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1  SHORTAGE OF AFRICAN LABOUR IN EARLY COLONIAL ZIMBABWE

 

 Carefully study the following sources and answer all the parts of this question.

 

Source A

 

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The above photograph shows the Certificate of Registration carried by every male African from the age of 16 years in colonial Zimbabwe.

 

Adapted from a book by Zimbabwean historians published in the 1990s.

 

Source B

 

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Ten shillings a month was a ridiculously low wage for an African considering the price of food at that time. It was not surprising at all why Africans were unwilling to work for it. After working for thirty days an African would get ten shillings. He could only buy twenty four pounds of meat at five cents per pound. It was not enough for an adult male African for twelve days only.

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Adapted from a comment by the Native Commissioner for Hartley (Chegutu) in 1895.

               

Source C

 

   Africans at first wanted to go on living in their traditional ways. Inspite of a certain amount of land alienation to the few thousand white settlers, there was still a great deal of land available for the half a million Africans. They were not used to the money economy and had little desire for the things money could buy.

 

Adapted from a book by a white historian, published in the 1960s.

 

 (a)  Study Source A

 

   Identify the ways by which the Certificate of Registration was used to

 control African labour.              [4]

 

 (b)  Read Source B

 

 Is this source reliable on the reasons why Africans were unwilling to work for the European settlers in the early colonial period in Zimbabwe?

Explain your answer

                     [5]

 

 (c)  Read Source C

 

   Does the source sufficiently explain why there was a shortage of labour on settler farms and mines in early colonial Zimbabwe?

 Explain your answer.              [5]

 

 (d)  Read Source B and Source C

 

Do the two sources differ on the causes of labour shortages on European farms and mines in early colonial Zimbabwe?

 Explain your answer.              [5]

 

 (e)  Study Source A

 

 What do you think were the reactions of the different groups of people in Colonial Zimbabwe to the introduction of the Certificate of Registration

 for adult African males?              

   Explain your answer.              [6]

 

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  1. (a)  State any six items produced by the blacksmiths during the Early Iron Age

 period in Southern Africa.              [6]

 

  1. Describe six negative effects of the discovery of iron during the Early Iron

 Age period in Southern Africa.            [12]

 

  1. To what extent did the discovery of iron improve the social life of the

 Early Iron Age people?              [8]

     

  1. (a)  Name any six government officials of the Mutapa State.      [6]

 

  1. Describe six internal factors that led to the decline of the Mutapa State.  [12]

 

  1. How far were the internal political factors responsible for the collapse

 of the Mutapa empire?              [8]

 

  1. (a)  Identify the three Nguni Chiefdoms and their
    respective paramount chiefs

 at the beginning of the 19th Century.          [6]

 

  1. Describe six results of Mfecane south of the Limpopo.      [11]

 

  1. Did the people of Southern Africa benefit from Mfecane?

 Explain your answer.              [8]

 

  1. (a)  State any six causes of the Mfecane.          [6]

 

  1. Describe six features of the political system of the Zulu State under

 Tshaka.                  [11]

 

  1. To what extent was Tshaka a cruel ruler?          [8]

 

  1. (a)  Name any three missionaries of the
    London Missionary Society and any

    three Catholic missionaries who worked in Zimbabwe between 1850 and

 1900.                  [6]

 

  1. Describe six activities of the Catholic missionaries in Zimbabwe up to

 1900.                   [11]

 

  1. To what extent was the failure of the Catholic missionaries caused by the influence of the African Traditional religion in this period?    [8]

     

     

 

 

 

 

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  1. (a)  List any six items which the Portuguese obtained from trade with the

 Mutapa State.                [6]

 

  1. Describe six methods used by the Portuguese to gain control of trade in the Mutapa State between 1650 and 1700.          [11]

 

  1. To what extent did the rulers of the Mutapa State contribute to the success

 of these methods?                [8]

 

  1. (a)  Identify any six problems experienced by the people of Southern Africa

 as a result of European colonisation.          [6]

 

  1. Outline six reasons why Great Britain was involved in the scramble for

 territories in Southern Africa.            [11]

 

  1. Did social factors contribute to Great Britain’s involvement in the scramble for territories in Southern Africa?        

 Explain your answer.              [8]

 

  1. (a)  State any three treaties signed between Lobengula and Europeans from

 1887 to 1889 and their
respective signatories.        [6]

