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Soil Degradation
Soil degradation is the deterioration (destruction) of the quality of the soil through the loss of fertile, pollution, and erosion and mass wasting.
Degradation renders soil useless for human development activities and unfit for the life of the biota.

Loss of soil fertility
This refers to the decline in the soil ability to support plant growth through the failure to provide necessary nutrient for plant growth.

Loss of fertility can be caused by:
1. Leaching process, this washes down the necessary nutrient in solution from the top soil. It makes soil become more acidic and hence toxic. It is common in areas, which are humid, and experience heavy rains.
2. Over cultivation in certain area as a result of the rapid population growth. The crops grown on the same piece of land for a long time leads to the depletion of soil nutrients.
3. Monoculture that involves the cultivation of crops without crop rotation or inter cropping .The nutrient are used up without replacement and the soil structure can be destroyed (soil becomes unstable).
4. Soil pollution due to the excessive use of chemical like pesticides and artificial fertilizers, dumping of harmful wastes in the soil and acid rain which make the soil toxic, structure less and hence unproductive.
5. Soil erosion accelerated by poor land management like deforestation, flat cultivation on the slope etc.
6. Mass wasting that leads to the loss of upper layer of the soil and its Nutrients.
7. Severe loss of soil water due to excessive vapor transpiration especially in the arid and semi arid areas.

Soil Erosion
Soil erosion is the wearing away, detachment and removal of soil material from one place to another place through the agents like water, wind and ice .Two types of erosion are often distinguished as:

Normal Geological Erosion
It’s the widespread type of erosion that occurs wherever there is a natural flow of energy and matter on the earth’s surface without man’s influence .It is fortunately very slow and so not normally injurious to the soil cover of the world.
More often than not, its rate is either slower or equal to the soil formation hence its effect are rarely noticeable. Erosion under this category is easy to control.
Accelerated Soil Erosion
Is the type of erosion associated with man’s activities (man induced). It is spectacular in nature (very destructive), therefore it has attracted man’s attention .Its side effect include physical loss of soil nutrients, leading to severe economic loss arising from the reduced crop yield or total crop failure, and/or wasted effort and money spent on unsuccessful soil-conservation projects.

Factors that affecting (Controlling) Accelerated Soil Erosion
There are factors which can accelerate or decelerate the rate of soil erosion.
They include:

1. Physical Factors;
· Climate: Where there is heavy rainfall erosion tends to be severe while where there is low rainfall erosion is also low.
· Topography: On steep slope soil erosion can be high while on the gentle slopes the rate of erosion tends to be low.
· Nature of soil: This depends on its characteristic features like texture, structure, permeability etc. Unstable soils with coarse Texture are prone to severe erosion compared to the fine textured stable soils.
· Vegetation cover: Where there is dense vegetation soil erosion is checked. But where is scanty or no vegetation soil erosion take place easily.

2. Human Factors;
1. Good management of the soil which involves the way human being uses the soil wisely and skillfully and undertaking conservation measure to reduce or mitigate erosion through afforestation, terracing, strip cropping, crop rotation, contour ploughing, inter cropping and restocking.
2. Poor management that involve injudicious (unwise use of the soil through over cultivation, mono-cropping flat cultivation over-grazing and deforestation).
3. The increase in population leads to over exploitation of resources especially minerals, forest and over cultivation.

Agents of Soil Erosion
Water is the most important agent of soil erosion. The erosion by water Involves:
· Splash erosion: caused by rain drops.
· Sheet erosion: which involves the removal of the uniform cover of the soil, by surface run-off on gentle slopes.
· Rills erosion: that leads to the formation of same channels called rills on the surface.
· Gully erosion: that leads to the formation of deep troughs called gullies due to severe undercutting.
· River erosion: take place in the specific channels called river valleys.
Wind is another agent of soil erosion. It takes place in arid and semi-arid or where the soil is loose Gravity leads to the gradual movement of weathered material down the slope without involving transport agent. The spontaneous Material movement causes soil erosion. It is influenced by the nature of slope.

Human Activities which can Cause Soil Erosion
1. Poor cultivation methods like mono cropping (monoculture) flat Cultivation splash and burn in shifting cultivation.
2. Mining which leads to the creation of pit, deforestation etc.
3. Construction activities like building houses, establishing roads, etc. excessive cutting trees for lumbering and source of fuel. This causes the loss of vegetation species (deforestation).
4. Overgrazing which leads to the destruction of grass, leaving the land bare and hence exposed to erosional agents.
5. Casual Burning of vegetation to encourage fresh grass, which can Be good for pasture. This is common in the tropical areas.

