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WEEK 1: Revision of last term’s work


WEEK 2-3:  Cultism

 Meaning and characteristics

Different cult groups, origin and reasons for cultism,

The government’s and society’s positions on cultism.

Preventive measures


WEEK 4 – 5:  Law and order

Manifestations of law and orderliness

Importance of orderliness

Agencies for maintain law and order

Roles of agencies in maintaining law and order


WEEK 6: Respect for constituted authority





WEEK 7:  Employment and Unemployment:

 Factors affecting employment

Importance of employment in alleviating poverty

Guaranteed employment


WEEK 8 – 9:  Capitalist democracy

 Features of capitalist democracy

 Factors that impede the survival of democracy in less developed states

 Political parties in capitalist democracy

Methods of political competition


WEEK 10: Revision of the term’s work


WEEK 11 & 12:  Examination & Closing




WEEKS 2 and 3


What is CULTISM? Cultism is the membership and operation of cults. It involves secret activities where the members behave in ways that are not acceptable by society. There are many cults in Nigeria especially in tertiary educational institutions and some secondary schools making life unbearable for those who go about their affairs peacefully. Their operations are secret and the locations in which they hold their meetings are solely known to their members only. Most times, they operate at night.


  1. Members wear expensive clothes. They are bold and daring and want to enforce their will on people.
  2. New members are initiated secretly and both old and new members perform rituals and swear to oaths of secrecy.
  3. They assist one another in all situations and promote members’ interests not minding reason, justice, fairness, legitimacy and appropriateness.
  4. They have signs, symbols and passwords which are meant to be used and recognized by members only.
  5. They look kind, quiet and generous but they are deceitful and hypocritical and can become violent and deadly at any time.
  6. They carry different types of arms which can be tucked away in their pockets or bags.
  7. They drink alcohol and other hard drugs excessively.
  8. They are womanizers.



There are many cults in higher institutions and they are said to be more than 40 with different symbols. Examples of some of them are:

  1. Buccaneers
  2. Mafia
  3. Blood Suckers
  4. Vikings Fraternity
  5. Eiye Confraternity
  6. Black Eye
  7. Dragon
  8. Black Cat
  9. Red Devils
  10. Green scorpion
  11. Black Axe
  12. Trojan Horse
  13. Scorpion
  14. Panama


    Some of them are gender-based meaning that they are strictly for female membership. Examples are:

    1. Daughters of Jezebel
    2. Temple of Eden
    3. Barracudas
    4. Amazons
    5. Hot Brassiere
    6. Black Beret




Cults have existed in Africa for a long time. The Ogboni Fraternity was prominent among the Yoruba people. It is a group of elderly men whose major duty was to check the excesses of the traditional rulers to ensure that they do not overdo things. Some other cults have existed in Nigeria like Ekine, Ekpe, Okonko and others. Cultism can be traced to the Pyrates Confraternity formed at the University of Ibadan in 1952 by some male students. Their objectives include:

  1. To compel the colonial government to stop imposing foreign culture on Nigerians, so that Nigerians could be themselves.
  2. To work for Nigeria‘s independence.
  3. To correct the ills of the society by fighting corruption, indiscipline and tribalism.
  4. To encourage humanitarian activities such as blood donation and collection of money for charity.

However, some members behaved badly due to the nature of the confraternity and so were expelled from the group. They formed their own groups which became rival groups to the Pyrates. From 1980 till date, campus cults have continued to grow in number.


