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WAEC WASSCE [SSCE] SYLLABUS FOR BASIC ELECTRONICS/ ELECTRONICS

PREAMBLE

The syllabus is intended to equip candidates with broad understanding of the technology of manufacturing, maintenance and repair of domestic and industrial equipment. It will also offer candidates sufficient knowledge and skills to form valuable foundation for electronic-related vocation or pursue further educational qualifications.

Candidates will be expected to cover all the topics.

OBJECTIVES

The objective of the syllabus is to test candidates’

  1. knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts and principles of electronics;
  2. ability to use simple electronic devices to build and test simple electronic systems;
  3. problem-solving skills through the use of the design process;
  4. preparedness for further work in electronics;
  5. knowledge in entrepreneurial skills and work ethics.

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 shall be composite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1: will consist of fifty multiple-choice objective questions all of which are to be answered in 1 hour for 50 marks.

PAPER 2: will consist of seven short-structured questions. Candidates will be required to answer any five in 1 hour for 50 marks.

PAPER 3: will be a practical paper of two experiments both of which are to be carried out by candidates in 3 hours for 100 marks.

  Alternative to Practical Test

  Alternatively, in the event that materials for the actual practical test cannot be acquired, the Council may consider testing theoretically, candidates’ level of     acquisition of the practical skills prescribed in the syllabus. For this alternative test,     there will be two compulsory questions to be answered within 2 hours for 100     marks.

 

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DETAILED SYLLABUS

 

CONTENTS

NOTES

  1. ELECTRON EMISSION

Types of electron emission

Application of electron emission

 

 

 

 

  1. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

    Concepts of measuring instrument

    Principles of operation and protection of measuring instruments

     

     

     

  2. SEMICONDUCTOR

    Concepts of semiconductor

    Semiconductor materials (silicon, germanium etc.)

    Doping

    Formation of p-type and n-type semiconductors.

 

SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES

Concept of diodes

 

Biasing of diodes

 

 

 

 


TRANSISTORS

Concepts of transistor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


OTHER SEMICONDUCTOR  DEVICES

Thermistor, diac, triac and thyristor, etc

 

 

 

 


INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

 

 

  1. CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

     

    ELECTRIC CURRENT

    Structure of atom

    Conductors and insulators

    Direct and alternating current

    Sources of direct current

    Sources of alternating current

     

    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VOLTAGE, CURRENT AND RESISTANCE

    Current, voltage and resistance.

    Ohm’s law

    Simple calculation of current, voltage and resistance.

     

    ELECTRIC POWER

    Concept of electric power

    Relationship between power, current and voltage.

    Other formulae for finding electrical power

    Calculation of electric power in a given circuit

     

    CIRCUIT COMPONENTS

    Types of resistors, capacitors and inductors

    Symbols, signs and unit of measurement

    Colour coding and rating of resistors and capacitors

     

    ELECTRIC CIRCUIT

    Electric circuit

    Circuit boards

    Circuit arrangement: series, parallel, series-parallel

    Calculation on circuit arrangement


ALTERNATING CURRENT  CIRCUITS

R-L-C circuits

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Generator principles

 

POWER IN A.C. CIRCUITS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. AMPLIFIERS

     

    VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS

     

     

     

     

 

 

 

 

 

POWER AMPLIFIERS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PUSH-PULL AMPLIFIERS

 

 

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. POWER SUPPLY

     

    D.C. POWER SUPPLY UNIT

     

     

     

     

    RECTIFICATION

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  2. OSCILLATORS, MULTIVIBRATORS AND DIGITAL BASICS

     

    OSCILLATORS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MULTIVIBRATORS

(Non-sinusoidal)

Principles of operation and applications

 

 

DIGITAL BASICS

Number system

 

 

 

 

 

Logic gates(Combinational)

 

 

 

 

  1. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, TRANSDUCERS AND SENSORS

    Electromagnetic waves.

    characteristics of radio waves

    Principles of radio waves

     

     

     

     

    Stages of radio receiver

     

     

    Fault detection in radio receiver

     

     

     

    Transmitters and receivers

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Methods of Communication

     

     

     

    Transducers and Sensors

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Acoustic transducer

     

     

     

     

     

  2. CONTROL SYSTEM

 

 

 

 

 

SERVO MECHANISM

 

 

 

 

 

  1. MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC FIELDS, ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION/TRANSFORMERS

    Electromagnetic field

     

    Electromagnetic induction

     

    Self and mutual induction

     

     

     

     

     

     


     

 

Qualitative treatment should include :

Thermionic emission; photoemission; secondary emission and field emission.

Relate it to diode, triode, tetrode, pentode, and cathode ray tube.

 

 

Qualitative treatment only which should include:

Classification – analogue and digital

Types and uses of multimeter, voltmeter, ammeter, ohmmeter, oscilloscope etc.

