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1  SETTLER POLICY ON AFRICAN EDUCATION IN COLONIAL ZIMBABWE

 

 Carefully study the following sources and answer all the parts of this question.

 

   Source A

 

By 1920, there were 43 084 pupils in nearly 700 schools, more than 5 000 of whom were Europeans. Government expenditure on African education was £10 016 (pounds) per year, or 5s (shillings) 3d (six pence) per pupil each year. Expenditure for white pupils was £ 187 831 or £ 34 15s per head. The Department of education was responsible for white education, and the Native Affairs Department was responsible for African education.

 

   Adapted from a book by Zimbabwean writers, published in 1981.

 

Source B

 

The government had contributed to African education from early days by making annual grants to the missions. These increased through the years. In 1901, the first grant was a mere £133; by 1910, it was £2 780; and by 1930, it had risen to £48 000. The government also began to play a direct role in African education when in 1920 it opened an industrial school at Domboshava which offered courses in building and carpentry.

ecolebooks.com

 

Adapted from a book by a colonial historian, published in the 1960s.

                 

 

Source C

 

African cultural values were looked down upon in the school curriculum which was European or Europe-centred. In history for example, only European heroes such as Napoleon Bonaparte featured while African revolutionaries like Tshaka, Queen Nzinga, Mansa Musa, Mbuya Nehanda and Mukwati were either omitted or portrayed as savages who stood in the way of European civilising influences.

 

Adapted from a book by Zimbabwean Historians, published in 1999.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2167/1 N2016

 

 

  1. (a)  Read Source A

 

   Explain the evidence in the source which reveals that the settler regime

regarded African education as less important than that of Europeans in

 colonial Zimbabwe.                [4]

 

 

 (b)  Read Source B

 

   Why did the writer portray settler policy on African education in that

 manner?                  [5]

 

 

 (c)  Read Source C

 

   Is this source reliable on African education in colonial Zimbabwe?

 Explain your answer.              [5]

 

 

 (d)  Read Source A and Source C

 

 In what ways do the two sources differ on African education during the colonial periods in Zimbabwe? Explain your answer.    [5]

 

 (e)  Read Source B

 

Suggest the possible reactions of the various groups of people in colonial Zimbabwe at that time to the information on African education given in

 the source.                  [5]

 

 

  1. (a)  Identify any six Early Iron Age sites in Southern Africa.      [6]

 

  1. Describe the agriculture and mining activities of the Early Iron Age  

   people in Southern Africa.              [11]

 

  1. To what extent did agriculture contribute to the emergence of classes  

   in the Early Iron Age communities of Southern Africa?      [8]

     

 

  1. (a)  Identify any six forms of craft practised by the people of Great Zimbabwe. [6]

 

  1. Outline the factors which led to the rise of the Great Zimbabwe State.  [11]

 

  1. To what extent did economic factors contribute to the rise of the Great

 Zimbabwe State?                [8]

 

 

2167/1 N2016

[Turn over

 

  1. (a)  Identify any six vassal chiefdoms of the Mutapa State.       [6]

     

    1. Describe the methods used by the kings of the Mutapa State to control

 the empire.                  [11]

 

  1. How successful were these methods in maintaining unity in the state?  [8]

 

 

  1. (a)  List any six groups which were defeated by Sebetwane in modern

 Western Zimbabwe.              [6]

 

  1. Describe the political organisation of the Kololo kingdom under

 Sebetwane in Bulozi.              [11]

 

  1. How far did the political organisation of the Kololo unite the state?  [8]

 

 

  1. (a)  Name the three mission stations established in Matabeleland and any

    three established in South Eastern Zimbabwe by the Early Christian

 missionaries between 1859 and 1900.          [6]

 

  1. Describe the work of the early Christian missionaries in Matabeleland

 between 1850 and 1900.              [11]

 

  1. Were these early Christian missionaries successful in their work in

 Matabeleland? Explain your answer.          [8]

 

 

  1. (a)  List any three types of fruits and any three types of jewellery brought by the Portuguese into the Mutapa State.          [6]

 

  1. Describe the social activities of the Portuguese in the Mutapa State.  [11]

 

  1. To what extent did these activities lead to bad relations between the

 Mutapa people and the Portuguese?          [8]

 

 

  1. (a)  Identify any three spinning machines and the people who invented them during the Industrial Revolution in Britain.        [6]

 

  1. Describe the social problems faced by the workers in Britain during the

 Industrial Revolution.              [11]

 

  1. To what extent was the British government able to solve these problems

 by 1850?                  [8]

 

2167/1 N2016

 

 

  1. (a)  Name any three white groups which acquired colonies in Southern

 Africa in the 19th Century and one colony for each of the groups.  [6]

 

  1. Describe the methods used by the European powers to acquire colonies

 in Southern Africa.                [11]

 

  1. Did the people of Southern Africa benefit from colonisation? Explain

 your answer.                [8]

 

 

  1. (a)  Name the six Ndebele regiments which fought in the Anglo-Ndebele

 War of 1893 – 4.                [6]

 

  1. Outline the reasons for the defeat of the Ndebele in this period.    [11]

 

  1. To what extent did the death of Lobengula contribute to the defeat of

 the Ndebele in this war?              [8]

 

 

  1. (a)  Identify any six Shona chiefs who did not take part in the First

 Chimurenga of 1896 -97.              [6]

 

  1. Outline the events of the First Chimurenga.        [11]

 

  1. Why did this war take so long to end in Mashonaland?      [8]

     

     

    1. (a)  Identify any six towns which were linked by railway lines by 1910 in

 colonial Zimbabwe.              [6]

 

  1. Describe the measures introduced in colonial Zimbabwe to boost white agricultural production between 1930 and 1979.        [11]

 

  1. To what extent were these measures successful during this period?  [8]

 

 

  1. (a)  List any six commodities brought by migrant workers from the diamond

 fields in South Africa.               [6]

 

  1. Describe the problems faced by the early diamond diggers in South

 Africa.                  [11]

 

  1. To what extent were these problems solved by 1886?      [8]

 

 

 

 

 

 

2167/1 N2016

[Turn over

 

  1. (a)  Identify any six minerals mined in Southern Rhodesia in the period

 1953 to 1963.                [6]

 

  1. Describe the changes introduced by the government of Southern Rhodesia to improve the lives of Africans during the Federation of

 Rhodesia and Nyasaland.              [11]

 

  1. To what extent did these changes benefit Africans?      [8]

 

 

  1. (a)  Identify any six towns where Africans staged protests to oppose the

  Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.          [6]

 

  1. Describe the reactions of the settlers to these disturbances.    [11]

     

  2. Were these protests successful? Explain your answer.      [8]

 

 

  1. (a)  Identify any six sectors where Africans were not allowed to take

    up professional careers by the government of Southern Rhodesia between

 1923 and 1953.                [6]

   

  1. Describe the measures taken by the settler government to oppress the Africans in Southern Rhodesia between 1923 and 1953.      [11]

 

  1. How successful were these measures in oppressing the Africans?  [8]

 

 

  1. (a)  Name any six member states of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) which supported the Armed struggle in Zimbabwe.      [6]