  1. Family background: Some parents who were former campus cult members have their children attracted to cults. Some parents also encourage their children to join some of the cults that they like.
  2. Economic hardship: Many parents fail to provide for their children in the higher institutions as a result of poverty. Some of the parents are also too busy to attend to their children for one reason or the other. Cult members offer their members financial assistance and such offers are attractive to indigent members.
  3. Misconception:  The older members of the cults give prospective members fake reasons that undue advantage will be given to them over the other students in academics, social life and abundance of alcohol, drinks and the likes.
  4. Peer pressure: Some people whose friends are cult members convince their friends to become members too.
  5. Curiosity: A lot of information have been disseminated about cults and so many people become cult members in order to confirm what they have heard.
  6. Lack of self-confidence: People who have lacked affection and have unfulfilled desires may join cults in order to secure affection, popularity, protection and gain strong support from members.
  7. Unemployment and the promise of future employment . Since there is lack of employment, some students fall prey to the older cult members with the promise of providing them with employment on condition that they join a particular cult.




  8. Cultism promotes violence. They attack other cult members to gain supremacy with arms and ammunitions.
  9. They are potential murderers because they kill members of rival groups or anybody they feel is against them.
  10. They break law and order as they disregard school regulations and enact their own laws.
  11. Their activities disrupt school activities.
  12. They distort the values and practices of society like murder, immorality, violence , crime, drunkenness, drug abuse and so on.
  13. They end up having serious mental ill-health especially madness.



 In order to curb cultism in our institutions of learning, government has done the following things:

  1. Fresh intakes are made to sign a matriculation oath, pledging not to belong to any cult while in school and to be of good conduct.
  2. Any student found to be in any cult would be expelled from the school
  3. Those arrested would be charged to court and if found guilty, sentenced to jail terms.




  4. Society at large frowns at cultism. People avoid those who are identified as cult members.
  5. Responsible parents disallow their children and wards from associating with cult members.
  6. Cult members are always accused of crime or theft in the neighbourhood, whether they are guilty of it or not.
  7. Responsible employers do not offer cult members employment .




    1. Parents should pay attention to their children’s upbringing and educate them on the acceptable ways of life.
    2. Students should be encouraged to join religious groups and develop the fear of God in them.
    3. Sports and recreational facilities should be provided in schools to engage the students during their leisure time.
    4. Regular seminars should be organized in schools to enlighten students on the dangers of cultism.
    5. Voluntary organizations should make their programmes more interesting to attract membership.
    6. There should be effective counseling units in schools that can assist initiated members to even denounce their membership and also stop intending members from registering.
    7. Institutions of learning should enact laws against cultism and enforce the laws.
    8. Religious groups should organise programmes against cult practices.



Choose the correct option from each list lettered A –D

  1. Campus cult members are ……..(a) hostile towards themselves in the group (b) hostile towards their group members (c) hostile towards members of rival groups (d) hostile towards loyal members
  2. A cult can better be regarded as …. (a) a cult in which the members are religious (B) a group that has a secret symbol of love ( c ) a group of secretive people who love expensive dresses (d) a secret, extreme secretive group in which the members behave unacceptably.
  3. Generally in Nigeria, cultism operates mostly in —– (a)primary school (b) secondary schools (c ) second-hand educational institutions (d) post-secondary schools
  4. The origin of cultism in Nigerian institutions can be traced to —- (a) Pythogora’s Confrontation (b) Pyrate’s Confraternity (c ) Pyrates Confrontation (d) Pythagora’s Confraternity
  5. The government and the society —- (a) sympathise with cultism (b) synchronise with cultism ( c) are against cultism (d) are of cultism



  6. Explain four characteristics of cult groups and their members.
  7. a.  Your friend in another part of the world has written you a letter, asking for the origin of cultism in Nigeria. Write a reply, explaining how cultism is said to have started in Nigeria.

    b.  At the end of the your reply, write a list of ten cult groups which operate in Nigerian institutions.

 3.  Why do students become members of cult groups? Give four reasons.

4.  a.  Your fifteen-year old cousin has heard of cultism but does not know what the expression means. Write a brief explanation of cultism, hoping that your cousin would read it and understand the term.

 b.  Explain two consequences of cultism.

5.  a.  Does the Nigerian government support cultism?

 b.  Suggest two ways of preventing cultism.



