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  1. a)  State five uses of copper in pre – colonial Africa.

    i)  It was used to make ornaments i.e chains ii) It was used to make utensils/spoons.

    iii)  It was used to make weapons iv)  It was used to make tools/needles/chisel/axes

    1. It was used as currency/medium of exchange/money.
    2. Used as a trading commodity vii)  It was used to make the King’s plagues

 b)  Explain impact of iron technology on the people of Africa.

  1. The discovery of iron technology led to the manufacture of better and efficient tools for farming. For example, iron hoes and panga.
  2. The use of iron tools enabled people to clear natural vegetation and bring more land under cultivation hence more food.
  3. The demand for iron – ore and iron tools led to the development of trade between communities, iv) The development of iron technology led to job specialization. Iron smiths became very respectable members of the society.
  1. The possession of iron weapons in warfare intensified intercommunity conflicts. The stronger communities conquered and absorbed weaker ones.
  2. The possession of iron weapons made it possible for communities to improve their system of defense,

Possession of iron weapons led to the emergencies of states through conquests while other fell, viii) Possession of iron weapons and implements facilitated immigration of people – they were better armed and could face the danger on the way.

  1. Explain six factors which have contributed to the rise of China as a powerful nation.
    1. Strong leadership under chairman Mao and Chou – en – lai united the country/unity/stability.
    2. Collectivization of agriculture and land reforms led to food sufficiency/land tenure system leading to food sufficiency. iii) The establishment of heavy industries enabled China to produce capital goods and consumer
      goods for export which enabled her earn foreign exchange/external market.
    3. Establishment of strong army equipped with modern weapons including nuclear weapons.
    4. Possession of natural resources such as minerals has enabled China to establish and sustain heavy industries.
    5. The vast Chinese population has made it possible for China to expand her industries and agricultural output (through the supply of labour). Hardworking and dedicated vii) Expansion and modernization of education led to the production of skilled manpower that spearheaded impetiginization programmes.

      Modernization of China through the 5 years plans.

    6. Development of transport and communication to exploit the economic resources.
    7. Foreign investment in China accelerated the modernization of the economy.
    8. Political stability xii) Existence of an internal market/market for her agricultural and

      industrial output.

    xiii) Development of H.E.P stimulated industrial growth.

  2. a)  State five factors which have facilitated industrialization in the third

world countries.

  1. Availability of raw materials.
  2. Availability of cheap labour (both skilled and unskilled) iii)

Acquisition of relevant technological knows – how. iv)  Existence of some indigenous industries which provide the

foundation for the process of industrialization

  1. Facilitated diversifications of the economy of the third world countries/banking/insurance.
  2. Promoted urbanization in the third world countries. vii)  Led to the degeneration in the third world countries.

    viii)  Led to the development of transport and communication e.g. roads and telecommunication systems.

    Increased agricultural production because farmers are aspired of a ready market in the agro- based industries.

Image From  x)  Has led. to the provision of social amenities such a§ schools and


  1. a) State three ways in which the industrial revolution contributed to


i) The establishment of industrial centers created new jobs opportunities where many were attracted to work, ii) The industrial revolution brought in new discoveries which changed/improved transport communication systems – thus facilitating the movement of people to towns, iii) The emergence of industrial centers opened other commercial activities which attracted many people, iv) Use of machines in production made many people lose their jobs in the cottage industry. They moved/migrated to urban centers to look for jobs,

v) Industrial revolution led to enormous expansion trade – many people were attracted to the centers of trade.

b)  Explain six factors which led to the emergency of USA as an industrial power.

i)  Existence of large mineral deposits for example coal, iron and tin for use in industries, ii)  Use of the skilled and unskilled labour led to the establishment of

American industries, iii) The development of efficient transport and communication network enhanced economic growth, iv) Existence of enterprising entrepreneurs who have invested in the country had enabled the United States of America to enjoy a monopoly of the world’s economic systems.

  1. Existence of ready market at home and abroad for American products stimulated industrial growth.
  2. The USA has experience relatively fewer strikers and industrial growth.
  3. The aggressive foreign investments policies have enabled her to dominate world economic system and also attracted foreign investment, viii) The collapse of European economic during the

2nd World War enabled the USA to extend here influence to Europe and other parts of the world.