 

  1. Outline the methods used by the guerrillas during the armed struggle in

 Zimbabwe from 1966 to 1979.            [11]

 

  1. How effective were these methods in advancing the armed struggle?  [8]

 

 

  1. (a)  Identify the three,

 

  1. arms of the government of Zimbabwe and

 

  1. the circumstances in which parliament may end the term of

 office of a president in Zimbabwe.        [6]

 

 

2167/1 N2016

 

  1. Describe the constitutional roles of members of parliament and judges

 in Zimbabwe.                [11]

 

  1. How far has the work of the judges benefited the people of Zimbabwe?  [8]

 

 

  1. (a)  Name any three people who contested for the post of President in

 Zimbabwe since 1990 and their respective parties.      [6]

 

  1. Describe the problems that have occurred during elections in Zimbabwe

 since 1990.                [11]

 

  1. To what extent has the Government of Zimbabwe been able to solve

 these problems?                [8]

 

 

  1. (a)  List any six cash crops grown in Zimbabwe.        [6]

 

  1. Describe the problems faced by the new farmers in Zimbabwe.    [12]

 

  1. Had the government been able to solve these problems by 2010?

  Explain your answer.              [8]

 

 

  1. (a)  State any six clauses of the ANC Freedom Charter of South Africa.  [6]

 

  1. Outline the Apartheid Laws passed in South Africa between 1948 and

 1976.                  [11]

 

  1. To what extent has the ANC government been able to remove aspects

 of Apartheid in South Africa?            [8]

 

 

  1. (a)  Name any six leaders of the Frelimo party of Mozambique between  

   1964 and 1975.                [6]

 

  1. Describe the events of the armed struggle in Mozambique between

 1964 and 1975.                [11]

 

  1. To what extent did external support contribute to the attainment of

 independence in Mozambique in 1975?          [8]

 

MARKING SCHEME

 

ZIMBABWE SCHOOL EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level

 

MARKING SCHEME

HISTORY 2167/1

 

SOUTHERN AFRICA

 

 

NOVEMBER 2016

 

 

 

1  SETTLER POLICY ON AFRICAN EDUCATION IN COLONIAL ZIMBABWE

 

  1.  (a)  Read Source A

    Explain the evidence in the source which reveals that the settler regime regarded African education as less important than that of Europeans in

     colonial Zimbabwe                [4]

     

       

       Target:

     

    comprehension with inference.

    Level 1:

     

    answers lifted from the source e.g. answers stating that they allocated fewer funds to African education than to European education or it placed African education under the native Affairs Department whose major aim was not education.

       [1 – 2]

       Level 2:

    Inference level, answers stating that it did not allocate enough facilities to African education, and that

    proportionally, more Europeans were educated than

    Africans.              [3 – 4]

         

  2.  (b)  Read Source B

     

       Why did the writer portray settler policy on African education in that

    manner?

                 

    [5]

    Target:

    Evaluation of source for motive

     

    Level 1:

    Simple answers taken from the source e.g. answers stating that it is true because the government contributed to African education from the beginning or that it gave

     
     

    grants to missions.          

    [1]

    Level 2:

    Status/bias level – answers stating that as a colonial historian he was a contemporary and wrote what he witnessed or as a colonial historian, he wrote in favour

     

    of the government.          

    [2 – 3]

    Level 3:

    Motive level – answers stating that he wanted to defend the government’s policy so that whites would

     
     

    continue to have the upper hand over blacks.  

    [4 – 5 ]

     

     

     

     

     

     

    1.  (c)  Read Source C

       

       

      Is this source reliable on African education in colonial Zimbabwe?

       

      Explain your answer.            

      [5]

       

      Target:

      Evaluation of source for reliability

       

       

      Level 1:

      Simple answers lifted from the source e.g. it is reliable

       

       

       

      because only European heroes such as Napoleon Bonaparte were praised while African heroes were

       
        

      taken as savages.          

                   

      [1]

         

      Level 2:

      Status/bias level – answers stating that it is reliable because it was written by historians who researched or it is not reliable because it was written by

      Zimbabwean historians who are bitter at segregation

       
       

      prevailing in the colonial era.      

      [2 – 3]

       

      Level 3:

      Motive level – answers which say that it is not reliable because it was written by Zimbabwean historians who wanted the colonial policy condemned for denigrating African heroes so as to enable the current government

       

       

       

      to set up curricula that uplifts images of African heroes.

      [4 – 5]

       (d)

      Read Source A and Source C

       

       

      In what ways do the two sources differ on African education during

       

      the colonial period in Zimbabwe? Explain your answer.    

      [5]

       

      Target:  Comparison of sources for differences

      Level 1:  Comparison based on contents of sources – e.g. answers which state that they are different because source B states that the government was involved in African education from the beginning while source C says

       

       African heroes were presented as savages.    

      Level 2:  Status/bias level – answers which state that they are different because source B was written by a colonial historian who lived at that time while source C was produced by Zimbabwean historians who researched. Answers which state that they differ because source B presents the government’s efforts on African education while source C shows opposition to settler policy on

      [1– 2]

       

       African education.          

      [3 – 4]

       

      Level 3:  Motive level – answers stating that they differ

      because source B wanted to defend the settler government for its policy on African education whilst source C wanted the government’s

       

       curriculum for Africans condemned.    

      [5]

       (e)

      Read Source A

       

       

      Suggest the possible reactions of the various groups of people in colonial Zimbabwe at that time to the information on African

       

      education given in the source.          

      [5]

       

      Target:

      Empathy

       

       

      Level 1:

      Answers focusing on common group feelings and reasons e.g. Africans were bitter because less funds

       
        

      were allocated to African education.    

      [1 – 2]

       

      Level 2:

      Answers identifying two or more groups, their feelings and reasons e.g. Africans were bitter that less funds were allocated to African education, whilst whites were happy because Africans would not compete

       
       

      with them on the job market.      

      [3 – 4]

       

      Level 3:

      Complexity level – answers identifying conflicting feelings and reasons within two or more groups e.g.

      the blacks were bitter because less funds were allocated for African education but were relieved that missionaries were doing their best to educate Africans. At the same time whites were happy because Africans would not compete with them on the job market but were worried that they would not get enough labour for the

       
        

      manufacturing industries.        

      [5 ]

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

    2  (a)  Identify any six Early Iron Age sites in Southern Africa.    [6]

     

    (b)  Describe the agriculture and mining activities of the Early Iron Age    people in Southern Africa.            [11]

     

    1. (c)  To what extent did agriculture contribute to the emergence of classes    in the Early Iron Age communities of Southern Africa?    [8]

           

       

     

     (a)  Early Iron Age sites in Southern Africa.      

