Share this:

SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CHALLENGES IN AFRICA IN GENERAL.

Political challenges that have faced African countries since independence

 


 

 

 

 

a)  The political systems that were inherited from the colonial governments seemed to
 be unworkable in many independent African states.

b)  Sharp ideological difference arose among the pioneer leaders of African states. Such
 differences internally exploded into civil strife in countries like Mozambique, Angola
 and DRC.

c)  The cold war had diverstating effects on Africa. it left many African nations divided
 and locked in border conflicts that continue up to date.

d)  Political instability was quite common in African states. Coups d’tat and military
 takeover was witnessed in Somalia, Zaire, Nigeria, Chad etc Human rights were
 violated with the rise of dictatorship.

e)  There were strained relations between African leaders caused by personal and
 ideological differences. Some ended in border closure, which greatly undermined
 international cooperation.

f)  Many national interests in Africa countries have been in conflict with global and

continental interests. Nigeria and Zimbabwe, for example had to be expelled from the Commonwealth of Nations for alleged disregard of human rights and personal property.

g)  Neo-colonialism. Most countries retain the colonial structures of parliament

ecolebooks.com

although they have difficulties in sustaining them. Multinational peacekeeping

forces are still common in Africa, many African leaders inherited the divide and rule colonial strategy that precipitates anarchy.

h)  The existence of different ethnic groups has contributed to ethnic wars as witnessed
 in Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan, Nigeria and Kenya.

i)  Most African government seemed ill prepared and in experienced in administration.

This resulted in rise of rebel movements, as was the case of Mozambique and

Angola.

economic challenges facing independent African states today.

a)
Unemployment and socio-economic inequalities both among individuals and
 between regions are common in may African nations.

b)
Overdependence on primary exports. The African economy is an extractive one

rather than a manufacturing economy. Many countries depend on agriculture and foreign nations for manufactured goods.

c)
World trade terms are not fair for African nations. Africa countries find themselves
 trading with former colonial powers that give low prices fort raw material from
 Africa and charge high process for the manufactured goods.

d)
There has been the problem of unfavourable climatic conditions. This has curtailed
 food production, particularly among agricultural communities.

e)
Population pressure has led to overstretching of social services. There is a high
 dependency ratio since the population is largely youthful and unemployed.

f)
Poor economic planning. Some economic policies have destabilized the economies.
 For the Ujamaa policy in Tanzania, the expelling of foreign investors in Uganda and
 the massive printing of money in Zaire.

 

g)
The tough conditions given by donor agencies have sometimes led to deterioration
 of social welfare. Retrenchment for example was a key prescription of the Structural
 Adjustment Programme.

h)
Corruption and embezzlement of public funds is common in African countries. There
 is also general lack of transparency among many leaders.

Social challenges that have faced African states since independence.

a)
Inaccessibility to clean water by majority of the people. Most African peoples rely on
 water fetched from sometimes contaminated streams across long distances.

b)
The challenge of HIV/AIDS pandemic. This has had a toll on productive members of
 the society.

c)
Poor housing facilities.. in urban areas, majority of the population live in slums
 without sanitation facilities.

d)
The challenge of high population growth rate. This affects the quality of the services
 provided by governments.

e)
Language problem. Language development and use has been a challenge in Africa. In
 many countries, conflict tends to arise over the language to adopt- local or the
 inherited one.

f)
Religious differences. This challenge has been the main cause of the splitting of the
 once largest country in Africa-Sudan in 2011. The predominantly Christian southern
 Sudan has become the youngest African state thanks to religious differences.

g)
Absence of practical systems of education. Many countries rely on theoretical
 education with little emphasis in technical skills.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 




Share this:


EcoleBooks | History and Government Form 4 Notes : SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CHALLENGES IN AFRICA IN GENERAL.

subscriber

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Accept Our Privacy Terms.*