WEEKS 4 & 5


Law and Order


Law means the whole system of rules that citizens of a country or organised group of people are expected to obey. Laws are made by the government through the legislature, which is an organ of government in a democratic state or country. Laws are made according to the constitution of a country.

ORDER is defined according to the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English as a situation in which rules are obeyed and authority is respected.


ORDERLINESS therefore is a state of or condition in which the rules or laws are obeyed. There is orderliness when citizens comply with the rules and regulations made by the government.


Law and order operate when the citizens do things according to the rules and regulations which are expected to ensure peace and progress in society. There is breakdown of law and order when laws are not obeyed and peace of society is disturbed.




The following things are some manifestations of orderliness or law and order in society.


  1. Due process: It refers to following the rules of the game or operation in anything one does. For example, following the prescribed procedure in making public purchase of materials or award of contracts.
  2. Peaceful conduct of elections: There is manifestation of orderliness when elections are conducted peacefully and votes counted without fear or favour and the winner announced.
  3. Queuing culture: In public places like the banks, hospitals, airports and so on, queuing is used to maintain orderliness. People queue up and wait to be served or attended to.
  4. Orderly conduct of examinations and avoidance of examination malpractices.
  5. Listening skills: There is need to listen attentively to others in the course of conversation or in a class room condition.
  6. Driving skills: It is important that the skills of driving be acquired and a drivers’ license obtained before driving on the highway. Such will forestall careless driving and accidents on the road.
  7. Decorum: Polite behavior which is appropriate in social situations should be exhibited always. This condition is more common in the courts.
  8. Obeying traffic rules and regulations: Traffic rules and regulations should be obeyed while driving . Road signs are essential hence they should be obeyed to ensure safety on the roads.




Without law and order, people will be lawless. It will also amount to the survival of the fittest since they will not consider how the other people involved feel. The importance of law and order can be seen in the following areas:

  1. There will be peace and people will not be molested. They will be free to go about their work peacefully.
  2. There will be progress when there is peace. A peaceful situation enables people to earn a living devoid of chaos and riot. With peace, progress is sure.
  3. Protection of human rights: When laws and order are obeyed, human rights will be protected.
  4. Justice in society. People are able to get justice from the courts when law and order reign in society. People are punished deservedly and everybody is treated fairly.
  5. In society where there is law and order, growth and development are the resulst leading to political and economical development.



  1. The Nigeria Police Force
  2. Armed Forces – The Nigerian Navy, The Nigerian Air Force and the Nigerian Army
  3. Public Complaints Commission
  4. Organs of government
  5. Nigerian Prisons Service
  6. Nigerian Customs Service
  7. Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC)
  8. Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC)
  9. Code of Conduct Bureau



  1. The Nigeria Police

    They maintain law and order. They help detect and fight crime. They protect lives and property in society

  2. Armed Forces of the Federation: (i) The Army ensures that there is adherence to law and order on the land. They protect the country from external aggression. (ii) The navy maintains law and order on the sea. They also ensure that the sea boarders of the country is secure. (iii) The Air Force maintains law and order in the air. They also control and supervise the air space.
  3. Organs of government (refer to 2
    nd term e-note)
  4. Prisons Service officers protect prisoners and ensure that they serve their jail terms correctly. They also prevent jail break.
  5. Nigerian Customs Service collects taxes on goods brought into the country from across our boarders. They check the smuggling of goods. At the ports, they check peoples’ luggage to ensure that there are no contraband in them.
  6. Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and the Independent Corrupt Practices and other Related Offences Commission (ICPC) deal with the enforcement of laws on financial crimes such as bribery, corruption and money laundering in the country.
  7. Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) is charged with the responsibility of ensuring road safety on Nigerian highways. It makes sure that traffic laws are obeyed through enlightenment programmes for all road users. They also issue citizens that have passed the required test with drivers’ licenses.
  8. Code of Conduct Bureau: The bureau receives declarations by public officers on their assets. It receives complaints of non-compliance with or breach of the provisions of the code of conduct bureau. They ensure that law and order prevail by investigating complaints received by them and possibly referring such cases to the Code of Conduct Tribunal.
  9. Public Complaints Commission: The commission is empowered to use its machinery to investigate complaints brought before it by members of the public, pertaining to any administrative action taken by the federal, state or local government, public and private establishments and any official of the bodies.





