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SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT



Definition of the terms science and technology
Science is an organized body of knowledge derived from a systematic observation and experiment of natural condition. Science involves the extract of knowledge and skills on something through testing, smelling, touching and experiments for the sake of deriving principles and laws guiding the discoveries.
It is an organized body of knowledge based on technical, know how and why from the experiments and observation.
Technology Is the application of the body of knowledge and skills obtained or it is the application of science and the scientific methods and principles. Technology being the product of science, it gives out materials as its product. Peoples technology can be described by the tools and machines. ES Electric machines, computer ect.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
– It is science that technology is based (technology); is the product of scientific principles.
– Technology modifies and advances science e.g. new simplified innovations.
– Science is made science when technology is approved.
– Science uses technology to be make science i.e. use of technological materials in experiments.
– Technology leads to discovery of new methods that challenge scientists for new theories.
– Science knowledge is applied to improve and even predict technologies. Eg. Flow of information
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Science and Technology is said to have been around from the beginning of man’s life.

It is identified in the efforts made by man to master his environment and life as in three stages of age as:-
(i) Stone Age: The old, middle and new Stone Age when man’s science and technology is identified in the discovery and use of stone tools (Old Stone Age). The bone and wood tools together with the discovery of fire (middle Stone Age) and the simplified or lighter stone tools in the new Stone Age.
(ii) The Bronze Age: The stage when man’s science and technology is noted in the discovery and use of tools from the alloy of tin and copper (Bronze) the tools were simpler than those from stones and wood.
(iii) The Iron Age: The stage when man’s science and technology is noted in the discover and use of iron tools, this stage developed in about 3000years ago BC and it is seen to develop in different societies of the world as in Ethiopia, Engaruka, Uvinza, Karagwe and Ugweno in Tanzania and Sudan.
NB: The discovery of iron awakened the other game form of discoveries and innovations so brought the new face of development of science and technology in the world.
MAJOR DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TODAY
The following are the major developments is science and technology:
1. Space research technology: It is the type of investigation which involves the exploration of the space in order to obtain some information which is useful to the life of man.
2. Information technology such as the Internets, Email, Fax and comprised electronic system of communication such as television have recently developed and have helped people to transfer information very fast from one place to another within short time.
3. Solar energy technology: It is the use of energy from the sun to provide neat and generate electricity. Solar electric devices convert solar energy into electricity and man be used in radios, Televisions, water pumps. ect.

Other recent development in science and technology include the following;
(i) Biogas technology
(ii) Geothermal energy
(iii) Tidal energy and HEP
(iv) Information technology (IT)
(v) Wind energy
(vi) Information technology (IT)

The concept of development
Development is the improvement of quality of life and the majority citizen in a given nation and is shown by positive changes in people living standards.
OR
The term development can be defined as the level or capacity at which the society is able to master and control the environment. It involves the improved standards of living from the low standards of inability to control environment and poor conditions of the living standards of life.

Underdevelopment: The term underdevelopment does not real mean the absence of development because each society develops in a certain pace. It is rather a comparative term. It refers to the fact that societies, the human social development has been uneven.

Indicators of development.
Indicator are measurement which show the level/degree of development a certain Society has attained. They include the following
(i) High per capital income (The average value expressed in monetary value of goods of services produced in a given country in a given time normally one year
(ii) Low mortality rate
(iii) Low rate of population growth.
(iv) Low level of labour employed in agriculture
(v) High level of employment
(vi) High level of science and technology
(vii) Maximum utilization of natural recourse.

Broadly spelling the above the above mentioned indicators can be grouped into three major indicators which are
(i) Economic growth indicators Eg Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
(ii)Social growth indicators Eg. Mortality rate and population growth
(iii) Degree of industrialization Eg. Level of science and technology, labour force employed in agriculture.

Sustainable Development.
Meaning: It is the development that meets the needs of present generation without compromising/endangering the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs.