  • Gokomere
  • Mabveni
  • Ziwa
  • Harare
  • Chinhoyi
  • Hwange National Park
  • Mapungubwe
  • Malipati
  • Nkope bay

 

 (b)  (i)  Agriculture

  • Grew a variety of crops and vegetables such as millet, sorghum, gourds, beans, melons.
  • Used iron tools, such as hoes and mattocks that were sharper and more durable than stone tools.
  • Iron tools like axes cleared large areas for cultivation
  • Practised shifting cultivation, abandoning areas that became infertile for other virgin lands
  • Crop cultivation forced communities to a sedentary life to wait for crops to ripen.
  • It ensured food security that could support larger population
  • Few people grew surplus grain for barter trade
  • Practised pastoralism – rearing cattle, goats and sheep,
  • Domestication of livestock ensured a source of milk, skins and meat.
  • Cattle were more important as a form of wealth
  • Rich people with many cattle could marry wives and loaned other cattle to the poor to herd.

 

   (ii)  Mining

  • mining was the basis of tool-making that revolutionised agriculture
  • mined iron, copper and gold,
  • iron was smelted in clay furnaces outside villages
  • a special class called blacksmiths emerged
  • fashioned tools like hoes, axes, spears from iron,
  • gold and copper were mainly used for making jewellery and for trade.
  • practised shaft, opencast and alluvial mining.

 

 

 (c)  (i)  Contribution of agriculture

  • men with many cattle could loan some to the poor
  • men with a lot of cattle were regarded as rich
  • successful grain farmers were respected and could marry many wives
  • cattle and grain could be traded for foreign goods – a status symbol those with many cattle employed others as herders

 

Others factors

  • mining led to emergence of a class of blacksmiths
  • herbalism led to emergence of herbalists
  • lineage system natured the rise of ruling classes
  • trade created a class of traders
  • hunting created a class of hunters

 

    Level 1:  irrelevant and one-sided answers       (0 – 3)

 

   2:  Balanced answer            (4 – 6)

 

   3:  Balanced answer with judgement        (7 – 8)

 

 

3  (a)  Identify any six forms of craft practised by the people of Great

 Zimbabwe.                  [6]

 

 (b)  Outline the factors which led to the rise of the Great Zimbabwe State. [11]

 

  1.  (c)  To what extent did economic factors contribute to the rise of the Great Zimbabwe State?                [8]

     

     (a)  Crafts

  • basketry
  • weaving of machira
  • blacksmithing
  • smelting
  • stone carving
  • wood carving
  • pottery

 

  (b)  Factors for the rise

  • good supply of water from rivers like the Mutirikwi
  • good pastures for cattle rearing

 

  • average rainfall that supported agricultural activities
  • fertile soil
  • availability of minerals such as gold, copper and iron in the neighbourhood
  • hills made Great Zimbabwe easy to defend
  • accessibility to trade with foreigners through Sofala –  decline of Mapungubwe, south of the Limpopo river.
  • hills at the Great Zimbabwe city were regarded as sacred and the centre served religious purposes
  • rise of ambitious leaders
  • availability of granite stone for building
  • tribute from defeated groups
  • area was tsetse-fly free
  • availability of salt deposits

 

 

 (c)  (i)  Economic factors

  • accessibility to international trade made rulers rich good pastures that sustained cattle rearing
  • availability of water
  • presence of valuable minerals in the neighbourhood
  • availability of salt deposits

 

 (ii)  Other factors

  

the hilly nature of Great Zimbabwe city rendered it easily defensible

  

Great Zimbabwe served as a centre of worshipping

 
  

Ambitions of the ruling class

   
  

Military prowess of the ruling class

 

   
  

Level 1:

irrelevant answers or one-sided answers

 

(0 – 3)

  

 2:

Balanced answer      

 

(4 – 6)

  

 3:

 

 

Balanced answer with judgement  

 

(7 – 8)

4

(a)

Identify any six vassal chiefdoms of the Mutapa State.


 


 

[6]

 

(b)  Describe the methods used by the kings of the Mutapa State to control the empire.                  [11]

 

  1. (c)  How successful were these methods in maintaining unity in the state?                  [8]

 

 

 

 

 (a)  Vassal chiefdoms

  • Mbire
  • Barwe
  • Chidima
  • Manyika
  • Madanda
  • Uteve
  • Guruuswa
  • Sango

 

  (b)  Methods of control

  • appointing vassal chiefs to control provinces and districts. Most vassal chiefs were relatives of the king.
  • The king was the main distributor of land; allocated land to vassals
  • Used the tribute system whereby vassals were required to pay tribute annually as a sign of loyalty
  • Vassals were required to send their own sons with the tribute of the Mutapa’s court as ambassadors
  • The king was appointed by spirit mediums, hence commanded respect
  • King officiated at traditional ceremonies
  • Used the royal fire system – requiring all vassal chiefs to re-light their fires

    (Moto Mutova) from the royal fire annually in September

  • King maintained a large army for defence, raiding and suppressing rebellions
  • As commander-in-chief of the army, he appointed army generals
  • King ruled with the aid of the Traditional council of advisors (dare)
  • King had absolute power, was chief administrator, chief judge and religious leader
  • Kings relatives were involved in government e.g. King’s nine principal wives, sons-in-law, Queen mother etc.
  • King was linked with various vassal chiefs through marriage alliances.

 

 

 (c)  (i)  Successes

  • state was kept united through a common religion
  • lesser chiefs were forced to be loyal fearing the king’s army
  • king was kept informed of events in the state as most government officials were his relatives.
  • vassals chiefs maintained order in the districts and provinces on behalf of the king
  • The traditional Council (dare) advised the king and helped to resolve major disputes.

 

   (ii)  Failures

  • state was too vast for the army to control
  • some kings were weak and lacked charisma to hold state together
  • some brothers and relatives were ambitious and jealous and conspired against the king
  • Foreigners like Arabs, Swahili and later Portuguese influenced and supported plotters against the state.
  

Level 1:  irrelevant answers and one-sided answers    

(0 – 3)

  

 2:  Balanced answer          

(4 – 6)

  

 3:  Balanced answer with judgement      

(7 – 8)

 


 

  

5

(a)

List any six groups which were defeated by Sebetwane in modern

 


 

 

Western Zimbabwe.            

[6]


 

(b)

Describe the political organisation of the Kololo kingdom under

 


 

 

Sebetwane in Bulozi.            

[11]

 

(c)

How far did the political organisation of the Kololo unite the state?

[8]

 

  (a)  Groups of people defeated

  • Ila
  • Leya
  • Lozi
  • Msene Ngoni
  • Ndebele
  • Sala
  • Subiya
  • Tonga

     

 

 (b)  The Political Organisation

  • The capital was at Dinyati
  • The king was at the apex
  • Sebetwane mixed freely with his subjects, Kololo and Lozi
  • Some defeated Lozi people were given positions in the central government of the Kololo e.g. Sipopa
  • Defeated trusted Lozi chiefs were left in charge of their areas
  • Lozi continued with their political and administrative institutions
  • Sebetwane placed one or two Kololo families in every village as lords of the land
  • Villages were grouped into provinces under Kololo governors
  • Subjects paid tribute which was fairly distributed amongst Sebetwane’s subjects
  • Neighbouring states were raided
  • King kept a strong army
  • Appointed his relatives to be governors
  • Did not allow the Kololo to exploit the Lozi
  • Married non-Kololo women –
    Sent Litunga Mubukwanu into exile –
    Kololo made the official language.