    Citizens are expected to maintain law and order through the following:

  10. Obeying rules and regulations and lawful authority. It is not enough to have rules and regulations. They must be obeyed to achieve the purpose of good governance and public order. Citizens must obey and also carry out their civic responsibilities.
  11. Reporting crimes and criminals to the police so as to assist the police to perform their duties effectively. It will also assist the police to prevent crime and bring criminals to book.
  12. Acting as witnesses in court. Citizens are expected to make themselves available to act as witnesses as the need arises in courts to ensure that law and order prevail in the society.
  13. Protecting public property. Citizens must help to protect public property which are provided by the tax payers’ money for the good of all.




    1. What is orderliness?
    2. Mention and explain five manifestations of law and order in society.
    3. Political authority refers to
      1. Ability to affect political action
      2. Capacity to produce desired political results
      3. Recognized right to exercise political power
      4. Ability to perform political activities

    4.The following are manifestations of law and order in society EXCEPT

     a)  due process

     b)  peaceful electioneering campaign

     c)  decorum

     d)  official election rigging


  1. List and explain the role of five agencies in the maintenance of law and order.
  2. Give five reasons law and order should prevail in society.
  3. The primary duty of the citizens to society is
    1. Obedience to traditional authority
    2. Obedience to civil society
    3. Loyalty to self
    4. Loyalty to the state
  4. These are some ways the citizens can help in maintaining law and order in society EXCEPT
    1. Reporting crimes and criminals
    2. Protesting regularly
    3. Protecting public property
    4. Acting as witness in law courts


READING ASSIGNMENT: What is Respect for Constituted Authority (Reference Text page 65)





To ensure that people live in peace in the society, there is need to obey law and order. This gives rise to people being in positions of constituted authority and the need to respect them

POWER can be defined as the ability to affect the behavior of another person by threat of some form of sanction. It is the capacity to make people do what they otherwise would not have done. Power is a relationship. That is, power cannot be exercised all alone except there is a relationship.

AUTHORITY is the described as the recognition of the right to rule. It can be regarded as the legitimate exercise of power. Every leader needs power and authority in order to rule. The exercise of power without authority is not legitimate. Legitimacy confers recognition on the leader, the authority which is the right to rule and exercise power.



Constituted authority can be described as a person or a group of persons appointed or elected into position of authority or leadership. Authority refers to duly established leadership which is recognised by the people. It is regarded as constituted authority because that position was attained with the consent of the people, either through appointment or election.



Respect for constituted authority or leadership simply means obedience to leadership by obeying rules and regulations made by the leaders that have been elected or appointed into power. The rules and regulations are made for the common good of everybody in society. The laws are to regulate the actions and activities of the citizens. It is by showing respect to constituted authority that the objectives stated in the constitution can be achieved.



  1. Traditional authority: They are based on the traditions and customs of the people. The Obas, Emirs and Obis are custodians of the culture and customs of the people.
  2. Religious authority: This kind of leadership is based on religions. People like the Imans, Priests and Pastors are leaders that emerge as a result of religious authority. They are regarded as spiritual leaders.
  3. Legal authority: They are also governmental authority because the constitution recognizes them as leaders. Authority emanates from the offices people hold and not the people holding the offices.
  4. Administrative agencies of international organizations. This is another constituted authority which can be found in international organizations as the United nations, African Unions and Economic Community of West African States.




