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Meaning and origin of Harambee philosophy.

Harambee is a Kiswahili slogan, which means pulling together or working together. It was a development strategy in which, people supplemented government efforts through voluntary contribution.

Mzee Jomo Kenyatta made it a national Motto in 1963 when he aptly advanced it as unity in all causes of national integrity and human progress.

The Harambee spirit embodies ideals of assistance, joint effort, mutual social responsibility and community self-reliance.

Harambee projects are categorized as;

Social Projects. Educational institutions and facilities, medical centres,
 recreational facilities and religious institutions.

Economic projects. Construction of rural access roads, bridges and culverts,
 agricultural and livestock activities.

Principles that guide the Harambee spirit.

It is a development strategy that is aimed at mobilizing the people at local level to
 participate in their development

Participation is guided by the principles of collective good as opposed to individual
 gain. Harambee efforts should be directed towards community projects rather than
 individual projects.

The choice of project is supposed to be guided by the felt needs of the majority.
 Participants should be involved in decision making.

In the implementation of projects, there should be maximum utilization of the local
 resources such as labour, materials and money.

Contribution of Harambee movement to the development of Kenya.

Harambee movement has led to development of education in Kenya through
 Harambee fundraising to construct schools and colleges.

Funds have been collected through Harambee to improve infrastructural facilities
 such as roads, rural electrification and provision of water.

Collective participation in development programmes by people from different
 groups has promoted national unity.

It has helped inculcate hard work in the people of Kenya. This has in turn
 encouraged various ethnic groups to develop their respective areas.




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Harambee projects especially in rural areas have attracted foreign donors especially
 the NGO’S

Has led to re-distribution of resources as people with more funds have participated
 in the development projects in the less developed areas.

Funds have been raised through Harambee to help the less fortunate members of
 the society. For example, President Moi 8th April 1989 held a Mammoth Rally where
 KSH 70Million was raised to help the disabled.

Harambee movement has promoted agricultural development e.g., through
 construction of cattle dips and purchase of farms through Harambee.

Funds raised through Harambee have been used to purchase buses and Matatus to

provide transport.

Ways in which the Harambee philosophy has promoted the development of education in Kenya.

Many education institutions have been constructed using funds raised through
 Harambee effort. Thus enabling many children to attend school.

Many students have been assisted to pay school fees/thus it enables the needy to go
 on learning.

Physical facilities have been constructed/improved through Harambee. This enables
 learning in a conducive environment.

Teaching/learning materials have been purchased/ donated to schools to improve
 the quality of education.

Additional staff/workers in schools have been paid through Harambee contributions
 by the parents to offset inadequacy.

Through Harambee spirit, well-wishers, thus helping the learners to exploit their
 talents, have supported co-curricular activities.

Scholl furniture has been bought through Harambee effort thus making learning
 /teaching comfortable.

Parents have contributed funds to supplement the government’s school feeding
 programmes thus improving enrolment.

problems that face Harambee movement in Kenya.

Misuse of Harambee funds/diverting its use and lack of commitment by leaders.

It puts an additional burden of taxation on the poor.

Embezzlement of public funds.

Political interference and wrangles among leaders.

The spirit of unity and co-operation and self-help may be killed by misappropriation
 of funds.

Poor co-ordination and supervision of Harambee projects.

Use of force or extortion of Harambee funds from the people/dictatorial tendencies.

Corruption and negative attitude from people.

i)  Use of Harambee for political gains.


Meaning and origin of Nyayoism.

Nyayoism originally meant footsteps i.e. following the footsteps of Mzee Jomo Kenyatta.


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This was a phrase coined by the former president of Kenya Daniel Arap Moi, in reference to his Endeavour to follow the foot steps of his predecessor.

Today, Nyayoism means peace, love and unity that form the pillars of the development philosophy.

It stresses the concept of being mindful of other people’s welfare.

It is closely related to the principal of mutual social responsibility as embodied in African socialism.

Sources of Nyayoism.

Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1965 that articulated African socialism, which is based on
 collective responsibility and on being mindful of other people’s welfare.

The Biblical teaching of the Ten Commandments, summarized as Love for God,
 fellow man and oneself.

Moi’s long political career inspired him to develop the philosophy when he realized
 that national building required love.


Pillars of Nyayoism

Peace: – the state of being free from war and disorder. Peace is the beginning of
 sustainable and cumulative progress. Peace promotes development. According to
 Nyayoism, peace discourages political stability.

Love: – Love brings about trust and readiness to cooperate by working together to
 foster national development. Lack of love disturbs peace, creates disorder and
 destroys progress. Love encourages the African culture of sharing through the
 extended family (communalism).

Unity: – the state of being one, being in harmony or in agreement in objectives and
 feelings. The diversity of Kenya’s culture, religion, races and
language requires that
 there must be unity for nation-building.

Role played by Nyayoism in national development.

The philosophy formed the basis for solving national development problems. The
 philosophy perpetuated the Harambee spirit.

The philosophy helped in unifying different communities. The philosophy enhanced
 cooperation and unity of all.

Nyayoism was used as the rallying spirit for the collective contribution and approach
 to national development.

Nyayoism discouraged societal evils since it preached love, unity and peace.
 Corruption was discouraged through the philosophy.

It discouraged all forms of discrimination based on religion, tribe, race, and social

The philosophy created respect for public property and functions.

It enabled the creation of a welfare state since everyone became mindful of others

It created a sense of nationalism and patriotism necessary for national development.

Impact of National Philosophies

Social Impact of National Philosophies.


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Education has been promoted through philosophies like the Harambee that have
 assisted in construction of schools, laboratories and libraries.

Medical services have been improved

Cooperation, understanding and unity have been encouraged since the philosophies
 emphasized togetherness for nation-building.

The philosophies have promoted the spiritual and social welfare of people by raising
 their living standards. African socialism encourages people to assist others are share
 with others.

Through the Harambee spirit, the plight of persons with disabilities and other
advantaged groups has been looked into.

The philosophies have promoted African cultures, since they are drawn from African

Economic impacts.

Self-reliance and The Africanization process through which the people of Kenya were
 able to take over from foreigners was made possible by the philosophies.

Due to the policy of pooling together resources and the spirit of cooperation derived
 from African socialism, cooperative societies have been formed in agriculture and
 other sectors, thus contributing to the country’s development.

Transport and communication has been improved through African socialism and
 Harambee spirit. Rural access roads have been constructed; Nyayo buses were
 bought though the scheme failed due to mismanagement.

The agricultural sector has been boosted by the philosophies. Kenyans are
 encouraged to work hard to increase food production.

The pillars of Nyayoism have created a conducive atmosphere for growth of tourism
 and foreign investment in the country.

Political impacts.

The philosophies have promoted nationalism and patriotism in the country.

African socialism has encouraged the democratization process as it champions for
 political equality.

It has promoted international cooperation and understanding



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EcoleBooks | History and Government Form 4 Notes : HARAMBEE PHILOSOPHY


1 Comment

  • EcoleBooks | History and Government Form 4 Notes : HARAMBEE PHILOSOPHY

    El Njavati, June 8, 2023 @ 7:27 pm Reply

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