 

 (c)  (i)  Role of political organisation

  • equality of all subjects created unity
  • Suppressed ill-treatment of the Lozi by the Kololo
  • Kololo made official language
  • incorporation of Lozi into Kololo government created unity
  • The army protected the state

 

 (ii)  Other factors

  • trade brought goods they needed
  • intermarriages between the Lozi and eh Kololo led to unity
  • a strong economy

 

  Level 1:  irrelevant answers and one-sided answers      (0 – 3)

 

   2:  Balanced answer            (4 – 6)

 

   3:  Balanced answer with judgement        (7 – 8)

 

6  (a)  Name the three mission stations established in Matabeleland and any

three established in South Eastern Zimbabwe by the Early Christian missionaries between 1859 and 1900.          [6]

 

(b)  Describe the work of the early Christian missionaries in Matabeleland between 1850 and 1900.              [11]

 

  1. (c)  Were these early Christian missionaries successful in their work in Matabeleland? Explain your answer.          [8]

 

 (a)  (i)  Mission Stations in Matabeleland

  • Inyati
  • Hope Fountain
  • Empandeni

     

 (ii)  Stations in South Eastern Zimbabwe

  • Morgenster (Mugabe)
  • Zimuto
  • Chivi
  • Matibi
  • Mposi
  • Mzila
  • Gokomere

 

 

 

 (b)  Early Christian Missionary Work

  • L.M.S. opened Inyati Mission in 1859 and Hope Fountain in 1870
  • Spread Christianity, taught Ndebele people the 3Cs
  • Taught how to read and write
  • Printed IsiNdebele books
  • Some missionaries acted as interpreters and translators
  • Wrote diplomatic letters for Ndebele kings
  • Grew their own crops and introduced new farming methods
  • Introduced legitimate trade in Matabeleland
  • Treated sick people and inoculated Ndebele cattle
  • Repaired royal wagons and guns
  • Changed few Ndebele customs such as polygamy, killing of twins and raiding
  • Roman Catholics opened Empandeni Mission near Bulawayo in 1887 –  Influenced the signing of treaties e.g. J.S. Smith in the Moffatt Treaty of 1888 and Charles Helm in the Rudd Concession.
  • Taught the 3RS
  • Missionaries constructed roads
  • Taught new skills like woodwork and carpentry
  • Provided shelter for European concession seekers
  • Established schools, clinics and hospitals

 

 (c)  (i)  Successes

  • opened mission stations, schools and hospitals
  • paved way for colonisation of Zimbabwe
  • Treated the sick and inoculated Ndebele cattle
  • Constructed roads
  • Introduced a variety of crops –  Introduced legitimate trade
  • Repaired royal wagons and guns

  (ii)  Failures

  • converted few Ndebele people into Christianity
  • were attacked by tropical diseases
  • problems of language barrier
  • lack of transport
  • some were attacked by wild animals
  • hated by Ndebele religious leaders
  • inadequate food supplies

 

 Level 1:  Irrelevant or one-sided answer        (0 – 3)

 

 Level 2:  Balanced answer            (4 – 6)

 

 Level 3:  Balanced answer with judgement        (7 – 8)

 

 

 

7  (a)  List any three types of fruits and any three types of jewellery brought by the Portuguese into the Mutapa State.        [6]

 

 (b)  Describe the social activities of the Portuguese in the Mutapa State.  [11]

 

  1. (c)  To what extent did these activities lead to bad relations between the  Mutapa people and the Portuguese?          [8]

 

  (a)  (i)  Fruits

  • mangoes
  • guavas
  • bananas

 

 (ii)  Type of jewellery

  • rings
  • bracelets
  • beads
  • ear-rings

 

 (b)  Social Activities

  • Jesuit priests Gonzalo da Silveira spread Christianity amongst the Mutapa
  • Converted and baptised Mutapa, Negomo, Mapunzaguta and

    500 Court officials

  • Africans who were baptised were given new names
  • Portuguese pressurised the Mutapa to expel Moslems
  • Portuguese men practised polygamy
  • Married Shona women
  • At times raped Shona women –  Emergence of Mulatoes
  • Opened schools for Mutapa people
  • Opened churches
  • Opened health care centres and brought medication
  • Involved in corrupt activities such as prostitution, bribery
  • Some conducted African rituals like rainmaking ceremonies
  • Consulted spirit mediums
  • Involved in slavery
  • They lived luxurious lives

 

 (c)  (i)  Role of the activities

  • ill-treatment of Africans e.g. raping of women made them to be hated
  • enslaving enraged the Africans
  • Christianity was against African culture
  • Corruption of Portuguese e.g. bribery was resented by Africans

 

 (ii)  Other factors

  • Lack of a strong Portuguese army
    • Portugal not so rich to finance Portuguese activities in the Mutapa
  • Expulsion of Portuguese by Rozvi
    • Closure of their feiras by the Rozvi
    • Vashambadzi cheated the Portuguese
    • Absentee landlords failed to increase production
    • Drought
    • Decline in gold mining and trade
    • Desire for independence by the Shona

       

 

 Level 1:  Irrelevant and one-sided answer      

 

(0 – 3)

 Level 2:  Balanced answer          

 

(4 – 6)

 Level 3:  Balanced answer with judgement      

 

 

8  (a)  Identify any three spinning machines and the people who invented

(7 – 8)

 them during the Industrial Revolution in Britain.    

 

 (b)  Describe the social problems faced by the workers in Britain during

[6]

 the Industrial Revolution.          

 

 (c)  To what extent was the British government able to solve these

[11]

 problems by 1850?            

 

 

 (a)  Spinning machines      (ii)  Inventor

  • Spinning Jenny      James Hargreaves
  • Water-frame      Richard Arkwright
  • Mule        Samuel Crompton

[8]

 

 (b)  Problems Faced by Workers

 

  • rise of social classes, the middle class and the workers
  • development of class struggles between the middle class and workers
  • some people became permanent town dwellers with no rural homes
  • workers lived in overcrowded slums
  • cottages poorly ventilated
  • poor garbage collection
  • poor sanitation e.g. the bucket system
  • diseases like tuberculosis, typhoid ,cholera and dysentery common amongst workers
  • social ills such as prostitution became prevalent

     

     

 (c)  (i)  Successes

  • improvements in health care and medicine e.g. the invention of quinine
  • provision of piped water
  • gas lighting
  • provision of schools and other social amenities e.g. churches, better houses

 

     Failures

not everyone had access to better houses

  

social ills continued

  

class struggles continued

  

inadequate educational and health facilities

  

Level 1:

 

one-sided answer        

(0 – 3)

Level 2:

 

Balanced answer        

(4 – 6)

Level 3:

Balanced answer with judgement    

(7 – 8)

 

 

9  (a)  Name any three white groups which acquired colonies in Southern

  1. Africa in the 19th Century and one colony for each of the groups.  [6]  (b)  Describe the methods used by the European powers to acquire colonies in Southern Africa.              [11]

 

 

 (c)  Did the people of Southern Africa benefit from colonisation? Explain

your answer.