Effects of soil Erosion

Soil erosion leads to the following effects;
1. Pollution of water bodies due to the introduction of material eroded from the surrounding areas. Some of the materials are toxic in nature.
2. Loss of fertility which in turn causes the reduction in yields or total crop failure. This can then lead to the occurrence of famine and death of people.
3. Migration of people from areas, which have been affected to the areas, which have not been affected by erosion.
4. Over flooding of the rivers as a result of the creation of the small channels leading to the river systems.
5. Deforestation as a result of the death of plants due to the loss of soil.
6. Reduction in the size of the arable land. This leads to poor crop production since people concentrate on a smaller land that is not sufficient.
7. Loss of the habitat as a result of deforestation caused by the loss of soil.
8. Soil erosion can accelerate rock weathering by exposing the underlying rock to the weathering agents like temperature etc.
9. It leads to the costs incurred in during the process of conserving the soil, which has been eroded.
10. Soil erosion can destroy transport and communication systems like roads, railway line and telephone posts.
11. It can lead to the destruction of houses rendering people homeless. Important economic schemes can be destroyed such as tourist resorts when the hotels collapse and decline of the irrigation schemes. This can contribute to the escalation of poverty.
Soil pollution
Soil pollution refers to the introduction or presence of any substance in the soil which adversely affect the soil quality. The substance which pollutes the soil is called a pollutant.
Sources of Soil pollution
Pollution can be from the atmosphere, industries, home stead and agriculture areas.
1. From the atmosphere: The pollutants are introduced through the acid rain. These make the soil become acidic and hence destroy the soil structure and killing the plant. Acidic rain is predominant in the industrialized areas like Germany.
2. From the industries: Some chemicals, radioactive material can be introduced into the soil and render the soil unfit for agriculture. Some of the chemicals are poisonous therefore they kill plants after getting into the soil.
3. From the homesteads: Some wastes like metal materials, bottles, plastic bags, cans etc lead to the pollution of the soil.
4. From the Farms: Chemicals like pesticides e.g. DDT, crop remains, fertilizers can be produced and get into the soil under the influence of rainfall.
5. Irrigation: agriculture encourages the accumulation of salt (Stalinization) in the upper soil layer .Also agricultural activities can cause negative pollution of soil through the depletion of vegetation.

Effect of Soil Pollution
1. Decline in fertility because of addition leading to the decline in crop production.
2. Destruction of soil structure and texture.
3. Death of soil biota (organisms), which are very important in the decomposition of organic matter.
4. It can lead to water logging or flooding due to poor drainage. It interferes with aeration making the soil unproductive.
5. It makes man incur a lot of costs when trying to fight against the problem of soil pollution. For example liming for reducing acidity in the soil and flushing so as to reduce soil salinity.
6. Soil pollution can also lead to people’s
migration to the areas, which are not affected by pollution.
7. Crop failure yields caused by pollution leads to the occurrence of famine, which in turn causes poor health, and death of people.

Soil Management and Conservation
Soil management: refers to the skillful or wise use and control of the quality of the soil (land) resource.
Soil conservation: refers to the process of preserving the soil for proper and sustainable use.

Why Undertake Soil Conservation?
1. To maintain the quality of the land preventing it to get exhausted and become totally unproductive.
2. To improve or restore the quality of the land where there has been exhaustion as to promote production.
3. To get more land and produce more products for satisfying the burgeoning population in the countries.
4. To ensure that the coming generation can benefit from the same land used today.

Conservation methods include the following:
1. Educating people so as to promote the land management ideas among the people. This should be undertaken by the government and some committed individuals.
2. Training and encouraging the farmers to use proper farming methods like crop rotation, inter cropping, use for organic manure, Strip cropping, Contour ploughing and deep ploughing.
3. Planting of cover crops, afforestation and reforestation in order to check soil erosion by reducing the speed of water on the surface.
4. Reducing and stopping the use of pesticides like dieldrin, DDT, and artificial fertilizers, which tend to destroy the soil.
5. Recycling of wastes rather than dumping them into the soil.
6. Restocking in order to avoid overgrazing that leads to the destruction of grass.
7. Encouraging dry farming that involves mulching in order to reduce Loss of water through excessive evaporation especially in the dry areas.
8. Land filling with brushwood should be used where the soil has been severely eroded production gullies.
9. The population should be controlled so as to discourage the excessive exploitation of resources, which leads to land degradation.
10. Alternative sources of energy should be explored and used to avoid the excessive use of forest materials and oil, which cause hazard to the environment.
11. Radioactive materials should be dumped very deep in the soil to prevent the upper soil layer from being highly affected.
12. Terracing, construction of stone lines (in Burkina Faso) and check dams (in China) so as to control the movement of water and force to get into the ground rather than flowing like the surface run-off.
13. Developing other economic activities rather than depending on agriculture only especially in the developing countries.
14. The government should formulate good policies which advocate community participation, land tenure and encourage the proper use of the land. Where possible people should be given financial support so as to invest in scientific agricultural techniques (which are not precarious to the soil.)