    1. Through elections
    2. Through heredity like in African tradition
    3. Through appointment
    4. Through charisma, personal qualities that people see in them.
    5. By tradition. Traditional leaders emerge due to customs and traditions of the people.


  5. Constituted authority enforces conformity with laid down rules and regulations and ensures that citizen obey the rules which are mean for the benefit of all.
  6. It make policies and decisions and implements them in order to achieve set goals
  7. The tax payer’s money are used by the legal authority provide social and economic facilities in the country.
  8. It also ensures that citizens live in peace with one another.
  9. The traditional rulers who are the custodian of peoples’ customs preserves these from one generation to another.
  10. The religious authority meets the spiritual needs of their followers.




    1. Explain the importance of constituted authority.
    2. Explain four types of constituted authority.




    1. Political authority refers to the
      1. Ability to affect political action
      2. Capacity to produce desired political results
      3. Recognized right to exercise political power
      4. Ability to perform political activities
    2. The primary duty of the citizens to society is
      1. Obedience to traditional authority
      2. Obedience to civil society
      3. Loyalty to self
      4. Loyalty to the state
    3. Explain the following terms:
      1. Power
      2. Authority
      3. Constituted authority
    4. In which ways do leaders emerge?




      Read: Employment (page 13) of Civics Education for SS 2



WEEKS 7 & 8


EMPLOYMENT means to be engaged in a job or occupation.

UNEMPLOYMENT is having no paid job or to be out of job. It can also be explained to be an involuntary idleness.





  1. Artificial barriers to geographical mobility of labour across the various state-based sub-labour markets.
  2. Culturally-biased employment practices.
  3. Parochial practices in employment due to lack of trust.
  4. Increase in population growth vis-à-vis declining growth in employment opportunities.
  5. Rural-urban drift of population


POVERTY is a condition of absence or poor availability of material needs of the affected people.



The problem of alleviating poverty can be adequately solved through full employment in the following ways.:

  1. It can help to shape and increase the pace of economic growth and employment in the country.
  2. Full employment will increase the level of savings and investment in a country
  3. Employment brings about high quality of life while unemployment promotes low quality of life.
  4. The person feeds very well.
  5. Clothes himself or herself adequately.
  6. Lives in a comfortable home.
  7. Lives responsibly
  8. Lives an independent life.


    GAURANTEED EMPLOYMENT occurs when workers are not laid off indiscriminately by their employers and some factors are responsible for guaranteed employment.


    1. Free Education: Education must be generously made free and accessible to the poor but willing students. The certificates obtained after educational pursuits remain one way to guarantee employment.
    2. Provision of medical care: When workers are healthy and suffer from no debilitating diseases, they will be able to work effectively and they will not experience any threat of or termination of appointment. Government should support the need for free medical services to the people.
    3. Rural development: The rural areas need to be developed so as to forestall the movement of people from the rural areas to the urban areas.
    4. Self-employment: There is a great need for the idea of self-employment to be promoted to absorb the ever-growing number of graduates from the higher institutions.
    5. Development of the agricultural sector of the economy: Farmers and potential farmers must be encouraged through the provision of loans and other forms of assistance.
    6. Development of small scale enterprises: Small scale enterprises and the informal sector of the economy should be developed.
    7. Commitment to employment at the local level: There must be a clear commitment on the part of government to create more productive employment, especially at the local government area.



    8. Full employment means that
      1. All must be working
      2. Only those qualified and willing to work find work
      3. Those in disguised employment form part of employed labour
      4. Account is taken of those working with government
    9. Poverty is a condition of
      1. Affluence
      2. Poor availability of material needs
      3. Parochial practices
      4. Population growth
    10. (a)  What is poverty?

      (b)  In what ways can employment help to solve the problem of poverty?





      1. What is a stable employment?
      2. Identify and discuss the factors that can ensure guaranteed employment in Nigeria.



      What is Capitalist Democracy? Read Civic Education SS 2 by R.W. Okunloye (Page 7.)