 


 

           

[8]

 (a)  White group

 Colony

 

 –  British

–  Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland

 

   

 

 Zambia, Zimbabwe, Cape Colony, Natal

 

 –  Germans

–  Namibia(German South West Africa)

 
  • Portuguese

 

  • Boers/

–  Angola (Portuguese West Africa)   Mozambique East Africa)

 

Afrikaners

–  Orange Free State, Transvaal

 

 

 

 

 

 (b)  Methods

  • signing of the treaties e.g. Moffatt Treaty, Rudd concession, Lippet Concession etc.
  • Wars of conquest, e.g. Anglo-Zulu War, Anglo –Ndebele War, Germans and the Hereros in Namibia
  • Use of hunters, traders, explorers and missionaries who acted as agents of colonisers
  • Bribery
  • Deceit/cheating
  • Defining of colonial boundaries
  • Raising up of respective colonial flags
  • Use of financial muscle e.g. Rhodes
  • Acquisition of charter
  • Establishment of forts
  • Recruiting of colonial personnel e.g. Rhodes pioneers, BSAP, auxiliaries
  • Influenced of the Berlin Conference in 1884/5 –
    Support rendered by colonial governments –
    Establishment of protectorate kingdoms.

 

 (c)  (i)  Benefits

 

  • Gained the 3cs
  • Employment
  • Improvement of infrastructure
  • Acquisition of various skills e.g. new farming and mining methods
  • Received foreign items/ goods
  • Transport improvement

 

 (ii)  Non-benefit

Loss of independence

   

Loss of land

   

Loss of livestock

   

Forced to pay taxes

   

African culture was diluted and distorted

   

Loss of lives during wars

   

Abuse of African women

   

Ill-treatment at work place

   

 

Forced labour

   

Level 1:

 

 Irrelevant and one-sided answer  

(0 – 3)

Level 2:

 

 Balanced answer      

(4 – 6)

Level 3:

 Balanced answer with judgement  

(7 – 8)

 

10  (a)  Name the six Ndebele regiments which fought in the Anglo-Ndebele

War of 1893 – 4.                [6]  (b)  Outline the reasons for the defeat of the Ndebele in this period.   [11]

 

 

 (c)  To what extent did the death of Lobengula contribute to the defeat of

  1.  the Ndebele in this war?              [8]

     

     

     (a)  Ndebele regiments

  • Insukamini
  • Inhati
  • Ingubo
  • Sijeba
  • Amaweni
  • Imbizo

 

 (b)  Reasons for the defeat of the Ndebele

 

  • some Ndebele regiments affected by small pox
  • Ndebele army used old fashioned weapons such as spears, shields and clubs –  BSACo forces used superior weapons such as the maxim gun, 7 pounders –  Ndebele used old military tactics as compared to BSACO’s modern tactics
  • BSACO forces received reinforcements from Britain and South Africa
  • BSACO got support form Tswana and Shona people
  • Ndebele were not united as some collaborated with the whites
  • BSACO used Laagers
  • Whites had better modes of transport e.g. horses and wagons –  Death of Lobengula demoralised Ndebele warriors
  • BSACO forces received steady suppliers of weapons, shelter and manpower through Mafeking railway line

     

  (c)  (i)  Contribution of Lobengula’s death

  • Lobengula’s death demoralised and de-motivated his soldiers –  Ndebele army was left without the commander in chief –  No rally point/ as source of unity after Lobengula’s death
  • No one was appointed to co-ordinate war efforts after Lobengula’s death

 

 (ii)  Other factors

  • Lack of unity amongst the Ndebele
  • Some Shona people co-operated with the BSACo.
  • Absence of some Ndebele warriors used traditional tactics and weapons
  • Superior weapons of the whites

 

 Level 1:  Irrelevant and one-sided answer        (0 – 3)

 

 Level 2:  Balanced answer            (4 – 6)

 

 Level 3:  Balanced answer with judgement        (7 – 8)

 

 

11  (a)  Identify any six Shona chiefs who did not take part in the First

  1. Chimurenga of 1896 -97.              [6]  (b)  Outline the events of the First Chimurenga.        [11] (c)  Why did this war take long to end in Mashonaland?      [8]

 

 

 

 (a)  Shona chiefs who did not take part

  • Chirumanzi
  • Gutu
  • Mutasa –  Zimuto
  • Buhera
  • Matibi

 

 

Events of war in Mashonaland

 

  • War began on 18 June 1896 in Mashayamombe an area near Chegutu –  Shona attacked isolated white farms and stores in Mashonaland –  Within the first week of uprising about 120 whites had been killed.
  • Settlers set up laagers in Salisbury and Mazowe to accommodate whites fleeing from outlying farms
  • Shona fought as separate entities
  • In Mazowe area Nehanda spirit medium co-ordinated the war.
  • Other Shona Chiefs like Kunzvi, Nyandoro, Mangwende, Nyawasha, Mutekedzi and Zvimba joined the war.
  • Mashonanyika fought under the influence of Kaguvi medium
  • Shona used guerrilla tactics e.g. hiding in kopjes or caves
  • Whites dynamited cave hidings of the Shona
  • Whites employed the scorched earth policy to starve their opponents
  • Shona used fire signals on hilltops all over Mashonaland
  • Shona spirit mediums played the role of unifying the people
  • Mazowe Native Commissioner Mr Pollard was captured under orders of Nehanda
  • In 1897 Nehanda was captured while Kaguvi surrendered on his own and were executed in 1898.
  • Whites continued to receive reinforcements from Britain and South Africa resulting in the final defeat of the Shona

 

 

   Reasons why the war lasted longer

 

Shona resistance

 (c)  (i)  –  used guerrilla warfare

  • Shona not under one overall leader –  Too many “zvimurenga” in Mashonaland
  • Shona fought defensive warfare
  • Shona hid in caves and kopjes which were difficult to penetrate
  • Spirit mediums influenced the Shona to continue fighting

 

 (ii)  Other factors

  • soldiers fought in the war on two fronts in Mashonaland and Matabeleland
  • settlers forces did not know the local terrain well
  • reinforcement took long to reach Mashonaland
  • whites had fewer forces to cope with the demands of the war

 

 

 Level 1:  one-sided answer            (0 – 3)

 

 Level 2:  Balanced answer            (4 – 6)

 

 Level 3:  Balanced answer + judgement        (7 – 8)

 

12  (a)  Identify any six towns which were linked by railway lines by 1910

  1. in colonial Zimbabwe.              [6]  (b)  Describe the measures introduced in colonial Zimbabwe to boost white agricultural production between 1930 and 1979.      [11] (c)  To what extent were these measures successful during this period?  [8]

 

 

 

 

 (a)  Towns

  • Salisbury(Harare)
  • Bulawayo
  • Fort Victoria (Masvingo)
  • Umtali (Mutare)
  • Gwelo (Gweru)
  • Queque (Kwekwe)
  • Gatooma (Kadoma)
  • Chipindura (Bindura)
  • Rusape

     

     

     

 

 (b)  Measures

  • 1931 Land apportionment Act was enacted
  • 1936 Tobacco Marketing and Levy Act
  • introduced which meant compulsory auctioning of tobacco
  • setting up of the Tobacco Marketing Board (TMB)
  • steady immigration of European population was encouraged in the early