Soil erosion has been a major problem in the USA and the TENNESSEE Valley is a renowned area in the world where severe problem of erosion has been successfully controlled. The River Tennessee is a tributary of River Ohio, which in turn is a tributary of the Mississippi. The river drains through many states in USA.
Soil Erosion which used to be a Menace in the Areas was caused by:
1. Deforestation as the land was cleared for cultivation. Clearing of the forest propelled by the growth of population in the area.
2. Periodic flooding during the rainy season resulting from the surface run-offs from the Application Mountains.
3. Poor farming methods like monoculture where were practiced in the area especially growing of corn and cotton.
4. Steep slope of the Appalachians accelerated erosion. These entire plus the problems of silting and disease like malaria led to the decrease in agricultural production.

To control soil erosion along the Tennessee Valley the US
Government established the development Authority called the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1933. The TVA covered the states, which are drained by the river namely West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama and the TVA also covered the Tennessee’s major tributary, Cumberland.

Steps Taken by TVA to Control Erosion;
1. Constructions of 32 dams were constructed across the main rivers and its principal tributary.
2. Reforestation was done especially on the steep slope of Appalachian Mountain slope.
3. The gullies were filled with brushwood to prep the eroded soil Particles especially silt.
4. Encouraging farmers to use modern and sound
agricultural methods Like contour ploughing, terracing, strip-farming, crop rotation and fertilizers and insecticides.
5. Planting of grass or cover crop on the steep slopes so as to combat the Impact of the surface run-off.
Apart from soil conservation and flood control TVA had long term plans of improving the living standards of the people, improving navigation, developing HEP generation Centers and improving the land use along the river basin.

Success of TVA
Remarkable results of TVA include the following:
1. Reliable water availability from the reservoirs for irrigation in the events of droughts, domestic use and industrial development.
2. Improved navigation along the Tennessee Rivers so that it could be used throughout the year.
3. Availability of HEP to many people.
4. Industrial development was encouraged especially as a result of HEP supply.
5. There was creation of many tourist attraction including national parks.
6. Improvement in the fishing industry leading to the increased supply of proteins.
7. It added to another source of income in the country especially foreign currency earnings due to tourism etc.
8. Heavy industries were established like machinery and aluminum melting at Birmingham in Alabama and Atlanta in Georgia. Atomic power station and aluminum smelting at Alcoa.

TVA project in the USA is an outstanding example of how planned programs can be made to work successfully. With sound planning, careful resource management and human cooperation, men can overcome the `most hostile environment or rehabilitate a devastated region. If this kind of project could be done in the underdeveloped countries of the world many of the poor could be better-fed and hipper human beings.

The positive results in soil conservation were due to:
1. Financial position of the country hence it could be easily to invest in the conservation programs.
2. Good and advanced technology used in the conservation process.
3. People’s readiness to accept some advice and changes.
4. Strong cooperation among the people.
5. Close government involvement.
Tanzania has also been experiencing the problem of soil erosion in many parts .This has been affecting agriculture in a negative way through the loss of fertility and the reduction in the size of arable land. Poor cultivation methods on the slopes, overgrazing in some places, deforestation because of cutting trees and over cultivation are some of the causes which have been responsible in the occurrence of soil erosion in different parts of Tanzania. The problem of population pressure in some places has been so instrumental in the facilitating deforestation and land fragmentation.
Soil Erosion and Conservation in Kondoa (Tanzania)
Kondoa is the one of the areas, which has been affected by severe soil erosion. It was caused by:
1. Unstable soil due to semi aridity.
2. Sporadic heavy rains that tend to wash away the loose of soil materials.
3. High population in the area led to the destruction of vegetation.
4. Hilly landscape on which water runs fast.
5. High animal population that led to overgrazing.

