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  1. Historical development of Agriculture
  2. Role of Science and Technology in Agriculture
  3. Role of government agencies in Agriculture
  4. Career opportunities in Agriculture
  5. Revision of Jss1 and 2 scheme of work
  6. Examination






Development of Techniques through the Ages

Development of Agriculture in Nigeria


The early man gathered wild fruits, nuts, roots and leaves for food as well as trapping fishes and wild animals. Caves, hollows and trees served as his shelter while his clothing were mainly leaves and skins. With time, he developed skills and instruments for his hunting expedition. He used pointed sticks, sharp bones or stones but later arrows, slings and guns were invented. The forest land where he collected food was enough for him to feed. There was no shortage of food, so he did not think of ways of producing food. However as people increased, food gathering was no longer enough for them.


Development of Agriculture in Nigeria

The Agricultural methods of Egyptian farmers combined with the older traditional farming practices of West Africa have produced the basis of Nigerian Agriculture today.

In the last 300 years, crops from other parts of the world have been brought of West-Africa by traders. Bananas and plantains were originally from Asia while groundnuts and cocoa came from America.



1.  What did the early man do to get food before the population of people increased?

2.  How did cocoa and groundnut get to Nigeria?



Junior Secondary Agriculture for Nigerian Schools by A. Yondeowei Bk. 3, Chapter 19, Pages 104-108



1.  The early man gathered the following for food except ………..

 (a) Fruits (b) trees (c) nuts (d) leaves

2.  Which one of these tools did the early man use for his hunting expedition?

 (a) Harvester (b) Bomb (c) Gun (d) Sticks

3.  Banana and Plantain originated from ……………..

 (a) U.S.A. (b) Ghana (c) Asia (d) India

4.  Groundnut and cocoa were brought to Nigeria from ………….. by …………….

 (a) U.S.A.; tourists (b) U.S.A.; traders (c) Asia; tourists (d) Asia; traders

5.  The idea of modern day Agricultural practice came from ………………

(a) The idea of too many animals around (b) The idea of germinating seeds that were dropped by man (c) The idea of rivers and streams (d) The idea of sun-shine




1.  Mention the kinds of food the early man fed on.

2.  Mention the tools used by the early man for hunting expedition, his shelter and clothing








Science can be defined as knowledge obtain through the observation and testing of facts which are arranged in an orderly manner. Technology is the application of specific knowledge to production. Technology increase efficiency, thus providing high result from minimum effort.

The role of science and technology can be considered under the following:

  1. Farm power and machinery: Through the aid of science and technology there has been invention of various kind of machinery like tractor, plough, harrow, cultivator, harvester etc. farmers have been given loans by both federal and state government to purchase agricultural machinery.
  2. Production of chemicals, fertilizers: The development and production of chemicals and organic fertilizers can be seen as a direct result of the effect of science and technology. Different types of fertilizers and liming materials have been developed.
  3. Harvesting, processing and packaging: Science and technology has develop machine that can harvest, process and package various crops.
  4. Agricultural Research: Scientific research into agriculture has developed efficient farming systems and crops which are yielding and resistance to some pests and diseases.
  5. Transportation and communication: Transportation which is vital to the growth of agriculture has been greatly improved through science and technology. The contraction of communication network such as roads, railways and canals helps to link the village to another and helps the farmers to transport farm products to the cities.
  6. Pests and Disease Control: Damage caused by pest and diseases to crops and animals has been a big problems to farmers.
  7. Storage facilities: As a result of scientific inventions, farmers can now store their agricultural products for a long time.


Factors Affecting the Introduction of Science and Technology.

Several factors affect the introduction and adoption of science and technology in agriculture. They include

  1. Availability of funds.
  2. Availability of lands
  3. Willingness of the farmer to adopt science and technology.
  4. Education and research.
  5. Availability of marketing facilities.


  1. List 5 areas of improvement in Agriculture through Science and technology.
  2. List 3 factors affecting the introduction of science and technology.


Reading Assignment

Prescribed Agricultural Science for junior Secondary Schools by S.A Omoruyi, U.X Orhue, A. A Akerobo, C.I Aghimien pgs 299- 301.


Weekend Assignment

  1. Science is define as ————
  2. Technology is the application of ———— a. science and technology b. scientific knowledge c. biological knowledge d. important things.
  3. Which of these is not a role of science and technology in agriculture? A. farm power and machinery b. production of chickens c. transportation and communication d. pests and disease control
  4. Which of these is not a factor affecting the introduction of science and technology? A. availability of funds b. availability of marketing facilities c. pests and disease control d. availability of sunlight.
  5. The role of science and technology has been felt in a. atmospheric condition b. transportation. c. pressure d. rocks.



