the river so as to prevent erosion and to control the speed of water flow.
-Straightening and widening of the river width so that it can hold more water
-Establishment of canals and installing of pipes to make distribution of water
1. KILOMBERO IRRIGATION SCHEME
Kilombero irrigation scheme is located along river Kilombero in Southern Tanzania which is a tributary of Rufiji river. The scheme has large plantations of sugarcane owning to a size of about 2800 hectares, under the schemes other crops such as maize, rice, beans and vegetables are grown.
Objectives of the scheme
-To improve crops production of sugarcane as the chef crop and other crops of maize, rise, beans and vegetables
-To open up the remote and potential lands be used for crops production
-To control the floods of river Kilombero
Implementation of the scheme
The scheme has been implemented as the following were done
-Establishment of the sugar cane estates
-Establishment of the sugarcane factories at Msolwa and Ruembe.
-Small scale farmers were allowed into the area to cultivate sugarcane and other crops
-Establishment of roads to enhance production of crops
-Supply of electricity to the factories and to the site machines which pump water to plantations.
-Establishment of the sugar cane production company to make overall management
-Construction of dams for retaining water to be used all the year around
-Training of the local people on their economic activities like fishing, timber production and wild life conservation.
Achievements of the scheme
-It has increased the production of sugarcane as it can be compared to the previous time
-Development of certain towns like Makambako, Mikumi and Kidatu which provide services to the people working into the scheme
-To some extent, the schemes managed to control the floods of the river as much of the water used to irrigate the farms
-It has stimulated the development of the physical infrastructures like roads and railway of TAZARA
-The scheme has opened up the remote areas like Ifakara and Msolwa.
Challenges against the scheme
-The problems of drought in same years. This creates low water supply to the scheme