    1930s which added above 1000 white per year

  • Government sponsored much work to improve the agricultural sector
  • Suitable high breed of maize
  • In 1940 the Maize Seed Association (MSA) was formed
  • Government also established quasi- government or parastatal organisations to assist and market crops efficiently
  • Parastatals such as Maize and Dairy Marketing Boards, Cold Storage Commission and TMB were formed
  • In 1941 the national resources Board (NRB) was established to dealt with soil conservation
  • Countour ridging and dam building were encouraged, resulting in 3 000 dams.
  • Crop rotation was adopted
  • In 1967 Agricultural Marketing Authority

 

 (c)  (i)  Successes

  • influx of white population gave rise to more production
  • 30 to 40 % greater yields were realised as a result of government’s sponsored work project
  • Other cash crops such as soya beans, wheat and cotton substituted tobacco in 1967 it (tobacco) was affected by sanctions
  • about 3 000 dams were constructed paving way for irrigation schemes that benefited white farms mostly.
  • Parastatals helped white farmers to market their produces efficiently

 

   (ii)  Failures

  • Agricultural sector was also hit hard by the Great Depression of the early 1930s
  • From 1966 – 1979 the whole economy was under siege because of sanctions imposed on the U.D.I

 

  • In the 1970s large scale agriculture became less and less profitable due to the onset of the First Chimurenga.
  • Most farms were deserted leading to low and poor production

 

 Level 1:  Irrelevant and one-sided answer        (0 – 3)

 

 Level 2:  Balanced answer            (4 – 6)

 

 Level 3:  Balanced answer with judgement        (7 – 8)

13  (a)  List any six commodities brought by migrant workers from the

  1. diamond fields in South Africa.            [6]  (b)  Describe the problems faced by the early diamond diggers in South Africa.                  [11]  (c)  To what extent were these problems solved by 1886?      [8]

 

 

 

 (a)  Commodities brought

 

  • wagons
  • clothing
  • brandy (spirits)
  • horses
  • jewellery
  • blankets

 

  (b)  Problems faced by early diggers

  • theft by labourers
  • holes were sometimes too deep and narrow to accommodate large numbers

    of labourers at a time

  • disputes over ownership of holes
  • by 1873 many diggers were going bankrupt
  • amount of diamonds extracted was small during the late 1870s.
  • profit levels were sometimes nil or low
  • by early 1880s prices of diamonds began to fall
  • some labourers were trapped in the holes
  • diseases
  • collapse of mines

     

 (c)  (i)  Successes

  • suitable mining equipment acquired
  • mines bought by monopoly companies putting an end to quarrels
  • skilled workers brought from outside
  • security measures to prevent theft at the mines

 

 (ii)  Failures

  • Safety measures still poor
  • Death of miners continued
  • Permanent injuries
  • Loss of skilled workforce

     

 Level 1:  Irrelevant and one-sided          (0 – 3)

 

 Level 2:  Balanced answer            (4 – 6)

 

 Level 3:  Balanced answer with judgement        (7 – 8)

 

14  (a)  Identify any six minerals mined in Southern Rhodesia in the period 1953 to 1963.                [6]

 

(b)  Describe the changes introduced by the government of Southern Rhodesia to improve the lives of Africans during the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.            [11]

 

  1.  (c)  To what extent did these changes benefit Africans?      [8]

     

     

     (a)  Minerals

  • Asbestos
  • Chrome
  • Coal
  • Copper
  • Gold
  • Lead
  • Tin
  • Zinc
  • Nickel

     

 (b)  Changes introduced

  • Amendment of the land Apportionment Act
  • African home ownership schemes
  • Reviewed the Industrial Conciliation Act, 1954
  • Commission of inquiry into African trade Unionism
  • Africans were involved in job allocation
  • More professional jobs were opened to Africans
  • Increased African wages
  • Involved Africans in wage fixing
  • Five year Educational Plan was launched for Africans
  • Enactment of the controversial Electoral Act. Reviewed qualifications for more Africans to vote
  • Passed the 1957 Southern Rhodesia Constitutional Reform which increased African participation
  • Extended Franchise to more Africans
  • Opened the United Rhodesia party to African membership

 

 (i)  Successes

  • Improved African education
  • Home ownership schemes to African in towns
  • Professional jobs opened to Africans
  • Franchise extended to more Africans
  • Participation of Africans in wage fixing
  • Wages for African workers were increased

 (ii)  Failures

  • Still very few Africans voted
  • Home ownership schemes enjoyed by few Africans
  • Overcrowding continued
  • African wages were still very low and segregatory
  • Still a few Africans had access to education
  • Reforms were not fully implemented as settlers opposed them

 –  

 –  

 Level 1:  Irrelevant and one-sided answer      (0 – 3)

 

 Level 2:  Balanced answer          (4 – 6)

 

 Level 3:  Balanced answer with judgement      (7 – 8)

 

15  (a)  Identify any six towns where Africans staged protests to oppose the

  Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.        [6]

 

 (b)  Describe the reactions of the settlers to these disturbances.    [11]

 

  1.  (c)  Were these protests successful? Explain your answer.      [8]

     

     

      (a)  Towns

     

  • Cholo
  • Mbala
  • Lusaka –  Kabwe –  Ndola
  • Livingstone –  Chipata
  • Broken Hill
  • Kitwe
  • Mufulira
  • Salisbury
  • Bulawayo –  Wankie

     

  (b)  Reactions

  • Ignored African struggles against federation
  • Raided and searched African nationalist homes
  • Confiscated properties they found at the homes of African nationalists
  • Declared state of emergency, Northern Rhodesia 1956, Nyasaland 1959 and Southern Rhodesia, 1959
  • Arrested and detained African nationalist activists and trade Unionists.
  • Tried and gaoled African political leaders e.g. Banda, Sithole,Kaunda, Nyandoro, Chikerema and Mugabe.
  • Banned political parties
  • Deported and exiled political leaders
  • Condemned African nationalist activism
  • Branded African Nationalist leaders political agitators e.g. Kaunda, Banda, Chitepo and Edison Sithole
  • Assigned armed forces to harass African nationalists
  • Killed 11 and injured 72 African nationalists at Cholo disturbances in 1953.

    Also killed and wounded protesters in Bulawayo and Salisbury in 1960.

  • Adopted the Electoral Bill and the Constitution Amendment Bill enacted by the Federal Government.
  • Enacted bills which restricted African liberties e.g. The Unlawful Organisations and Preventive Detention Bill
  • Southern Rhodesia introduced the 1961 constitution
  • Launched Whitehead’s “Build a nation” whereby most stringent racial laws were relaxed e.g. Immorality Act was repealed.