  1. Technological advancement has enabled the USA to dominate world economy/machines.
  2. Political stability xi) Availability of energy e.g. coal, oil, gas etc xii) Banking and insurance services/financial institutions.



  1. Give one use of bronze in ancient Benin.

    i) Making royal regalia ii) Making statues of rulers, noblemen. iii)  Making ornaments .

    1. Making weapons
    2. Making religious figurines e.g. gods
  2. Explain six factors which led to the emergency of Japan as an
    industrial power after the Second World War.
    1. Provision of education which emphasized on technical training.
    2. Japanese work ethics which discouraged idleness and encouraged hard work.
    3. Government policy which granted subsidies to industrial enterprises/entrepreneurs led to industrial growth, iv) Availability of raw materials from within Japan e.g. silk and from other Asian countries which she had colonized e.g. cotton from


    v) A well-established industrial base. By 1945 Japan had well developed industrial base, vi) Existence of labour force with industrial know – how/technological

    skills, vii) Availability of capital from local and foreign investors, especially the U.S. A financial support which was provided after the Second

World War (the Marshall plan) stimulated industrial growth of

Japan viii) Availability of energy eg. H.E.P and nuclear solar stimulated industrial growth of Japan, ix) Elaborate transport and communication system,

x) Political stability of Japan. xi) Cheap labour force xii) Good industrial relations xiii) Japanese goods are cheap xiv) Open minded economic policy xv) Scarce farming land xvi) Good natural harbours xvii) Foreign investments e.g. Japan investment in foreign countries.

  1. What was the main source of energy during the early period of industrial revolution in Europe?


  2. State two government policies which have contributed to industrialization in


    i) Restriction on imported goods ii) Promoted technical and scientific education iii) Development of heavy industries by the state/government iv) Emphasis on industrialization of the five – year development plan.

    v) Encouragement of foreign investment in the country.

  3. a)  Describe the working condition of factory workers in Britain during

    the industrial revolution.

    1. Factory workers subjected to long working hours.
    2. Workers received low wages iii)  Under – age children were employed to work in the factories.
    3. Poor living conditions eg. over – crowding, inadequate lighting and poor ventilation.
    4. Lack of insurance cover for the workers/no workman’s compensation. vi)  Exposure to dangerous machinery/no protection against dangerous machines vii) Frequent outbreak of epidemics e.g. Cholera, Dysentery and Typhoid.

 b)  What factors favoured the development of industries in Britain by


  1. Availability of resources like energy for use in industries eg. cola.
  2. Existence of a large population which provided steady market for her manufactured goods/domestic market. iii) Availability of external markets in her colonies for her industrial goods, iv) Availability of iron – ore for heavy industries.

    v)  Existence of cottage industries which acted as a base for industrial expansion, vi)  Availability of labour force especially following the displacement of the people from the rural areas as a result of the Agrarian

    Revolutions. vii) Existence of capitals/entrepreneurs, who were willing to invest in the industries, viii) Political stability and strong leadership that existed at the time created conducive atmosphere for investment.

    1. Well developed transport and communication network eg. railway and canals/roads.
    2. Agrarian Revolution increased food for industrial workers and raw materials for industries, xi) Scientific innovations led to the improvement and expansions of industries/technical know – how. xii) Existing banks and insurance systems gave financial help and security to the industrialists, xiii) Britain had a strong navy

      which protected her merchants from foreign competition/protection against sea pirates, xiv) Britain’s policy of free trade encouraged industrialization.

  1. In what ways did overseas colonies contribute to the expansion of industries in Europe?
    1. The overseas colonies provided additional market for European industrial products such as cloth and spirits.
    2. Overseas were sources of industrial raw materials eg. cotton, plan oil and sisal, iii) Trade between European countries and their colonies led to the emergence of a class of rich people who invested in industries.
    3. Use of machines in industries rendered people jobless.
    4. Industrial waste was not properly disposed of and this led to environment degradation, vi)  Long working hours deprived people of leisure and rest thus reducing their efficiency, vii)  Low wages paid to workers led to poor living conditions which demoralized them.
  2. Give one main reason why trade union movements were formed in Europe during the nineteenth century.