 

 

Qualitative treatment only.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Treatment should include operational principles of diodes

 

Type of diodes

Diode ratings – voltage, current and power

Application of diodes

Construction of a simple circuit using a

P-N junction diode

Practical demonstration of I-V characteristics of P-N junction diode in the forward and reverse bias modes.

 

 

Meaning of transistor, biasing of transistor, Uses and advantages.

BJT characteristics

Advantages of transistor over valves

Advantages of MOSFET over BJT

 

 

Formation, function and principles of

Operation.

Transistor as a switch, inverter, an amplifier

Verification of BJT characteristics.

Input, output and transfer characteristics

Transfer configuration

Qualitative treatment only

– formation, functions and principles of operation

Advantages over discrete components

 

 

 

 

Circuit symbols

Principles of operation

Applications.

 

Application of integrated circuits

Explanation of RAM, ROM and EPROM

 

 

 

 

Qualitative treatment only

Uses of conductors and insulators

Differences between direct and alternating current

 

 

 

 

Construction of simple circuit to demonstrate Ohm’s law

 

 

Qualitative and quantitative treatments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practical determination of the value of a fixed colour code resistor

 

 

 

 

 

Carry out practical wiring of different circuit arrangement

 

 

 

 

 

 

Qualitative and quantitative treatments should include

  • Concepts of capacitive reactance,

    inductive reactance and impedance

  • RL and RC circuits
  • Calculations of capacitive reactance (XC) and inductive reactance (XL)
  • Resonance frequency

Principles of operation of an a.c. generator

 

Qualitative and quantitative treatments of

  • Power and power triangle
  • Power factor and its correction
  • Advantages and disadvantages of power factor correction
  • Calculation of power factor
  • Q-factor and bandwidth

 

 

 

Biasing methods. Treatment of the transistor as single stage.

Common-emitter amplifier.

Frequency response of an amplifier

Advantages and disadvantages of negative feedback

 

 

 

Classification: Class A, Class B, Class AB,

 

Class C, application, power gain, methods of

biasing and efficiency.

Classification of power gain.

 

Qualitative treatment including matched and complementary pairs.

 

Properties of an ideal operational amplifier

Inverting and non-inverting operational amplifiers(op-amps)

Types of operational amplifiers

Applications of op-amps

Simple calculations involving inverting, non-inverting, summing amplifiers and voltage follower

 

 

 

Dry cells, solar cells, cadium cells, accumulators

Batteries: Rechargeable and non-rechargeable

 

Qualitative treatment should include:

  • Rectification, regulation
  • Types of voltage regulator e.g. diac, triac, thyristor, series voltage regulator, transistorized electronic voltage regulator

Functions of each block

 

 

 

 

Difference between positive feedback(oscillator) and negative feedback (amplifier)

Principles of an oscillator

Types of oscillators: Hartley, Colpitts, phase shift, tuned (load and crystal) oscillators

Advantages of negative feedback

Calculations involving negative feedbacks

Block diagram of an oscillator

Application of oscillator

 

 

Types of multivibrators

(monostable, bistable and astable)

 

 

Different number system e.g. binary, octal and hexadecimal

Simple calculation in binary number

Conversion from one base to another and vice-versa

Addition and subtraction of binary numbers

 

Qualitative treatments of AND, OR, NOT, NOR and NAND

Logic gates using switching arrangements, truth table and Boolean expression

 

 

 

Relationship between velocity frequency and wave length

Meaning of radio communication

Modulation and demodulation

Advantages of F.M. over A.M.

Phase modulation (mention only)

 

Types of radio receivers

Advantages of superheterodyne over direct input receiver

Use faulty radio and detect and repair fault

Project work on construction and designing of a simple radio receiver

 

Block diagrams of A.M. and F.M. transmitters

Block diagrams of A.M. and F.M. superheterodyne radio receivers

Block diagrams of mono and colour T.V.chrome receivers

Functions of each block and direction of signal flow

Qualitative treatment of T.V. standard (NTSC,PAL,SECAM,BIG)

 

Fibre optics, microwave, satellite, cellular phone, digital communication network, etc.

 

Meaning of transducers and sensors

Principles of operation

Types and uses to include: Acoustic, dynamic electrostatic, electromagnetic, capacitive, pressure sensor, photoelectric, proximity sensor etc.

Thermistor as a temperature sensing device

 

Qualitative treatments only

Types of acoustic transducers e.g. loudspeaker, microphone, earphone

Principles of operation and function

Application of acoustic transducers

 

Qualitative treatment only

  • Types of control circuits(open and close loop)
  • Principle of operation of open loop and close loop

 

Qualitative treatment only

  • Meaning
  • Principle of operation, types, uses and application e.g. in car, doors, booths etc.

 

 

 

 

Trace magnetic lines of force current-carrying conductor

Lenz’s and Faraday’s laws.

 

Definitions only

Calculations involving energy stored in a coil

Applications of electromagnetism

Electric bell, solenoid, loudspeaker, buzzer, moving-coil instrument, moving-iron instrument, earphone and microphone




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