  1. Define science and technology.
  2. List 5 roles of science and technology in agriculture.









The government plays an important role in the development of agriculture in Nigeria. Agricultural programmes were establish with the aim of boosting greater production of crops and livestock. Such programmes include:

  1. Agricultural loan schemes
  2. River basin development authority(RBDA)
  3. Green revolution
  4. Operation feed the nation (OFN)
  5. Agricultural development project (ADP)
  6. Farm Settlement Scheme
  7. Directorate of Food, Road and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI)
  8. National Agricultural Insurance Scheme
  9. Agro-service Centers.


Aims/ Objective of These Agencies

  1. Agricultural loan Schemes
  1. To provide fund for financing agricultural project.
  2. To provide soft loans for farmers.


    1. River Basin Development Authority.
  3. To provide irrigation facilities.
  4. To provide potable water for rural people


  1. Green Revolution
  1. It was set up between 1979 and 1983
  2. To encourage large scale farming
  3. To produce abundant food for local consumption and export.


  1. Operation Feed The Nation
  1. It was set up by General Olusegun Obasanjo military regime in 1976 and 1979.
  2. To increase food production.
  3. To popularize agriculture and provide food for all Nigerians


  1. Agricultural Development Project.
  1. To boost agricultural production through the construction of farm service centers.
  2. To increase the level of extension contact with farmers.


  1. Farm Settlement Scheme.
  1. To make farming attractive to youths and reduce unemployment
  2. To teach settlers better farming system to produce larger farm produce.


  1. DFRRI
  1. Establish in 1986 by the federal government.
  2. To provide rural infrastructure such as good road, electricity etc.



  1. ADP means———-
  2. Give 2 aims of Green Revolution.


Weekend Assignment

  1. ADP means—- a) Agricultural Development Programme b) Agricultural Development Project c) Agency Development Project.
  2. Operation Feed The Nation was set up by—- a) General Olusegun Obasanjo b) Ahmadu Bello c) President Musa Yaradua d) Alvan Ikoku.
  3. The programme DFRRI was set up to—— a) provide rural infrastructure b) popularize agriculture c) produce cash crops d) provide soft loans for farmers.


  1. List 6 agricultural programmes introduce by the Nigerian government.
  2. List 5 roles of government agency in agricultural production.





The following are the various branches of agriculture

  1. Agricultural extension
  2. Agricultural engineering
  3. Agricultural economics
  4. Animal science
  5. Crop science
  6. Soil science
  7. Forestry
  8. Horticulture
  9. Fisheries
  10. Veterinary medicine


  1. Agricultural extension-This is mainly concerned with teaching and helping farmers especially small scale farmers in rural areas, to improve their agricultural systems and practices. This would enable them produce more and better crops. It involves teaching of modern method of farming.
  2. Agricultural engineering- This deals with the fabrication and repairs of agricultural tools, implement and machinery. Such as plough, cultivator, planter etc. A scientist who specializes in agricultural tools and machines is called an Agricultural Engineer.
  3. Agricultural economics- This deals with the business aspect if agriculture. It teaches the farmer how to run his farming as a profitable business. It encompasses production, marketing and sales of agricultural produce.
  4. Animal science- This is the scientific study of farm animals. Farm animals such as goat, turkey, cattle etc. the person who studies farm animals is called an Animal scientist.
  5. Crop science- This is the scientific study of how crops are grown
  6. Soil science- This is the study of soil, which covers the formation and properties of soil and how soil can be maintained.
  7. Forestry- This branch of agriculture deals with the study of forest and its resources. A Forester is one who studies the forest and its resources.
  8. Horticulture- This is the aspect that deals with the scientific growing of fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants.
  9. Veterinary medicine- This is a special branch of agriculture which is concerned with the study of the diseases and pest of livestock. A scientist who is an expert in treating sick animals is called a Veterinarian.



  1. Explain the following: a) Agricultural extension b) Forestry
  2. Define the following terms: a) Animal science b) Crop science c) Horticulture.


Weekend Assignment

  1. ———– is the study if how crops are grown a) soil science b) crop science c) animal science
  2. A scientist who specializes in agricultural tools and machines is called an a) Agricultural Repairer b) Agricultural engineer c) mechanic.
  3. ——– is the study of farm animals a) animal scientist b) anemology c) crop scientist
  4. ———- deals with the study of forest and its resources a) forester b) forestry c) forestology.



  1. Explain the following: a) Agricultural economics b) Horticulturist c) Forester.
  2. Define the following: a) Crop science b) Animal science



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