 

  1. Describe six recruitment features of the Pioneer Column.      [11]

 

  1. How far did the Pioneers contribute to the successful occupation of

 Mashonaland?                [8]

 

  1. (a)  List any six British nationals who visited Zimbabwe between 1890 and

 1896.                  [6]

 

  1. Outline six causes of the Shona uprising of 1896-97.      [11]

 

  1. To what extent were the Shona grievances solved after the uprising?  [8]

 

  1. (a)  State any six different diseases which affected African miners in

 colonial Zimbabwe.                [6]

 

  1. Describe six working conditions of African mine workers in colonial

 Zimbabwe before 1960?               [11]

 

  1. To what extent were the African mine workers able to resist exploitation

 during that period?                [8]

 

 

 

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  1. (a)  List any six problems faced by African workers on European farms in

 colonial Zimbabwe.                [6]

 

  1. Describe six problems faced by white colonial farmers in their attempt to destroy African agriculture before 1960.          [12]

 

  1. Did the colonial government succeed in solving these problems?

 Explain your answer.              [8]

 

  1. (a)  Name any six countries in Southern Africa from where migrant labourers were recruited for South African gold mines.        [6]

 

  1. Outline six problems faced by the early gold mining companies in South

 Africa before 1910.                [11]

 

  1. How far were the gold mining companies able to solve these problems by

 1910?                  [8]

 

  1. (a)  Name the three countries that formed the Federation of Rhodesia and

 Nyasaland and their respective leaders at that time.      [6]

 

  1. Outline six provisions of the constitution of the Central African

 Federation.                  [12]

 

  1. How far did the Federal Constitution disadvantage Africans?

 Explain your answer.              [8]

 

  1. (a)  Identify any six African grievances against the Federation of Rhodesia

 and Nyasaland.                [6]

 

  1. Outline six measures taken by the Africans to oppose the Federation.  [11]

     

  2. To what extent were these measures successful?        [8]

 

  1. (a)  State any three names of the armies created by the Smith regime to fight

    against the guerrillas and any three female guerrillas in the armed struggle

 in Zimbabwe.                [5]

   
 

  1. Describe six roles played by women during the liberation struggle in

 Zimbabwe.                  [12]

 

  1. To what extent did the role played by women contribute to the attainment

 of Independence in Zimbabwe?            [8]

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. (a) Identify any six branches of the Rhodesian Joint Operations Command used to attack the guerrillas during the armed struggle. [6]

 

  1. Outline six measures taken by the Rhodesian government to contain the activities of the armed struggle from 1975 to 1979.      [11]

 

  1. How effective were these measures?

 Explain your answer.              [8]

 

  1. (a)  Identify any six fundamental Human Rights enshrined in the constitution

 of Zimbabwe.                 [6]

 

  1. Outline six principles governing the electoral system enshrined in the

 constitution of Zimbabwe.              [12]

 

  1. How far has the government adhered to these principles in conducting

 elections since 2000?               [8]

 

  1. (a)  Name any six member states of the Southern African Development

 Community (SADC).              [6]

 

  1. Describe six roles played by SADC in maintaining peace within the

 region.                  [11]

 

  1. To what extent has SADC been successful in maintaining peace within the

 region?                  [8]

 

  1. (a)  Name any three neighbouring countries of Zimbabwe and their respective

 capital cities.                [6]

 

  1. Describe six problems caused by the brain drain in Zimbabwe.    [11]

 

  1. To what extent has the government been able to solve these problems?   [8]

 

  1. (a)  Name any six leaders of anti apartheid movements in South Africa after

 1965.                  [6]

 

  1. Describe six efforts of the African National Congress (ANC) governments in improving the social lives of the people of South Africa since 1994.  [11]

     

  2. To what extent have the people of South Africa benefited from these

 efforts?                  [8]

 

 

 

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22  (a)  Name the three political parties formed in Mozambique in the early 1960s

 and their respective leaders.            [6]

 

  1. Describe six economic problems experienced by the Mozambicans since

 independence.                [11]

 

  1. How far has the government of Mozambique been able to solve these

 problems?                  [8]

 

 


 




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EcoleBooks | ZIMSEC O LEVEL PAST EXAM PAPER - HISTORY 21671 PAPER 1 Southern Africa NOVEMBER 2017 SESSION (3)

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