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1.  a)  State three roles played by Kenya Federation of labour during the

colonial period.

i)  Improved the working conditions of African workers by fighting for better wages and housing, ii)  The organization was to keep the spirit of African nationalism alive following the banning of the Kenya African Union.

iii)  The organization secured international support for cause of African nationalism. iv)  The organization articulated African grievances in the absence of political


  1. The organization prepared some African nationalism.
  2. The organization educated the workers on the rights.

    b) Apart from trade union movements, explain six factors which hastened the achievements independence in Kenya after 1945.

i) The experience of ex – service men in the Second World War exposed the

Myth of white supremacy and thus Africans rejected their domination. They also acquired military training which they used in their struggle for independence, ii)  Attainment of independence by India in 1947 gave the nationalist a strong

urge to fight for their own liberation,

iii) Kenya African Union mobilized Africans against colonial rules. It also influenced the colonial office to institute constitutional changes, iv) The Mau – Mau uprising proved to the colonial office that unless Kenya was granted independence it would be difficult to run the colony,

v)  The elected Africans members to legislative council put pressure on the colonial government to grant independence to Kenya, vi)
The liberation of Ghana in 1957 was a big influence on the other colonies like Kenya. The president of Ghana Kwame Nkuruma took it upon himself to champion the cause of the nationalists struggle in other parts of Africa, vii)  The formation of nationalists parties e.g. KANU, KADU and APP intensified the struggle, which led to the final attainment of independence, viii) African nationalist in Kenya received support from Afro Asian people/solidarity organization and the socialist state, ix) Pan – African movement inspired African nationalist in their struggle for independence. They organized conferences where they planned strategies.

  1. The labour party policy after 1945 was not in favour of keeping colonies but they were a burden to the British tax payers.
  2. The international opinion after 1945 was against colonialism. The British contributed to the war.
  1. a) Describe the economic developments that took place in Kenya during

    the colonial period.

    1. Transport and communication systems were developed e.g. the constuction of railway and roads, ii) Settler farming was encouraged, this promoted agricultural production for export trade and local consumption, iii) Africans were encouraged, this promoted agricultural production for export trade and local consumption.
    2. Introduction of money and establishment of banking industry to facilitate economic transactions,
    3. Development of local and international trade/commerce, vi) Establishment of industries such as food processing industries promoted the expansion of agricultural activities.

    vii) Exploitation o mineral resources in the country e.g. soda as at Magadi viii) Development of tourists industry e.g. establishment of game reserves and parks. ix)  Introduction of exotic breeds of livestock e.g. sheep, pigs and cattle.

    x)  Development of tourists industry e.g. establishment of game reserves and parks, xi)  Establishment of research stations/centres to improve farming methods and breeds.

 xii)  Development of the fishing industry eg. use of better fishing methods.


  1. a)  Identify three commodities that were from Asia into towns along the

    Kenya Coasts by 1500.

    • Glasware, salt, cowrie shells, beads/ornaments, rugs/capets, swords/daggers/knifes, cloth/silk, cloth/cotton clot, spices and porcelain.

    b) Explain six results of the contact the Kenyan Coast and Asia by 1500.

    1. The contact between the Kenyan Coast eg. Mombasa, Malindi and


    1. The establishmen of towns promoted intermarriages between Asians and different African communities at the Coast, iii) It led to the development of Kiswahili language, whcih had become widely spoken at the Coast by 1500.
    2. It led to spread of Asiatic arcitecture to the Kenyan Coast. The coastal committee built rectangular houses in stone,
    3. It led to the spread of Islamic culture along the Kenyan Coast. For instance the people were converted to Islam. They built mosques and adopted

    Islamic way of dressing, vi) It led to the development of trade between the Kenyan Coast and Asia. They brought their goods to the Kenyan Coast and took the Kenyan goods in return.

    1. It stimulated commercial activities between different communities in the hinterland of Kenya, viii) It led to the rivarly between communities over the control of the region, ix) It led to the establishment of the Arab control/rule along the Kenyan

      Coast. Islamic law/ Sheria was applied in the coastal town.

    2. It led to the emergence of a class of rich people who controlled trade, xi) Ot led to the development of slave trade; Many Africans slaves were transported to Asia/led to depopulation.

      xii) It led to the introduction of new crops to the Kenyan Coast e.g. rice and coconut, xiii) Introduction of Madras/slamic learning.


  1. Give two factors which led to the establishment of urban centers in Kenya during the colonial period.
    1. Development of transport network/the construction of the Uganda railway.
    2. Development of trade iii)  Development of mining activities
      1. Development of agriculture
      2. Establishment of administrative centers


  1. Give one reason why Africans who lived in towns formed social welfare organizations during the colonial period.
    1. They provide security s ii) To promote unity and a sense of belonging among members.

    iii) To cater for the basic needs of the members.



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