     

  (c)  (i)  Successes

  • New constitution was introduced in Southern Rhodesia
  • Some racial laws were repealed
  • Introduction of positive concessions to Africans, e.g. the Federal Reform Bills of 1952
  • The constitutional crisis was internationalised
  • The eventual collapse of the Federation in 1963

 

 (ii)  Failures

  • Arrests and detentions continued
  • Some protestors were killed and others were injured
  • Oppression and discrimination continued –
    Africans lost property

     

Level 1:

Irrelevant and one-sided answer

 

(0 – 3)

Level 2:

Balanced answer    

 

(4 – 6)

Level 3:

Balanced answer with judgement

 

(7 – 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16  (a)  Identify any six sectors where Africans were not allowed to take

up professional careers by the government of Southern Rhodesia between 1923 and 1953.              [6]

   

(b)  Describe the measures taken by the settler government to oppress the Africans in Southern Rhodesia between 1923 and 1953.    [11]

 

  1.  (c)  How successful were these measures in oppressing the Africans?  [8]

     

     

     (a)  Sectors

  • Medical field
  • Pharmacy
  • Architecture
  • Aviation
  • Engineering
  • Judiciary
  • Finance
  • Railways
  • Tourism
  • Wild life
  • Surveying

 

  (b)  Measures taken

  • Overseas settler immigrants to increase the white population in Southern Rhodesia
  • Land Apportionment Act – recommended by the Morris Carter Land Commission
  • No freehold tenure for Africans in urban or industrial areas
  • Crowded Africans in reserves and locations or native townships
  • Introduced forced labour
  • Industrial Conciliation Act – Africans forbidden to form trade unions
  • Africans referred to as unskilled labour and commanded low wages for Africans
  • Separate development in different areas
  • Taxation system
  • Prohibitions of African meetings
  • Use of force through army, police force and colonial judiciary system
  • Disenfranchised Africans
  • Condemned ethnic languages, crafts, customs and music
  • Established first class education, health, transport, mining and farming facilities for whites
  • Arrests and detention of African leaders
  • Encouraged racism and tribalism

 

 

 

 (c)  (i)  Successes

  • Discontent was suppressed
  • Payment of low wages
  • Poor education
  • Semi-skilled jobs
  • Marginalisation in reserves
  • Tribalism was significant
  • Disunity of Africans

     

 (ii)  Failures

  • Sabotage and arson continued – strikes, protests, demonstrations and boycotts were common place
  • African workers desertions continued
  • Education provided by missionaries –
    African nationalism continued

     

 Level 1:  Irrelevant and one-sided answer      (0 – 3)

 Level 2:  Balanced answer          (4 – 6)

 Level 3:  Balanced answer with judgement      (7 – 8)

 

17  (a)  Name any six member states of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) which supported the Armed struggle in Zimbabwe.      [6]

 

 (b)  Outline the methods used by the guerrillas during the armed struggle in Zimbabwe from 1966 to 1979.            [11]

 

  1.  (c)  How effective were these methods in advancing the armed struggle? [8]

     

     (a)  OAU member states

  • Algeria      –  Libya
  • Angola      –  Mozambique
  • Botswana      –  Nigeria
  • Egypt      –  Tanzania
  • Ethiopia      –  Zambia
  • Ghana        

 

 

 (b)  Guerrilla methods

  • used ideas of Mao, Lenin and Marx
  • initially, recruits were kidnapped
  • ZANLA held “pungwes” (all night meetings) to politicise the masses
  • Revolutionary songs were used to mobilise support –
    Distributed pamphlets and flyers for propaganda
  • Radio communications in Mozambique and Zambia

     

     

  • Enlisted support from international organisations such as O.A.U, Frontline States etc.
  • Killed spies, collaborators and informers of the enemy
  • Ambush attacks on the enemy
  • Conducted dawn, dusk and night raids
  • Bomb attacks
  • Planted landmines
  • Used guerrilla warfare
  • Sabotage, arson and destruction of installation such as schools, bridges, dip-tanks, government offices etc.
  • Negotiations e.g. Malta Talks, Geneva, Lancaster House Conference

 

 (c)  (i)  Effectiveness of methods

  • kidnapping recruits increased numbers of guerrillas
  • Politicisation prepared masses for the Armed Struggle
  • Pungwes entertained, boosted morale and inspired youths to join the Armed Struggle
  • Gained guerrillas international support
  • Armed Struggle was effective

 

 (ii)  Other Factors

  • weapons and amenities used to execute the war
  • civilians provided food, clothing and information
  • leadership guided the struggle and was mouth piece of guerrilla
  • international support from O.A. U, socialist countries and Frontline states

 

 Level 1:  Irrelevant and one-sided        (0 – 3)

 

 Level 2:  Balanced answer          (4 – 6)

 

 Level 3:  Balanced with judgement        (7 – 8)

 

18  (a)  Identify the three,

 

  1. arms of the government of Zimbabwe and

 

  1. the circumstances in which parliament may end the term of office of a president in Zimbabwe.        [6]

 

  (b)  Describe the constitutional roles of members of parliament and judges

 in Zimbabwe.                [11]

 

  1.  (c)  How far has the work of the judges benefited the people of Zimbabwe?[8]

     

     

     (a)  (i)  Arms of government

  • The executive
  • Legislature
  • Judiciary

 

 (ii)  Circumstances

  • Wilful violation of the constitution
  • Physical or mental incapacity
  • Gross misconduct

 

 (b)  (i)  Role of members of parliament

  • Debate and pass laws
  • Check on the executive
  • Debate government policies
  • Change constitution
  • Vote on budget
  • Set agenda/ initiate laws
  • Source funds for their constituencies

 

   (ii)  Role of Judges

  • write laws
  • interpret laws
  • apply
  • pass judge
  • defend constitution
  • accept appointment from the Executive

     

 (c)  (i)  Benefits

  • fair judgements
  • afford everyone a chance to defend themselves
  • making judgements based on the constitution
  • offer free legal assistance to the poor

 

 (ii)  Non-benefits

  • corruption
  • alleged lack of transparency
  • sometimes pass unfair judgements
  • limited representation due to shortage of manpower
  • incompetence of some judges

 

     Level 1:

 

Irrelevant and one-sided

 

(0 – 3)

Level 2:

 

Balanced answer  

 

(4 – 6)

Level 3:

Balanced with judgement

 

(7 – 8)

 

 

19  (a)  Name any three people who contested for the post of President in

 Zimbabwe since 1990 and their respective parties.      [6]

 

(b)  Describe the problems that have occurred during elections in Zimbabwe since 1990.                  [11]

 

  1.  (c)  To what extent has the Government of Zimbabwe been able to solve


     

    these problems?  