There are different strategies, which have been used in Tanzania so as to Curb this problem both at an individual level, village level, regional level and National level. Some of the strategies are:
1. Contour ridging on the slopes of the highland and hills. This is practiced widely in Rukwa , Tabora , some parts in Mbeya (Mbozi and Rungwe) and Irin
2. Using farm yard manure to restore fertility. The use of farm yard manure is common among the Sukuma, Ukara-Ukerewe and Sumbawanga Where people collect cow dung from the grazing areas or cattle sheds.
3. Fallowing is also practiced whereby people leave the land uncultivated for sometime especially after exhaustion so as to regain its fertility.
4. Resettlement scheme or villagization programs were introduced with the aim of improving the land use and stop shifting cultivation, which is a poor method and detrimental to the environment.
5. Encouraging crop rotation so as to stabilize the soil.
6. Planting drought resistant crops in the widely cleared dry lands.
7. The use of leguminous plants like sun hemp (marine) and cultivation of groundnuts as well as beans so as to maintain fertility. sun hemps are used in Ruvuma (in Namanjule villages), Dodoma ,Mbulu ,Tanga ,Rukwa ,Iringa , Songea, Mbeya Especially in Mbozi and Kigoma sun hemp is used as a weed killer ,insecticide and fertilizer and was brought by the Tanzania government from Indian in 1942,sun hemps are highly recommended as a cheap and easy technique of maintaining fertility.
8. The use of Ngoro farming system in Umatengo (Mbinga) District in the southern part of Tanzania. In this system the crop are planted on the ridges and all the waste matter is thrown into the pit so as to get rotten future use as manure.
9. Inter cropping in which perennial crops are combine with food crops. The perennial crops add up fertility through shedding the leaves. Inter cropping help in stabilizing the soil hence checking soil erosion .For example in Moshi people are inter cropping beans or maize with coffee and bananas.
10.Restocking has been encouraged coupled with the introduction of Modern and proved breeds. In many areas many farmers are practicing Mixed farming at a small scale and zero grazing (indoor rearing ). This Reduced pressure on land has given room for the improvement of soil quality. E.g. Mixed farming is now being practiced in Mbeya, Moshi and few areas in Iringa and Sumbawanga. Commercial ranching has been established for proper management of both animals and pastureland. Rotational grazing in paddocks is being practiced so as to avoid causing land degradation.

11.Afforestation programs like HADO ‘Hifadhi Ardhi Dodoma” were Introduced in which the trees were planted to prevent soil erosion and combat the drought conditions.

In 1967/1968 financial years the government instituted village afforestation programmers as a means of alleviating both fuel, wood scarcity and reserving soil degradation problem. Mbeya also responded to the programs and began planting trees. In 1980 the institute of Adult Education in conjunction with the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism and the Ministry of Education and Culture instituted intensive educational campaign on village afforestration and reforestation. Also books titled “MISITU NI MALI” (Forest are Wealth) were published and set posters on the theme of deforestation and desertification have been produced. Likewise the government has declared other areas as forest reserves e.g. in Mbeya the forest reserves cover about 422,000 hectares (about 75% of the total areas of the region).
12. Mulching is also used to prevent erosion and excessive evaporation when the gras
s decays it adds to the soil fertility.
13. Terracing is also used in some areas associated with planting of grass, which provides a uniform cover, and reduces the speed of the running water down the slope.
14. There are some programs for educating people both in schools and in adult classes such programs are also disseminated on the radio, through newspaper, printing on the vests and matchboxes which carry information that encourage environmental conservation.
15. Introduction of irrigation schemes in some places like in Usangu, Dodoma, Kilombero and Nyumba ya Mungu etc.

Drawbacks Hindering Soil Conservation in Tanzania
1. Financial problems due to poverty among the farmers they therefore can’t invest in the modern programs of oil conservation.
2. Low commitment among the members of the local government and individuals reforestation programs. The National tree planting Campaign that was stated in 1999 has not yet realized good progress so far.
The problem associated with the tree planting campaign is that the trees, which were planted, were not carried for they were forgotten and literally abandoned to die; thereby sabotaging the conservation campaign. Also there was no specific organ given the task of supervising the planting and caring processes. Nonetheless, the government leaders are still stressing on the necessity of planting more and more trees so as to conserve our environment. Those who have planted should take care of them so that those which have been planted can grow and survive into full maturity.
3. Lack of effective and efficient coordination of the soil conservation activities both at a local level and at a national level.
4. Rapid population increase creating pressure on the land and its resources the land is cheap resource; any need for excessive population (like food) is met by exploiting land resources especially through agricultural activities.
5. Most of necessary information is confined in urban areas and people in rural areas are not yet reached due to transport problems.
6. Political problems siphon a lot of money in the process of solving them. So most money is directed to these problems rather than solving environmental problems, which use extravagant amount of money that could helping soil conservation.
7. There low international support.