    To fight for the welfare of workers / to enable workers to collectively negotiate for better terms of service with the employers.

  3. Show two ways in which the Industrial Revolution in Europe promoted

    European colonization of Africa.

    1. The European nations wanted colonies as source of raw

      materials for their industries.

    2. The European wanted markets for their manufacture goods. iii) Wealthy industrialists wanted colonies where they could invest their excess capital.



  1. Describe the use of gold in Ancient Egypt.
    1. Gold was used to make ornaments/jewellery ii) It was used in making decorations for houses/handlers of swords.

    iii) It was used for making utensils especially plates and vases for rich people, iv) It was used as currency/money/medium of exchange/making coins

  2. Why did the industrial revolution take place in Britain ahead of other

    European countries?

    1. Britain had ready markets for her industrial products within the

    British empire, ii) The empire was also a source of raw materials for industries in

    Britain, iii) She had large reserves of coal which was used as a source of industrial energy.

    1. She had a well established cottage industry which provided a basis for the industrial growth,
    2. Some of the inventions that accelerated industrialization were made in Britain. For example the steam engine.
    3. There existed a class of rich businessman who were keen to invest in the industries, vii) Availability of labour following the displacement of peasant as a result of the Agrarian revolutions/ unskilled labour. viii)  Agrarian revolution led to production of adequate food for the industries workers.
    4. Existence of well developed banking and insurance systems which advanced loans to entrepreneurs.
    5. Protection of her trading ships from piracy by her strong navy, xi) Britain had well developed transport system – both land and water, xii) Availability of skilled labour.

    xiii) Britain had enjoyed a relatively long period of peace and stability/strong leadership xiv) The policy of free trade xv)

    No internal custom barriers.

  3. State two uses of bronze in early Egypt.
    1. To cast the statues of the Pharaohs.
    2. To make special tools for cutting and shaping huge stones for making pyramids.
    3. Make tools such as holes, chisel and adzes were made from bronze.

j iv) Make weapons such as sword, daggers, axes and spears.

v) Make items for decoration

  1. Identify one way in which the Industrial Revolution contributed to colonization of Africa by Europeans.
    1. The need for raw materials for their industries.
    2. Desire to establish new markets for their manufactured goods.
    3. Desire by European industrialists to invest their surplus capital.
  2. Give two reasons why coal was used as the main source of industrial power in Britain during the industrial revolution.
    1. It was cheap.
    2. It was available in large quantities.
    3. It was more efficient than other sources of energy at the time.
  3. a) What factors led to the development of urban centers in Africa during

    the Pre-colonial period.

    1. Trading activities led to the rise of convergent centers which later developed into towns.
    2. The existence of local industries led to population concentration in places that were developed into towns, iii) Existence of trade routes which linked various places led to the development of towns at major cross – roads. iv)  Administration/royal centers later developed into towns e.g.

      Kumasi and Addis Ababa.

    3. Development of centers of learning later became urban centers e.g.


    4. Development of Agriculture led to availability of food which in turn encouraged people to establish permanent settlements. vii)  Religious centers developed into town erg. Ife and Kumasi.

    viii)  Places that were secure attracted population concentration and later developed into towns e.g. Thababosiu the capital of Basuto land ix)  Places where water was available developed to urban centers.

    b) Explain the social effects of urbanization in Europe during the nineteenth century.

    1. Migration of people to urban centers led to overcrowding.
    2. Inadequate housing due to high concentration of people in urban


    3. Poor sewerage and sanitation facilities exposed to diseases such as

      Cholera and Typhoid.

    4. Concentration of people led to shortage of food which resulted in


    5. Frustration and suffering – urban life led to anti-social behaviour

      such as drug abuse, alcoholism and prostitution.

    6. Increase in crime rate and vehicle created fear and insecurity, vii) Poor working conditions e.g. child labour, long working
      hours and lack of workmanship compensation dehumanized urban dwellers, viii) High concentration of people in urban areas ^trained the social amenities e.g. school and hospitals.

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