Indicators of Sustainable development
(i) Development that sustain institutions, improves justice and encourages participation
(ii) Development that ensures basic needs, equality and employment opportunities.
(iii) Development that maintains genetic diversity which maximum productivity

The role of sustainable development in building quality of life.
(a) Sustainable developments leads to improved access to social to social services, improved awareness an the environment and development concerns as well as development of sensitive culture.
(b) Sustainable development leads to increased employment opportunities.
(c) Sustainable development contributes to conservation of resources. Hence, there is proper utilization of resources.
(d) Sustainable development creates awareness on how to use resources for development with caution without compromising the future generation rights.
The role of science and technology in development:-
(a) The role of science and technology in the development and improvement of modern industries and provision of social services.
1. Improving agriculture, food and nutrition. E.g In fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides and herbicides, mechanization. There is food security because of presence of raw materials.
2. Modernizing the industrial sector. This raises the quality and quantity of our goods in a short time.
3. Increasing the speed used by reducing time taken to accomplish a task. Science and technology has played a great role in this . E.g The use of tractors in cultivation makes the work to be completed fast compared to the person who uses the hand hoe.
4. Quickening and facilitating communication. Due to the development of science and technology, communication has been quick because of improved roads, use of cellular phones, radios, newspaper and television.
5. Increasing knowledge through the provision of advanced education using latest teaching materials. Audio – visual teaching materials such as televisions have been used to facilitate teaching and learning process. This has been used to facilitate teaching and learning process. This has influenced the improvement of education.
6. Environmental conservation: It is through applying appropriate technology and modern methods of production. Appropriate technology is the technology which is based on using local resources like utensils such as pots as well as use of simple but useful implements and pesticides ), manure in agriculture, ashes (instead of insecticides and pesticides), crop rotation, mulching contour farming, optimal domestication as well as a forestation.
7. Improvement of health services : This is through the use of the modern machines / equipment like x – rays, ultrasound diagnosis. Also, there is improvement of health living and working conditions preventive measures against health disorders and contemporary curative measures and vaccinations.
8. Improving of domestic services: sciences and technology has providing modern water storage systems, modern water pumping systems and water purification. This has led to increased water supply in town ,, villages and cities.
(b) The role of science and technology in sustainable development.
(i) Maintenance of the productive capacity of the country especially where non – renewable resources such as minerals are exhausted.
(ii) Preservation of stock resources /row materials e.g Minerals, forests, clean air, etc, by use of measures like afforestation, recycling.
(iii) Preservation of the environment especially the biosphere against pollution .
(iv) Science and technology increases social and economic interation.
(v) It simplifies and facilities work in terms of speed and efficiency by using advanced devices and appropriate technology.
(c ) The role of government in promoting the development of science and technology in our country.



(i) Formulation of good polices. Formulation of good policies that encourage people within in the country to be innovative and creative E.g adherence to the protection of intellectual property , motivating innovators, and special training to scientists. All these shall encourage people to engage in scientific activities.
  1. To encourage local technical crafts. E.g Some of handicraft industries led by local people are highly skilled and produce goods of high quality. They can make different materials like machine guns, fire arms, spray machineries, bird traps, agricultural tools like hoe, bush knives, etc. Tanzania should encourage these people by giving them support they require.


EcoleBooks | GENERAL STUDIES As LEVEL(FORM FIVE) NOTES - SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT

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4 Comments

  • EcoleBooks | GENERAL STUDIES As LEVEL(FORM FIVE) NOTES - SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT

    Mackdonely chibuga, June 7, 2023 @ 5:37 pm Reply

    Notes zko good 👍👍👍

  • EcoleBooks | GENERAL STUDIES As LEVEL(FORM FIVE) NOTES - SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT

    Fredric, May 29, 2023 @ 7:25 pm Reply

    Nangojea mbaka ifunguke

  • EcoleBooks | GENERAL STUDIES As LEVEL(FORM FIVE) NOTES - SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT

    ZACHARIA DAUDEN MWAMBINGU, March 28, 2023 @ 2:22 pm Reply

    Nashindwa kupata notes

    • EcoleBooks | GENERAL STUDIES As LEVEL(FORM FIVE) NOTES - SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT

      Dezaco clarkz, May 11, 2023 @ 5:22 pm Reply

      The best notes

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