Problems of Agriculture in Tanzania:
1. Soil erosion: This destroys the land in many parts of Tanzania especially increase like Usambara, pare and Kondoa–Iringa areas.
2. Unreliable and poorly distributed rainfall: sometimes there long droughts leading to crop failure while at times it is too much leading to flood is unevenly distributed due to relief, wind and the over head sun.
3. Temperature, diseases and pests: The tropical climate encourages the trivial of diseases and pests, which harm people, crops and animals in the farms. For example fungal diseases, bacterial diseases and malaria are a rampant problem in Tanzania. Pests include army worms, quell, locusts, and grasshoppers and stalk borers. Animals like monkeys and pigs attack crops in the farms.
4. Too seasonal rivers: There is a big problem with rivers such that sometimes they go dry leading to problems of water availability in the irrigation schemes. Dams are not constructed due to the lack of capital.
5. Land shortage: In some places due to overpopulation like in the Chagga land and Umatengo etc, some people are landless. In those areas land is highly fragmented and hence mechanization is difficult. Apart from overpopulation other areas are swampy mountainous have mining pits, etc leading to problems in cultivation.
6. Poor knowledge and low technology: Most of the farmers use poor farming methods due to poor knowledge and low technology. In some places the farmers are illiterate and hence they cannot learn new methods of farming easily since they are still conservation and adamant to accept new and positive changes.
7. Poor marketing system: The internal market is poor due to low purchasing power among them is bought on credit without being paid early. The international market is also poor due to price fluctuation. Sometimes the prices are very low discouraging the farmers to a great extent.
8. Gender discrimination and inequality: Women are the ones who are involved more in agricultural products and land. They are not involved in the decision making process, they are not well trained and do not own land because of poor cultural traditions. This contributes to the decline of agricultural production in Tanzania.
9. Poor transport and communication: Some areas are like Rukwa, which is one of the granaries of Tanzania, experience great problems of transport and communication. Hence, ferrying of agricultural products, disseminating information on new agricultural techniques and distributing important services that support agriculture become difficult. The villages in these areas are badly hit by this problem. For example in 1980’s a lot of crops got rotten in Rukwa due to poor transport at the same time some people in Shinyanga were starving because of shortage of food supply.
10. Poor storage facilities: Most of the farmers in rural areas do not have good storage facilities such that they cannot store properly their produce. Most of the agricultural products go bad leading to great losses.
11 Too much selectivity: Some communities are used to certain type of food crop and are not ready to switch to another type of crop. Such that once that crop fails they get problems of hunger while they could as well grow another crop that could serve the same purpose. For example some people in Rukwa are used to maize and hence they find it difficult to grow cassava during the drought period. Hence they end up getting problems of food supply.
12 Agricultural policies: They have not been so emphatic on agriculture due to the diversification of priorities. Unlike in the USA and China, the policies have been so soft such that agricultural development has been dwindling time from time in the rural areas. This has led to food shortage such that Tanzania has been importing some food from outside despite having great potentials for producing adequate amount of food.
13. Rural- urban migration: People especially the young ones, are so mobile moving from rural to urban areas Rural–urban migration has negatively affected agriculture in Tanzania. Many young people are living in the village and flood the towns leaving the rural areas with young children and the old people who cannot effectively and efficiently engage themselves into agriculture.