      WEEK 9


      Capitalist democracy is the form of government in which the powers of the government flow from the citizens to the governors and the running of the government is based on the consent of the electorate.

      Capitalist democracy is a form of government organized in accordance with the principles of popular sovereignty, political equality, popular consultation and majority rule.




      1. Periodic elections: Elections are expected to be held periodically and made open, free and fair. It must be made open to all eligible candidates.
      2. Popular sovereignty: This means that basic governmental decision- making power is vested in all members of the community and not in any particular person or ruling class.
      3. Political equity: This means that each member of the community or the state has the same opportunity as every other person to participate in the nation’s political decision-process.
      4. Popular consultation: Leaders should implement only popularly accepted policies and not selfish wishes. That is, government should seek and get what public policies the people would like to be adopted and adapted.
      5. Freedom of association and groups: There must be existence of more than one political party in a democratic setting within which alternative views can be promoted, and choices made available for the electorates to pick from during elections.
      6. Respect for the rule of law: It is expected that everybody in the state must be equal before the laws of the land. That is, all recognized human rights must be put under the same law and under the same constitution and also respected by the people and the government.





        Some factors have been seen to be affecting the smooth running of democracy. They are:

        1. High level of illiteracy: This means that the majority of the people are ignorant of what role they should play and also the roles the government should play in the running of the government and how to influence government decisions.
        2. High level of poverty: Democracy demands high level of economic independence on the part of the people. Poverty breeds election rigging, buying of votes and people accepting to serve as thugs during election periods to molest political opponents.
        3. Military dictatorship: Long military rule and its attendant problems distort democracy. Most times, there are cases of inequitable distribution of wealth, a weak press, lack of judicial interdependence and corruption.
        4. Use of one-party system: Effective democracy calls for more than one political party to canvass for votes. A one-party state restricts positive choices and that is against the principles of democracy.




          Political parties are formed to be important instruments for the smooth running of a state. A political party is an association of groups or individuals who have agreed to come together under certain national issues (manifesto) which they offer in competition with other groups, with the terminal aim of winning and controlling the machinery of the state.




          1. Political campaign: This is one way political parties in a political system sell their manifestoes to the electorate. It also gives opportunity to the people to meet with their future leaders and raise questions on issues not clearly stated. In some cases, campaigns are mounted on radio and television and sometimes by the use of print media.
          2. Organising debates and conferences: Political parties sometimes arrange different fora or conferences during which they are able to sell their manifestoes, ideologies and candidates to the people.
          3. Provision of material needs of the people: It is common when elections are approaching to see political parties donating food, water, stoves and other essential needs of the people. This is done to get more people attracted to the party.
          4. Assisting the electorate on the day of election: On the day of elections, it is common to see vehicles donated by political parties to convey voters to the points of elections or polling booths.
          5. Provision of party agents: In order to prevent possible rigging of elections, political parties are allowed to nominate their party agents whose duty is to protect the interest of the party. They listen to the announcement of results and watch the counting of votes.
          6. Integrating people and groups: As part of the effort to win elections, political parties support and in some cases form different groups which are used to promote their interests. Examples are the market women and students.





  1. a.  What is capitalist democracy?

    b.  List and discuss its major features.

     Choose the correct option :

2. The need to peacefully change political leaders dictates the adoption of

  1. A strong political party
  2. Periodic elections
  3. The use of opposition parties
  4. Society ideology.

3.  The idea of majority rule means that

a)  everybody must be forced to speak on issues

b)  the minority must have their ways accepted

c)  discussions must reflect the issues of the large majority

d)  the minority must be kept away





1.  Describe the ways in which political parties compete for power through elections.

 2.  Write ten political parties in Nigeria and their logos.





Read Youth Community Service and highlight its significance to the society.





Reference: Civics Education for Senior Secondary, Books One and Two by R.W. Okunloye et al (Longman Publishers).

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