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FORM FOUR BIOLOGY

  • Define the term genetics
  • Differentiate between heredity and variation
  • Distinguish between continuous and discontinuous variations
  • Describe continuous and discontinuous variations
  • Observe variations in plants and animals
  • Describe the structure, nature and properties of chromosomes
  • Describe the structure, nature and properties of DNA molecule
  • Differentiate between DNA and RNA
  • Distinguish between F1 and F2 generation
  • Determine Mendel’s first law of inheritance
  • Define other terms used in inheritance such as phenotype, genotype, dominant gene, recessive gene, haploid and diploid
  • Demonstrate monohybrid inheritance in plants and animals
  • Predict outcomes of various genetic crosses
  • Construct and make use of pannet squares
  • Work out genotypic and phenotypic ratios
  • Predict outcomes of various crosses
  • Determine the unknown genotypes in a cross using a test cross
  • Describe albinism as an example of monohybrid inheritance in human beings
  • Explain the inheritance of ABO blood groups in human beings
  • Explain the inheritance of rhesus factor as an example of monohybrid inheritance in human beings
  • Predict the inheritance of blood groups human beings
  • Describe incomplete dominance
  • Describe inheritance of colour in flowers of mirabilis jalapa
  • Describe Inheritance of sickle cell anemia in human beings
  • Explain how sex is determined in human beings
  • Describe sex linkages in human beings
  • Define linkage and sex-linkage
  • Describe linkage in human beings e.g.colour blindness and hemophilia
  • Describe colour blindness as an example of sex-linked trait in human beings
  • Interpret pedigree of inheritance
  • Describe the Inheritance of hemophilia as an example of sex-linked traits in human beings
  • Define mutation
  • Differentiate between mutations and mutagens
  • List down causes of mutations
  • State the types of mutations
  • List down the various chromosal mutations
  • Describe chromosal mutations
  • Explain the Effects of chromosal mutations
  • Describe gene mutations and their effects on organisms
  • Describe areas in which the knowledge of genetics has been applied
  • Explain the practical applications of genetics
  • Define evolution
  • Explain the current concepts of the origin of life
  • Explain the current concepts on origin of life
  • Describe the study of fossils as evidence of organic evolution theory
  • Describe comparative anatomy as evidence of organic evolution
  • Describe occurrence of vestigial structures and geographical distribution of organisms as evidence of organic evolution
  • Describe comparative embryology, cell biology and biochemistry as evidence of organic evolution
  • Describe evolution of hominids
  • Describe Lamarck’s theory
  • Describe and discuss the struggle for existence and survival for the fittest
  • Describe and discuss new concepts of Darwin’s theory
  • Describe natural selection in action
  • Describe natural selection in nature
  • Describe the isolation mechanism in speciation
  • Describe Artificial selection in plants and animals and how it leads to speciation
  • Explain the importance of sexual reproduction in evolution
  • Define stimulus
  • Define irritability
  • Define response
  • Define tactic and tropic responses
  • List down tactic responses in plants
  • List down tropic responses in plants
  • Differentiate between tactic and tropic responses
  • Define geotropism
  • Describe geotropism in roots and shoots of plants
  • Differentiate between Phototropism and geotropism
  • Carry out experiments demonstrating both Phototropism and geotropism in a plant seedling
  • Carry out experiments to demonstrate tactic responses to light and water
  • Carry out experiments to show chemotactic response using fruit juice
  • Define Hydrotropism and thigmotropism
  • State the importance of Tactic and tropic responses
  • Explain the production of Plant hormones and their effects on plants
  • Carry out experiment to investigate hydrotropism
  • Carry out experiment to investigate etiolation
  • Demonstrate the knee jerk in a reflex action
  • Defined Conditioned reflex actions
  • Describe Conditioned reflex action using parlous dog
  • Compare simple and conditioned reflex actions
  • Explain the role of endocrine system in a human being
  • Explain the effect over secretion and under secretion of thyroxin and adrenaline
  • Isolate and list the similarities and differences between the endocrine and the nervous system
  • State the effects of drug abuse on human health
  • Draw and label the mammalian eye
  • State the functions of the mammalian eye
  • Describe how the structure of the mammalian eye is adapted to its functions
  • Dissect and display parts of the mammalian eye
  • Describe how an image is formed and interpreted in the mammalian eye
  • Describe Accommodation in the mammalian eye
  • Name and explain the Common eye defects
  • Describe Common eye defects and their corrections
  • Investigate the blind spot In the eye
  • Investigate which eye is used more during vision
  • Name and describe Common eye diseases
  • Draw and label the mammalian ear
  • Describe the mammalian ear and how it is adapted to its functions
  • Describe the mechanism of hearing
  • Discuss thick ear drum, damaged cochlea, raptured eardrum, fussed ossicles, otitis media, ostosceleross and tinnitus
  • Define support and movement
  • Describe the necessity of movement in plants and animals
  • Review the tissue distribution in monocotyledonous an dicotyledonous plants
  • Describe support in woody and non-woody stems
  • Describe the role of tendrils and tender stems in support
  • Observe prepared sections of woody and herbaceous stems
  • Observe a wilting plant
  • List the types of skeletons
  • Describe the role of exoskeleton in insects
  • Describe the role and components of endoskeleton
  • Describe the role of skeleton in vertebrates
  • Draw the structure of a finned fish (tilapia)
  • Calculate the tail power
  • Explain how locomotion occurs in fish
  • Name and draw the different fins and state their functions
  • Draw the human skeleton and identify the component parts
  • Identify and draw the skull
  • Identify bones of Axial skeleton in the vertebral column
  • Identify the cervical vertebrae
  • Identify the structures of the thoracic vertebrae
  • Relate the structure of the thoracic vertebrae to their functions
  • Identify the structures of lumbar, sacral and candal vertebrae
  • Show how ribs articulate with thoracic vertebrae
  • Draw and label Ribs and sternum
  • Relate the structure to their functions
  • Identify components of Appendicular skeleton
  • Draw the scapula bone and relate it to its functions
  • Identify the bones of the fore limbs
  • Draw the structure of the humerus, radius and ulna
  • Draw and label bones of the hand
  • Draw the pelvic girdle
  • Name the bones of The pelvic girdle
  • Relate the structure to their functions
  • Identify, draw and label the femur, tibia and tibula bones
  • Relate their structure to their functions
  • Draw and label the bones of the foot
  • Relate the structure of bones of the foot to their functions
  • Define a joint
  • List the three types of joints
  • Describe the types of joints
  • List examples of movable joints, hinge joints and bell and socket joints
  • Define Immovable joints
  • Name Immovable joints
  • Define muscles
  • Explain the differences between the three types of muscles
  • Identifying biceps and triceps in the arm movement


 




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EcoleBooks | Biology Form 4: Syllabus and Key concepts summary.

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