What should be done?
1.There should be comprehensive schemes for undertaking soil conservation by the methods like crop rotation ,controlled grazing, contour, farming, dry farming (mulching), terracing and strip cropping as well as facilitating the processes of restocking ,afforestation and reforestat
2. Educating people both in the school system and out of school (formal and non –formal education) on how to apply sustainable method of cultivating.
3. There should be high disease and pests control by cleaning the thickets, draining water, from the ponds and marchers, spraying the crops with chemicals, improving health care centers and developing researches on different disease etc.
4. Introduction of irrigation schemes. Hence reservoirs or dams should be constructed to ensure constant supply of water in the farms, such attempts have been made in Tanzania like the Nyumba ya Mungu dam, Mtera dam, Mindu dam in Morogoro etc.
5. Construction of better roads, good storage facilities etc. International linkages should be improved so as to facilitate the diffusion of new technology to our country.
6. Land reallocation and resettlement schemes should be reviewed, for example during vulgarization there were problems of sending some people to which were not fertile. Hence, before establishing a settlement anywhere, there should be profound preliminary surveys so as to assess land suitability for settlement.
7. Rural-Urban migration should be reversed. This can easily be done through investing in the rural areas. Great economic projects should be launched in the villages so as to promote the living standard of the people in rural areas and make people stay instead of moving to towns. Once rural areas are more developed some urban dwellers can be attracted to rural areas.
8.There should be improvement in the marketing system. Internal market can be improved through the development of cooperative boards the way it was with NMC, establishing local industries that are agricultural oriented like textile industries and food processing industries. Good price should be set and the payments should be done immediately. External market can be improved by trading with other countries with high quality crop products, uniting to promote bargaining power in the world market, diversification in the world market etc.
9. Another measure of improving agriculture is by empowering women so that they can also have more rights and greater room for participating in giving their own views on the way of improving agriculture .Women should also be given land to own in order that they can take of it and hence produce effectively. Men also should be actively involved in the agricultural activities so that the great burden or work low that women are having can be reduced.
10.Maintaining peace in the country so that people can settle and concentrate on production rather than keep on the fleeing as, refugees to other countries. Peace can make people engage effectively in agriculture since they will be feeling secure but when there are conflicts a lot of time and resources are wasted in wars and famine becomes a common factor dominating the country’s course of life.
11.Comprehensive guidance and counseling programs should be launched in order to educate, especially the young people on the dangers of the killer disease HIV/AIDS which is claiming the lives of a large number of young and energetic producers. These programs should be organized by both government and non-governmental institutions as well–willing individuals so as to effectively make concerted efforts in combating this disease. In many parts of the country HIV/ AIDS has led to the problem labor shortage as a result of the death of the young people.

1. Write short notes on the following terms.
a) Ranch.
b) Ranching.
c) Beef farming.
d) Dairy farming.
e) Restocking.
2. What are the factors hindering the development of ranches in Tanzania?
3. Identify the advantage and disadvantage of ranching in Argentina and USA.
4. Outline the factors that have lead to the development of beef farming In Argentina.
5. Show the role of sheep farming to the economy of South Africa
(Show its advantage).
6. Why is beef farming more developed in the temperate areas than in Tropical area?
7. Identify the measures that can be used in combating the problems facing large scale farming in East Africa.
8. How does the rapid population growth affect livestock farming in Africa?
9. Show the effects of livestock farming on the environment.
10.Why mixed farming is more developed in the USA Corn Belt than In Tanzania?
11. Mention the tribes involved in the following agricultural systems.
a) Shifting Cultivation in West Africa..
b) Nomadism in East Africa.
c) Semi-nomadism in Tanzania and Uganda.
12. Mention the examples of the countries where the following
Agricultural systems take place.
a)Mixed farming.
b)Dairy farming.
c)Beef farming.
d)Sheep ranching.
13. Mention the factors that influence agricultural development in any country.
14. How is nomadic pastoralist carried on and organized?
Support a wide range of light and heavy industries around changing (Chunking) and Chengdu (Chengtu). Lesser deposits occur in the province of Yunnan, Guizhou(Kweishow), Jiangxi (Kiangsi) and human- serving local demand only.

Factors, Which Have Facilitated the Use of Coal as a Source of Energy in China
1. The presence of large deposition of coal almost in all provinces.
2. The presence of heavy industries, which need great amount of power to run effectively. These industries have provided market for coal.
3. The use of mechanized methods in the extraction methods due to the advanced level of technology in China.
4. The presence of well-developed transport system especially the railway system has facilitated the distribution of coal.
5. Easy accessibility of some place like Manchuria has also facilitated the extraction of coal deposits and hence high use of coal in china.
4.The rocky mountain region. This has the greatest American coal reserve but has not been exploited much because of its inaccessibility and distance from the markets. Coal produced in this region is mainly of lignite and low- grade bituminous types.
5.The pacific region has small coal deposits that are of limited local importance .The fields are Oregon, California and Alaska as a reserve for future supply.

The methods used in the extraction of coal in USA include simple stripping (open cast) method like in the western interior where the seams are horizontal and near the surface ,shaft method in some parts of Appalachian field where the seams are deep situated and audit (Hill slope boring) method where the seams are exposed on the valley side

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    Nimusiima. Joel, May 4, 2024 @ 9:18 pm Reply

    The notes are summarized and helpful


    Kidada, September 9, 2023 @ 1:10 pm Reply

    This app is good

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