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  1. Give two functions of the Buganda traditional parliament.
    1. It made laws for the kingdom.
    2. It checked on the activities of the government iii) It represented the interest of the people.

    iv) It advised the Kabaka.

  2. State two functions of the Lukiko of the Buganda kingdom during the pre – colonial period.
    1. The Lukiko advised the Kabaka.
    2. Assisted the Kabaka to administer the kingdom.
    3. Made the laws/important decisions of the kingdom e.g. declaring the war iv)  It acted as the court of appeal/settle dispute.
    4. Directed collection of taxes or planned government expenditure.
    5. Presented the interest of the people of the country. vii)  Checked the activities of the government.
  3. a) State one way in which centralization of the authority contributed to

    the Success of the Buganda kingdom.

    1. It enhanced effective control of the kingdom.
    2. It promoted control of other traditional leaders e.g. clan heads and thus brought about unity, iii) It enhanced loyalty to one single leader, iv) It led to the emergency of able Kabaka who propelled the kingdom from strength to strength.
  4. a) What were the economic activities of the people of the Asante empire?
    1. They participated in the local trade where they exchanged commodities such as fish, salt and cloth with their neighbours, Goan and Ga.
    2. They participated in the long distance trade as middlemen between traders from North Africa and those from the South. Their main commodities of trade were salt, gold, kolanuts and slaves.
    3. They grew such as kolanuts and grain.
    4. They practiced crafts especially the manufacturing of items such as baskets and pots.
    5. They practiced iron working and made tools like hoes, bangles and arrows, vi) They practiced hunting and gathering of fruits and roots.

    b) Describe the political organizations of the Asante Empire during the

    19th century.

    i) The Asante empire was a centralized state divided into three divisions namely: the nucleus: (Kumai) state outside Kumais

    (amatoo) and the conquered states. ii) The overall ruler of the empire was Asantehehe, Kumasi was under the direct control of the Asantehene.

    iii) The conquered states were ruled by their kings but treated as provinces of Asante, Asantehene appointed representative in each conquered state, iv) The Asantehene ruled with the help of a confederacy of kings (Omanhehe). They took an oath of allegiance to ensure loyalty to the Asantehene.

    1. The Omanhehe represented the king in the provinces. They were allowed some autonomy but were expected to pay tribute to Asantehene soldiers in time of war.
    2. The empire had a standing army which defended/conquered other states and maintained law and order in empire, vii) Religion

      played an important role which defended/conquered other states and maintained law and order in the empire.

    viii) The sacred golden stool which was introduced in the 18th century by Asantehen Osei Tut, strengthened unity in the empire. It was kept as the headquarters, Kumasi, Each Omanhene was given a symbolic black stool to signify unity of purpose in the provinces. ix) The empire had a well established judicial/court system at Kumasi and was headed by king. The Omanhene were given powers to try minor cases at the provinces.

    x) The empire had a strong economic base that depended mainly on

    Image From EcoleBooks.comtaxes and profile derived from the long distance trade.



  1. Give the main why the Golden stool was important for the Asante Empire? It was the symbol of unity within the Asante empire/it united the Asante


  2. a)  What were the economic activities of the Ndebele during the

    nineteenth century.
    1. The Ndebele kept cattle.
    2. They traded with their neighbours and people from the Coast.
    3. They grew crops such as cassava, millet and cassava.
    4. They raided cattle, especially the warriors.
    5. They practiced crafts such as basket weaving
    6. They hunted wild animals and gathered wild roots and fruits.
    7. They were iron workers.

    b) Describe the political organization of the Ndebele during the pre – colonial period.

    1. The Ndebele were organized into a kingdom headed by king.
    2. The king was the commander in chief of the army and had powers to declare war or make
    3. The king was the supreme judge of the kingdom.
    4. The kingdom was divided into settlements/military kraals ruled by an appointee of the king, known as Induna, generally chosen from commoner clans.
    5. Each kraal was ruled by an appointee to the king. vi)  Indunas had very little autonomy as they implemented the King’s decisions, vii) The settlements were further divided into units which were ruled by junior officers, viii) The king kept a standing army which was used to conquer new lands and defend the kingdom against external attacks,
    6. The king kept a network of spies who kept him informed of all that was going on in the, kingdom against external attacks.
    7. The king married from various sections of the country.
    8. The king’s position was hereditary.

7.  Give two functions of the Kabaka of Buganda.

  1. He was the head of government.
  2. He was the commander in chief of the armed forces. iii)

He appointed senior officials in the government/dismissed. iv)  He was the supreme judge.

 v)  He was in charge of al religious activities/chief priest.

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