## MAP MAKING AND ELEMENTARY SURVEYING

MEANING AND TYPES OF SURVEY
Meaning of survey
Survey is the scientific and systematic measure of distance, height (altitude) and angles between various points on the ground.
OR:-
Survey is the process of observing and measuring in order to determine distance, position, boundaries and elevation of physical features on the land.
Purpose of surveying.
Surveying means the whole process of conducting survey. It involves the whole practices that involves in taking ground measurements of distance, height and angles between various points on the ground.
The purpose of surveying includes the following:-
(i)To determine horizontal distance between points on the earth surface.
(ii)To determine vertical distance or height between the points on the earth’s surface
(iii)To determine the area of the piece of land or plot
Plot is the enclosed piece of land usually occurs in rectangular or square shape
Example
(iv) To determine the direction of various features on the earth’s surface
(v) To determine the location of physical and non-physical features on the earth’s surface
Stages of conducting survey/surveying methods/surveying process
The steps or stages or procedure or methods of conducting survey includes the following
(1)Reconnaissance / preliminary inspection/primary surveying
is the process of taking general view of the land to be surveyed .it is done In order to get real picture of the work to be done .It is done by visual observation of the area. During the reconnaissance the surveyor does walking around the area to be surveyed and taking general views and noting down the dominant features area
– Boundaries of the area
– Corners of the boundaries of the area
– Other structures such as building, big trees, ponds, lakes, small hills e.t.c
Importance of reconnaissance
(i)It helps to get the full picture of the survey to be conducted
(ii)It helps for choosing the scale for map making
(iii)It makes survey for new coordinates and old coordinate easier
(iv)It shows the existing situation on a piece of paper
(2)Actual survey /secondary survey
This steps involved observing, measuring and recording direction, angles distance and elevation by using surveying equipments or tools.
(3)Presentation
this involves presentation of data or information collected or recorded,the information can be presented by writing or drawing form
BRANCHES /TYPES OF LAND SURVEYING
Main branches
There two major branches of survey these are:-
(i)Geodatic surveying
Geodating survey is the type of survey which takes into consideration or account the curvature of the earth’s surface
The geodating survey is used for a large area for example at national level. Its purpose is to lay a foundation for other types of survey and research .hence it need high accuracy.
(ii)Plane surveying
Plane survey is the surveying which the area measured is considered as being flat or plane
The earth’s surface is projected onto a horizontal plane
Plane survey is only used in small areas for example: – building sites like schools dispensary. Villages and wards
Plane survey does not take into consideration the curvature of the earth. But it is only gives the horizontal plane as if the earths surface is flat or plane.
OTHER BRANCHES OF SURVEYING
Are the branches of survey which classified according to the purpose or aim of surveying. These includes
(iii)Topographical surveying
This deals with the measuring and plotting of physical features in their horizontal and vertical positions.Nature and man-made features are measured and maps are prepared to show their relative position both horizontal and vertical.
Is the survey that deals with defining special information for construction activities and all sorts of land development Example:- small construction site, a plane survey can be used and for a bigger site geodetic survey can be used.
(v)Engineering surveying
Is the surveying which deals with obtaining special information for construction activities and all sorts of land development. For small construction sites. A plane survey is used and for a bigger site geodetic survey can be used.
(vi) Mine surveying
Is the surveying which deals with finding minerals in the ground or rocks
(vii) Hydrographic surveying.
This surveying deals with searching or finding the amount of water present different parts or place on the earth’s surface.
METHODS/TECHNIQUES OF LAND SURVEYING
Depending on how linear and angular measurements are combined there are four types of methods /elements/technique of land surveying.

subscriber

• ### Eriq, December 27, 2023 @ 11:51 amReply

Its good notes because were clear and short for me

• ### Rwaichi, June 7, 2023 @ 1:45 pmReply

The meaning of the word “Discrepancres”

By

By

By