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1.  Results of the development of writing.

i)  It made information readily accessible to many members of the society. ii) The development of writing made it possible for idea to spread


iii) It facilitated the establishment of permanent records. iv) It le to the establishment of libraries and archives.

  1. Maintaining written records promoted accuracy as people no longer relied on the ability of a few to recall events and maintain continuity.
  2. It facilitated communication between individuals who are physically separated/letter writing. vii) It promoted literacy as people became eager to read the written information/illiteracy reduced.

viii) It encouraged the development of allied industries such as paper production, ix) It provided employment to people such as the scribes and teachers.

x) Facilitated the spread of languages, xi) It led to invention of the printing press/printing xii)  It led to establishment of schools and universities/not formal education.

xiii)  Led to the efficient of running of government e.g. In Egypt/unified empire of kingdoms, xiv) Facilitated business transactions e.g. Greece xv) Provided literature and theatre activities in Greece/poems, xvi)

Promoted agriculture e.g. in Egypt (harvests records, taxes) xvii) Promoted the spread of religion through the written word.

  1. In what ways did the development of steam engine contribute to the growth of
    industries in Europe during the 19th Century?

    i)  The development of steam engine of facilitated faster transportation of raw materials and finished industrial products. ii)  Facilitated faster transportation of industrial workers, iii) Provided a source of energy in the factories e.g. the spinning factory, iv) It was used to pup water out of the mines to facilitate mining e.g.

    cola mines

  2. Identify the main source of industrial energy in Europe from the twentieth century.


  3. State two scientific discoveries during nineteenth century which contributed to
    food preservation.

 i)  Discovery of canning ii)  Invention of refrigeration


Invention of pasteurization
  1. State two inventions during the eighteenth century which improved textile industry in Britain.
    1. The spinning jenny which produced large quantities of cotton threads – James Hargreaves.
    2. The spinning mule which produced high quality threads – Samule

    Compton. iii) The power boom which facilitated the weaving process – Edmund


    1. The cotton gin which quickened the removal of seeds from cotton fibre – Eli Whitney
    2. The water frame the flying shuttle – John Key vi)

    The cylindrical calico printing machine – Thomas Bell

  2. a) Which scientific inventions of the twentieth century have led to a

reduction in death rates?

i)  The grouping of blood into various blood groups by Land Steiner in 1900 facilitates blood transfusions ad the storage of blood banks for later transfusion, ii) The X – ray by Roengen, German scientists, to view the bone structure and internal organs of the


human body to facilitate treatment, iii) Penicillin, an antibiotic by Dr. Alexander flemming in 1928 prolonged lived by treating infections.

The Polio vaccine in 1954 by Jonas Edward,

v) Transplant surgery by Dr. Christian Barnard, A South African surgeon in 1967 succeeded in prolonging lives of kidney patients, vi) Heart valve in 1961 has prolonged lives through replacement of defective valves.

b) Explain the positive impact of scientific inventions on industry.

  1. The invention and use of machines in factories have led to production in large quantity of manufactured goods.
  2. The science of electronics has led to the production and use of computers in processing information, weather research and spying purposes.
  3. Research in science and technology has led to the development through the use of email and the internet, iv) The discovery of atomic power/nuclear has led to increased power generation for industrial use, electronic trains and supersonic jets,

v) Scientific research has led to the production of alternative sources

of energy for use in industries e.g. gasohol, methanol, solar energy.


  1. Give two inventions that improved textile manufacturing industry in Britain in the 18th century.
    1. The shuttle of John Kay ii) Water frame of Richard Arkwright iii) Spinning Jenny of James Samuel Crompton. iv) Steam power loom of Edmond Carwright
  2. State one contribution of Joseph leister in the field of medicine in the 19th century.
    1. He discovered the use of carbonic acid as an antiseptic to clean/sterilize surgical instruments.
    2. He discovered the use of carbonic acid to kill microbes around the wound after an operation, iii) He developed an antiseptic spray

 for cleaning the air during operations.  

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