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1.  a) Give five factors which contributed to the development of trade

between different Africans communities in the interior of Kenya by 1800 A.D.

  1. Uneven distribution of resources such as iron are and salt created a demand for some goods by communities that did not produce them.
  2. Production of surplus commodities by some communities encouraged them to look for markets, iii) External demand for goods found in the interior such as ivory and leopard skin stimulated trade between different African communities.
  3. Existence of well developed local trade provided a base for the development of intercommunity trade.
  4. Demand for foreign goods in the interior e.g. cloth and beads led to the development of intercommunity trade, vi) Existence of cordial relations between communities contributed to the development of trade.

b) Explain five result of this trade.

  1. Intercommunity trade led to the development of markets where buyers and sellers met regularly to transact business. These markets were normally situated in the boundary between two communities.
  2. Some traders got a lot wealth from trade. Such people became very powerful and rose to positions of importance. iii)  Foreign crops such as maize, pineapples, sweet potatoes and bananas were introduced to the interior of Kenya.
  3. Intercommunity trade led to intermarriage between Kenyan communities

    e.g. Mijikenda and Akamba.

  4. Lines of communication linking different communities developed

in the interior of Kenya. Other lines of communication linked the interior with the Coast. vi) Trade stimulated production of goods and other economic

activities e.g. hunting.

vii) Existence of community trade led to direct participation of Arabs

in the trade with the interior. viii) The importance of luxury articles and new crops influenced the

way of life of the people.

ix) Intercommunity trade promoted cultural interactions e.g. language and


  1. Why did Africans start independent schools in Kenya during the colonial period?
    1. To provide more educational opportunities for Africans.
    2. To have a say/control of what was taught in their schools.


To keep away Europeans missionary influence from their schools,

  1. To preserve their cultural heritage/values.
  2. To create job opportunities fro educated Africans.
  3. To sensitize African on the evils of colonialism.
  1. Give two ways through which colonial government controlled the migration of the Africans to urban centers.
    1. Taking head count of those who were supposed to live in urban


    2. Enhancing strict rules about migration into urban centers/creation

      of African reform,
    3. Ensuring that only those who had specific activities to undertake in

      the urban centers lived there,

    4. Introducing Kipande system.
  2. State two objectives of education offered by Christian missionaries in Kenya during the colonial period.
    1. To teach Africans basic literacy and numeral skills.
    2. To teach Africans better farming methods.
    3. To train Africans catechists. iv)  To teach Africans basic technical skills.

 v)  Civilize/better methods of hygiene.

  1. Identify one problem which independent schools faced during the colonial period.
    1. Hostility from the government and missionaries.
    2. Inadequate teachers, iii)

    Inadequate funds and facilities.

  2. Identify one reason why Africans were not allowed to grow some cash crops before 1954.
    1. Europeans wanted to continue getting cheap African labour for their farms.
    2. To avoid competition by African farmers.
    3. To control the spread of disease and pests from African farms.
  3. State one result of the establishment of independent churches in Kenya during the colonial period.
    1. African cultural practices and beliefs were incorporated into the

    Christian church, ii) Give African clergy leadership opportunities in the church. iii) More African were trained as clergy. iv) Accelerated the spread of Christianity.


    1. Led to the establishment of independent schools.
    2. Led to the formation of Nationalisms.
  4. Identify two negative consequences of urbanization in Kenya during the colonial period?
    1. Unemployment led to poverty. ii)  Low morality e.g. prostitution. iii)  Increase in crime.

 iv)  Development of shanties/slums

Congestion leading to epidemics. vi)

Break up of family set – up.

 vii)  Development of the Kipande system viii) Deprived rural

 areas of manpower/negligence of agriculture.  

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