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1.  a) Why were the Portuguese interested in establishing their control over the

Kenya coast during 16th century AD.

  1. To control trade with coastal towns.
  2. To spread Christianity/revenge on the Muslims who had conquered and rolled their homeland for over 700 years/look for Pastor John, iii) The Kenyan Coast was strategically located on the way to the east and could act as a base for their trading and navy ships iv) To control the Indian Ocean.

 b)  Explain six effects of Portuguese rule on the Kenyan Coast.

  1. It led to the decline of the Indian Ocean trade/decline of gold trade.
  2. It led to the decline and ruin of towns. iii)  It led to the loss of lives during their constant raids on coastal towns.
  3. The heavy taxes that were imposed on the coastal people hindered the development of commercial and agricultural resources at the coast.
  4. Thy built Fort Jesus, which became a historic monument in the subsequent years. vi)  They brought new crops to the Coast e.g. maize, groundnuts and


 vii)  They introduced the use farmyard manure. viii)  Their language enriched the

Kiswahili language.

  1. The introduction of guns and other advanced weapons by the

    Portuguese contributed to insecurity in the region.

  2. Commercial links between the Kenyan Coast and the Arabian peninsular were almost completely cut off.
  3. Some Africans were converted to Christianity.
  4. Close links between the Kenyan Coast and India developed. xiii)  Their conquest of the Kenyan Coast exposed the area to other European powers.

2.  a)  Apart from trade, give three reasons why Arabs came to the Kenyan

Coast by 1500.

 i)  Some Arabs fled to the Kenyan Coast as a result of religious and

political Persecution at home, ii)  Some Arab Muslims came to the Kenyan Coast to spread Islam, iii)  Others came to explore the region.

  1. State five factors, which promoted the growth of trade between Hit*

    Kenyan Coast and Arabia.

    1. Availability of items of trade.
    2. Demand for goods from the Kenyan Coast and Arabia. iii)  Existence of enterprising merchants in Arabia and the Kenyan


    3. Accessibility of the Kenyan Coast by sea.
    4. The monsoon winds facilitated movement of traders vi)  Relative political stability

      of he Kenyan Coastal city – states.

  2. State six result of this trade on the Kenyan Coast.
    1. The Muslim traders who settled among the African communities along Kenyan Coast converted them to Muslim.
    2. Trading towns developed along the Kenyan Coast.
    3. Arab – Muslim culture spread along the Kenyan Coastal city –

    4. The Arab immigrants intermarried with indigenous communities giving rise to the

      Swahili community.

    5. Muslim system of government (Sheria) was introduced at the


    6. Arab traders introduced new crops along the Kenyan Coast. vii) The slave trade brought about wars among the communities.

viii) Slave trade led to depopulation of the region. 3.

State two factors which made it possible for the Arabs traders to come flic

Kenyan Coast.

i) Accessibility of the Kenyan Coast via the sea. ii) Availability of funds to finance their journey.

  1. Availability of dhows.

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  2. The monsoon winds which powered their dhows to the coast.
  1. Identify one contribution of Johann Kraft to the spread of Christianity in

    Kenya during the 19th Century.

    1. He built a church at Rabai.
    2. Converted people to Christianity.
    3. Translated the Bible into Kiswahili. – iv)

      Trained the first catechist who later spread the gospel.

    4. Encouraged other European missionaries to come to Kenya.
    5. The exploration of Kenya led to the opening up of the interior for more

      missionary activities.

  2. a)  Why were the Portuguese able to conquer the Kenyan Coast during

    the sixteenth Century.

    1. The Portuguese used superior weapons.
    2. Lack of unity among the coastal communities e.g. between Malindi and Mombasa.
    3. The Portuguese launched superior attacks.
    4. The Portuguese fought as one united group of people.
    5. The Portuguese knew the geography of the East Africa Coast very well after obtaining information from Vasco Da Gama’s visit of 1498.
    6. Portuguese had well trained soldiers.
    1. Explain six factors, which led to the collapse of the Portuguese rule on the Kenya Coast by the end of the Seventh Century. –
      1. The harsh Portuguese rule provoked resentment from the communities.
      2. Coastal communities organized a series of revolt against the

    Portuguese in order to regain their independence, iii) The corrupt Portuguese colon administrators embezzled revenue and so they made it difficult for Portugal to run their possessions on the Kenyan Coast, iv) Trade along the Kenyan Coast declined; therefore the Portuguese found retaining their control over the east Africa Coast


    v) The Portuguese settlements were attacked by the Zambia terrorist from the lower Zambezi valley who looted property and killed people. This made life of Portuguese difficult, vi) The Portuguese were constantly attacked by tropical diseases such as Malaria which killed African coasts, vii) The coastal Arabs and the Swahili obtained support from the Turks and Amni Arabs (their fellow Muslims who helped them to drive away the Christian Portuguese colonialists, viii) Delayed reenforcement due to distance.