     


     

     


     


     

    [8]

     (a)

    People    

    Parties

       
     

    –  Robert Mugabe

    Zanu PF

       
     

    –  Edgar Tekere

    Z.U.M

       
     

    –  Morgan Tsvangirai

    MDC

       
     

    –  Simba Makoni

    Mavambo

       
     

    –  Ndabaningi Sithole

    Zanu

       

     

     (b)  Problems during elections

     

  • violence is alleged to have occurred in some elections
  • voter apathy
  • alleged accusations of voter rigging
  • alleged staffing of ballot boxes
  • allegations of names being struck off the voters’ roll
  • alleged human rights violations
  • police sometimes ignore violent situations
  • people not able to vote due to long queues
  • allegations of shortages of voting equipment e.g. ballot papers
  • lack of funds to organise elections
  • alleged intimidation by all parties involved in elections
  • lack of knowledge of requirements by voters hence some are turned away
  • refusal to accept election outcome by defeated parties
  • alleged arrests of candidates to prevent them from voting
  • alleged confiscation of documents required for voting

 

   Successes

 

  • many polling stations introduced to allow many people vote
  • more policeman have been deployed to polling stations –  procurement of enough voting equipment
  • government embarked on voter education campaigns
  • acquisition of translucent boxes
  • displaying results at every polling stations

 

 (c)  Failures

  • violence difficult to prevent
  • voter apathy still viable
  • allegations of continued violations of human rights

         

  

Level 1:  Irrelevant or one-sided answer      

(0 – 3)

  

Level 2:  Balanced answer          

(4 – 6)

 

 

Level 3:  Balanced answer with judgement      

(7 – 8)

20


 

(a)

List any six cash crops grown in Zimbabwe.      

[6]


 

(b)

Describe the problems faced by the new farmers in Zimbabwe.

[12]

 

(c)

Had the government been able to solve these problems by 2010?

 
  

Explain your answer.            

[8]

 

 (a)  Cash crops

  • Tobacco
  • Wheat
  • Sugar cane
  • Soya beans
  • Fruits
  • Cotton
  • Tea
  • Coffee
  • Paprika

 

 (b)  Problems

  • Lack of farming equipment e.g. ploughs
  • Limited agricultural inputs e.g. seed
  • Drought
  • Limited farming knowledge
  • Lack of management skills –
    Inadequate health facilities
  • Lack of educational facilities
  • Lack of transport
  • Opposition from some whites
  • Destruction of infrastructure e.g. pipes, pivots
  • Low production
  • Land degradation due to cutting down of trees
  • Lack of finance
  • Lack of dipping facilities
  • Thefts and poaching –  Sabotage

     

 (c)  (i)  Successes

  • Opening of fast trek school
  • Clinics were opened at farm homesteads
  • New farmers provided with farming implements by government
  • Government organised educational programmes for the new farmers
  • Acts which enforce the land reform
  • Loans provided to new farmers, e.g. cattle loans
  • Opening of Agribank for farmers

 

 (ii)  Failure

  • Low produce by farmers
  • Some people still cannot access health and educational facilities
  • Not all farmers are given loans
  • All new farmers do not have title deeds
  • Irrigation equipment not fully supplied
  • Not all farmers are given farming inputs
  • Conflict with former owners

 

 Level 1:  Irrelevant and one-sided        (0 – 3)

 

 Level 2:  Balanced answer          (4 – 6)

 

 Level 3:  Balanced answer with judgement      (7 – 8)

 

 

21  (a)  State any six clauses of the ANC Freedom Charter of South Africa.  [6]

 

  1.  (b)  Outline the Apartheid Laws passed in South Africa between 1948 and

     1976.                  [11]

     

     (c)  To what extent has the ANC government been able to remove aspects

    1.  of Apartheid in South Africa?            [8]

       

       (a)  Clauses of the ANC Freedom Charter

  • Governance by the people
  • Equal rights for all national groups
  • Land to be shared to those who work on it –  All people to share in the country’s wealth
  • Everyone is equal before the law
  • All people to enjoy human rights
  • The right to work and receive equal pay for equal work to everyone
  • All people to be exposed to learning and culture
  • Houses, security and comfort for all
  • Peace and friendship for all

 

 (b)  Apartheid

  • Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act – it forbade marriage across races
  • Immorality Act – did not allow marriage and sexual intercourse between whites and non-whites
  • Population Registration Act – divided the residential and business areas for whites and non-whites
  • The Suppression of Communism Act – was aimed at opponents of apartheid who were labelled communists.
  • The Representation of Voters Bill – allowed for the removal of Cape Coloureds from the voter’s role
  • The Prevention of Illegal Squatting Act – removed Africans illegally occupying white land. They were sent to resettlements
  • The Abolition of Passes and coordination of Documents Act – led to the introduction of a reference book containing information about the owner
  • Black were prohibited from striking according to the Native labour Settlement of Disputes Act.
  • The Separate Amenities Act – announced the separation of social services for whites and non-whites
  • The promotion of Self Government Act pronounced blacks limited rights in their tribal homelands
  • The police could detain suspects in solitary confinement without charge according to The General Laws Amendment Act
  • Established homelands were granted self governments through the Bantu Homelands Act.

 

 (c)  (i)  Successes

  • New constitution has been written
  • Bantustans have been disbanded
  • New provinces have been created
  • Everyone had the right to vote
  • Has held democratic elections sine 1994
  • Multi-racial marriages allowed
  • Racial discrimination outlawed

 

 (ii)  Failures

  • Not everyone has decent accommodation
  • Some people still without land
  • Service delivery to non-whites suburbs still poor
  • Different salary scales based on races still prevalent


 

 

 Level 1:  Irrelevant and one-sided answer      

 

(0 – 3)

 Level 2:  Balanced answer          

 

(4 – 6)

 Level 3:  Balanced answer with judgement      

(7 – 8)

22  (a)  Name any six leaders of the Frelimo party of Mozambique between


 

   1964 and 1975.              

 

  (b)  Describe the events of the armed struggle in Mozambique between

[6]

 1964 and 1975.              

[11]

 

  1. (c)  To what extent did external support contribute to the attainment of independence in Mozambique in 1975?          [8]

 

  (a)  Frelimo leaders

  • Samora Machel
  • Eduardo Mondlane
  • Lazaro Nkavandane
  • Marcelino dos Santos
  • Joachim Chissano
  • Helder Martins
  • Jorge Rebelo
  • Uriah Simango

     

 (b)  The events of the armed struggle

  • Frelimo waged the armed struggle from 1964
  • Peasants were mobilised and at night in meetings were educated in the evils of colonialism
  • Portuguese administrative posts were attacked
  • Communication and railway lines were destroyed
  • Peasants provided guerrillas with food, clothing and information
  • Peasants acted as guides
  • Women and men carried war materials from far away bases
  • Frelimo established liberated zones
  • The coup in Portugal led to a cease fire
  • War materials always in short supply
  • Frelimo was rocked by internal conflicts
  • Colonial government created protected villages
  • Propaganda campaigns by the colonial government recruited black troops
  • Portuguese used air-force
  • Loss of lives e.g. Mondlane
  • Colonial government committed atrocities such as the Wiriyamu massacre

 

 (c)  (i)  Contribution of External Support

  • Frelimo obtained military weapons from countries such as China and Cuba
  • Frelimo supported by O.A.U and UN

 

 (ii)  Other factors

  • Support from the African peasants
  • Women and men recruited into the Frelimo army
  • Establishment of liberated zones occupied by peasants
  • Opposition from young Portuguese officers tired of the war leading to the coup in Portugal

 

 

 Level 1:  Irrelevant and one-sided        (0 – 3)

 

 Level 2:  Balanced answer          (4 – 6)

 

 Level 3:  Balanced answer with judgement      (7 – 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2167/1 N2016




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