-Transportation problem since the road and bridge have not been well constructed
-Poor labor supply due to the higher rate of rural to urban migration
-Prevalence of diseases mostly malaria which affect the farmers
2. THE RUFIJI RIVER BAISN DEVELOPMENT (RUBADA)
-Rufiji basin is one of the most potential areas in Tanzania. It has great river of Rufiji which steadily flows throughout the year, It has attractive features such as waterfalls, meanders, alluvial fans, delta and oxbow lakes, The valley of the river is very fertile for cultivation of crops. It has diversity of flora and fauna. By being so much potential efforts are taken to make the river basin well developed. To meet this, river basin development association of RUBADA, has been established.
Activities taking place in the basin
-Generation of hydro electricity at kihansi
-Fishing activities under the local people
-The cultivation of the crops such as sugarcane, paddy, maize and vegetable
-Tourism is taking place in the sellers game reserves
-Hunting of the wild animals bye ht local people
-Lumbering is taking place by the local people
NOTE
Even if special organization has been established to develop the basin yet the Rufiji basin is not well developed due to the following problems
-Frequent floods which affect the crops and people properties
-Poor market by the local people. A good number of the inhabitants are low income earners and thus do not provide steady markets for the goods that would be produced.
-Remoteness of the river. For instance the river is not utilized to supply water to the big city of Dar es salaam by being in a remote site.
-Poor capital outlay to be invested to the basin
-Poor labor supply due to the higher rate of rural to urban migration
· -Low level of technology.
3. KAGERA RIVER BASIN PROJECT
-The project was established in 1977 by three countries of Tanzania, Burundi and Rwanda, Uganda joined later in 1981. The project was established with found mental objective of establishing Hydro electric power station at Rusumo falls.
Achievement of the project
-Production of the hydroelectricity for the member countries and even he neigh boring countries.
-It has provided employment to people in the four countries.
-Development of transport infrastructures in the region.
-Development of tourist industry.
Problems incurred in the implementation of the project.
-Low level of technology in the region.
-Low capital outlay to finance the project effectively.
-Land alienation to give room for the expansion the project.
-Political conflicts in Rwanda, Burundi, and Uganda.
-The researches and preliminary plans are taking too long.
WATER POLLUTION
-Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lake, river, oceans and ground water. Or is an environmental pollution problem of a water body being contaminated with hazardous solid, liquid and gaseous materials which affect its natural setting. i.e. a body of water is adversely affected due to the addition of large amount of materials to the water. In other words, Water pollution is considered when the body of water is unfit for its intended use.When the body of water is unfit for its intended use.
-Water pollution is among of the serious environmental problems and it is serious enough in developing countries. It affects organism that live in the water bodies.
-Water pollution occurs when pollutants discharged directly or indirectly into water body system without adequate treatment to remove harmful constituents.
-Water pollution may occur naturally or culturally, naturally is by materials of dust which added to the water through the natural processes of wind erosion and deposition. Culturally by the households, industries, mining and others.
The materials which make water adversely affected are known as water pollutants.
Types of water pollution
Water pollution is of two varied forms including; Surface and ground water pollutions
Surface water pollution is pronounced if water contained over the earth surface of lakes, rivers and lakes contaminated with pollutants.
Ground water pollution Occurs when water contained into the ground contaminated with harmful materials which brought down by the process of leaching.
Source of water pollution
As it has been introduced, water pollution occurs culturally and naturally as harmful materials discharged into the water body systems by following sources
1. Agricultural activities
The agro chemicals such as fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides and others, washed away in solution into water body systems by runoff. Also the agro chemicals cause the ground water polluted through leaching process.
2. Households sewage
Residential areas produce a lot of sewage that mostly cause water pollution. The sewage contain farces, urine, and laundry wastes all of which are organisms which live in the systems of water body
3. Damping of littler
If litters derived from varied, sources damped into seas, lakes as well as rivers, cause water pollution. The litters as damped into water bodies take long time to degrade, these include the following
· Call board: They take 2 weeks to degrade
· New papers: take 6 weeks to degrade
· Foam: take 50 years to degrade
· Aluminum: take 200 years to degrade
· Plastic packaging take 400 years to degrade
· Glass: Take long to degrade but the exact time not well known
4. Industries
Industries is a huge source of water pollution, Industries produce pollutants that are extremely harmful to people and environment and thus, cause pollution as discharged into the water body systems without adequate treatments. The common pollutants which cause water pollution include asbestos, leads, mercury, nitrates, phosphate, sulfur, oils, petro chemicals and others
5. Commercial activities
Commercial activities particularly in town centers produce a lot of solid and liquid wastes, Most of these wastes discharged into large water body systems and cause pollution
.6. Mining activities
Water used to wash the minerals usually discharged into water bodies’ e.g the Kiwira river (Mbeya Tanzania) is seriously polluted with the liquid wasted from Kiwira coal mines.
7. Oil spill
Ocean lakes and rivers are polluted with oil spills on a daily basis from motor vehicles, routine shipping, runoffs, dumping, oil underground storage linkages and others. Oils cannot dissolve in water and thus form a thick shade in the water, This suffocates fish and other aquatic life
8. Occurrence acid rains
In the atmosphere water droplet mix with pollutant gases of sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxides to form acidic rains. These as fall on the surface of water bodies’ causes pollution.
9. Global warming
This causes an increase in water temperature, it can results into health of many aquatic organisms.
`10 Radio activity element
These are the nuclear wastes produced from industries, medical, and scientific processes that use radio activity materials, these materials have detrimental effects on marine habitats.
EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION
Water pollution has great impact to people and environmental in general in number of ways
1. Water pollution affect human health
Some health effects recognized immediately, while others take time to be recognized as may take months or years. People use to suffer from water borne diseases as parasites and other diseases causing organisms are transmitted via the contaminated water. The common diseases include typhoid, intestinal parasites, amoebas, cholera, and poor blood circulation, vomiting, diarrhoea nervous systems damages. Heart and kidney injury, skin irritation and tooth decay
2. Water pollution affects the aquatic ecosystems.
Pollution caused by acidic rains, oils and others sources harm greatly the life in water body systems. It makes animals as well as plants adversely affected to the extent others parish completely.
3. Water pollution affects the chain of food
The toxic contained in water travel to animals mostly fish, then travel to human as eat meet. The first international scare related to toxic chemical in the water occurred lake in the 1950 when large number of people in Minamata bay Japan, began to contract an usual disease. Research revealed that, they were buffering from mercury poisoning as a result of wastes that had been discharged into water ways and ingested by fish that had been discharged into water ways and ingested by fish that were eventually consumed by human beings.
CONTROL OF WATER POLLUTION
Water pollution problem can be controlled by the following measures
(i) Sewage’s and others wastes should be treated before are discharged into water body systems.
(ii) People should be educated in such a way can be aware with the bad effect of water pollution and on how to control water pollution.

(iii) Establishment of water control ordinance.




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EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1.4-WATER MASSES(5)

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  • EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1.4-WATER MASSES(5)

    Bakhresa, September 6, 2023 @ 2:38 am Reply

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