  3. Identify TWO factors, which encouraged the spread of Islam in Kenya by

    1500 A.D. 1

    1. Commercial activities between the Arabs and African.
    2. Arabs settlement along the coast iii) Intermarriage between the Arabs and other communities. iv) Islam was more accommodative to African traditional practices.

    v) Development of Kiswahili language.

  4. State TWO main reasons why the Omani rulers were interested in establishing their control over the Kenyan Coast.
    1. To expand their commercial empire.
    2. To establish political control over the Kenyan Coast.
    3. To assist in ending the Portuguese rule.
  5. a) Explain why Christian Missionaries established mission stations in

    Kenya during the colonial period.

    1. Missions stations were established by Christian missionaries to

      serve ns centers for converting Africans,

    2. To serve as centers where African would be taught basic literacy to

      enable them to read their Bible.

    3. To teach Africans new methods of carpentry, farming and masonry.
    4. To train African catechists who would in turn facilitate the spread

      of Christianity.

    5. To use them as centers for the spread of Western European culture.
    6. To serve as settlement for freed slaves and other displaced people.
    7. Serve as centers for pacification of Africans/centers to promote

      Europe in colonization.

    1. What factors undermined Christian Missionary activities in Kenya during the 19th Century?
      1. Hostility by believers of traditional religion who saw missionaries as

        threat to their beliefs and cultural practices, ii) Opposition by leaders of Islamic faith and other believers whose interest wore to advance religion in the region.

    iii)  Harsh tropical climate coupled with tropical diseases eg. Malaria. iv)  Inadequate personnel to carry out missionary activities.

    1. Rivalry among different Christian groups.
    2. Communication barrier/lack of common language of communication to facilitate

      interaction with and conversion of Africans.

    3. Strict Christians doctrines, which were not compatible with traditional beliefs and

      practices, vii) Limited transport and communication facilities.

  6. Give the main reason why earlier visitors from Arabia came to Kenya const before 1500 AD.

    To trade/commerce

  7. State two reasons why the Portuguese built Fort Jesus.

    i) To act as hiding place against/attacks by their enemies. ii) To use it as a base of sensing expeditions against resisting communities of the coast/administration base.

    iii)  Use it for storing ornaments/storage of items before transportation. iv)  Use as a watch tower.

  8. Give one reason for the establishment of the independent churches on Kenya during the colonial period.
    1. To develop worship pattern that are relevant to their needs.
    2. To avoid being discriminated against in the missionary churches.
    3. To preserve their cultural heritage, that was being threatened by

      European missionaries iv) To provide

    a forum for cultural activities.

  9. a) Why were the Portuguese able to control the Kenyan Coast between

    1500 and 1700 AD.

    i) Disunity/rivalry among the coastal towns enabled the Portuguese to play one against the other e.g. Mombasa and Malindi. ii) Military superiority – the Portuguese had better weapons and their soldiers were better trained and organized (superior attacks), iii) The construction efforts by the Portuguese erg. Fort Jesus made them able 10 sustain their control over the area.

    1. The harshness of the Portuguese administration made African communities

      submit to their rule,

    2. The Portuguese established alliance with some coastal rulers e.g.


 b)  Describe the results of the Portuguese rule of the Kenyan Coast.

  1. Introduction of new crops such as maize, sweet potatoes and banana/manure.
  2. Introduction of new architectural designs/Fort Jesus.
  3. Absorption of Portuguese words into the Kiswahili language. iv) Disruption of the Indian Ocean trade/gold trade.

v)  Decay of many coastal towns e.g. Gedi. vi) Establishment of a close link between Kenya and India.

  1. Introduction of guns and other weapons along the Coast leading


    slave trade and insecurity in the area.

  2. Decline in trade between Arabia and the Kenyan Coast, ix) Their harshness made Africans and Arabs have a impression of Christianity and Europeans.
  1. State two benefits of Portuguese rule over the coastal settlements.

    i) Some Portuguese words were added to Kiswahili. ii) Portuguese architecture was introduced at the Coast.

 iii)  The Portuguese introduced new crops such as maize and cassava/farming

methods at the coast. iv) The Portuguese built Fort Jesus and Vasco

Da Gama Pillar, which have

become historic sites.

v) Links between coastal settlement and India were strengthened.

  1. a)  Describe the characteristics of the coastal towns by 1500 A.D.
    1. Kiswahili was used as the main medium of communication in the

      coastal towns.

    2. Islam was the main religion practiced in towns. iii)

      Islamic Law (Sharia) was used in administration.

      1. Houses were constructed using Arabic architecture.
      2. Traders was the main economic activity in the town.
      3. In the city – states were generally divided into two sections, one Muslim and the other African class of merchants/Sultan and


      4. Imams ruled in the city state.
      5. The city-states were independent political entities.
      6. Town minted and used their own coin – money.
      7. People wore woven and silk clothes.
    1. Explain five factors which led to the decline of the coastal towns after

      1500 AD.

      1. Disruption of trade by the Portuguese resulted in loss of revenue.
      2. Constant warfare and conflict between the Portuguese and the

        coastal towns led to total destruction of some coastal settlements, iii) Invasion of coastal settlements by the Zambia led to the disruption of economic activities of the coastal settlements. iv) Increased conflict between the city state discouraged traders from the interior to bring trade good to the coast.

    v) The drought spell hindered farming activities/lack of water vi) Conflicts between the Mazrui family and the Al Busaidi family over the control of the coastal settlement.

    vii)  Taxes levied on the coastal settlement by corrupt Portuguese administrator weakened the economic base of the settlement, viii)  Rivalry between European nations for the control of the trade.

  2. a)  What factors encouraged the Akamba to participate in the long

    distance trade during the 19th Century.

    1. Demand for their commodities.
    2. Availability of trade good. iii) Unsuitable climatic conditions for farming.
    3. Proximity to the coast.
    4. Existence of entrepreneur like Chief Kivoi.
    5. Existence of a well organized trade.

 b)  Explain the effects of slave trade on the African communities in


  1. The raids of slaves by traders led to insecurity and fear making people abandon their economic activities.
  2. Able – bodied people were taken away as slaves in the weak who

could not work effectively, iii)  It led to the death of family members denying the family the much needed work – force, iv)  Led to loss of skilled labour force eg. Iron smiths,

  1. Methods used in acquiring slaves such as burning of houses led to

destruction of the environment and human suffering/misery.

  1. Slave raids and sale of people led to depopulation.
  2. Promoted interaction between African communities e.g. the

Akamba and Agikuyu. viii)  Led to the spread and use of Kiswahili in the interior of Kenya.

  1. Led to the spread of Islam and Islamic culture.
  2. Opened up the interior of Kenya for European penetration.
  1. State two main factors which enabled traders from Arabia to come to the

    Kenya Coast before 1500 A.D.

    1. The monsoon winds which facilitated transport to and from Arabia.
    2. Possession of advanced marine technology at the time – for example making dhows.
  2. Give the main reasons why most of the early urban centers along the Kenya

    Coast were built on Island.

    To provide security against invaders.


  1. State two reasons why most of the Portuguese were able to conquer the

    Coastal settlement by 1500 A.D.

    i)  The Portuguese had modern weapons. ii)  The Portuguese were ruthless in their attack. iii)  The coastal settlement were disunited.

  2. State two ways in which the introduction of Christianity undermined African


    1. Conversion of African to the abandonment of African traditional

      belief and practice.

    2. By encouraging African to settle at the mission station, the

      Africans wcic uprooted from their traditional set up.

    3. Outright condemnation of some African cultural practice as primitive and backward.
    4. Introduction of western education by missionaries and its glitters made

      African abandon their culture.

  3. Identify two methods which long distance traders used to acquire slaves during
    the nineteenth century.

    i) Exchanging slave with other goods/buying slaves from African, ii) Raiding other communities for slaves, iii) Enticement and gifts.

  4. a)  Describe the way of life of the people who lived in the coastal city

    states by 1500 A.D.

    i)  The people lived in settlements that were politically independent of each other. The settlements were ruled by Muslim leaders/the sultans, ii) The majority of the city – state were Muslims, iii) The people who lived in the city states spoke Kiswahili. iv)  They participated in the

    Indian Ocean trade.

 v)  The architectural designs of their houses were influenced by

Arabian and Persian design, vi)  They practiced mixed farming. They grew banana, yam and coconut, vii) They practiced fishing, spinning and weaving, viii) The city states were ruled according to the Islamic laws/sheria. ix)  Their way of dressing was influenced by Arabian way of dressing/buibui.

 x)  Oriental diet.

b) Explain four factors which led to the decline of the coastal settlements between 1500 and 1700 A.D.

i) Rivalry for the control of the Indian Ocean trade weakened the coastal settlements. Each one of them wanted to dominate trade, ii) Wars of conquest by the Portuguese against the coastal settlements destroyed and weakened many of them, iii) Establishment of Portuguese rule at the coast led to disruption of the Indian Ocean trade – the main economic base of the towns. The Portuguese also diverted trade to Portugal leaving them with little revenue.

  1. Invasion of the settlement by the Zambia a warrior community from me Zambezi valley – they caused widespread destruction.
  2. Occasional unfavourable climatic conditions which characterized the period led to inadequate rainfall and shortage of water in some coastal settlement for example Gedi which subsequently declined. vi) Conflicts/wars between Oman Arabs and the Portuguese over

    the control of the coastal settlements affected economic activities in the sea.

  3. Conflicts/wars between Oman Arabs and the Portuguese over the control the coastal settlements affected economic activities in the area.
  4. Some Africa middlemen diverted trade goods to Northern routes by

 passing the town that were under Portuguese control.  

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