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ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN
KENYA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

  1. (a)  Give three reasons why Nabongo Mumia collaborated with the British
    1. To consolidate his position and that of his kingdom
    2. To secure military support against his enemies’ e.g. the Luo of Ugenya
    3. To obtain material benefits from the British
    4. To secure military support to expand his kingdom
    5. To gain prestige and fame by associating with the British

 

 (b) Explain the result of Nabongo Mumia collaboration with the British

  1. The British were able to establish their rule over Western Kenya with the assistance of the Wanga soldiers. For instance, the soldiers were used to subdue the Nandi, the Bukusu and the Luo of Ugenya
  2. The British used Wanga as their agent to rule various parts of Western of Kenya. For example, Murunga his half brother was appointed chief over Isukha and Idakho.
  3. The rule of Wanga agents led to hostility and conflicts with neighbours.

Attempt were made to overthrow this dominance.

  1. His power was strengthened and his prestige rose. He made paramount chief in 1909.
  2. His headquarters at Aleruko became the administrative centre of the

British in Western Kenya, until 1920 when it was transferred to Kakamega

  1. Nabongo Mumia Over a long period of time was consulted by the colonial government over the appointment of headmen and chiefs

 

  1. (a)  Give five reasons why the colonial government encouraged white

    settlement in Kenya

    1. The colonial government wanted to make Kenya white man’s country by encouraging white settlers to form the backbone of the economy.
    2. The colonial government hoped that the settlers would finance administrative expense of the colony without involving the British tax payer
    3. The settler economic activities would help the colonial government pay for the construction costs of railway and maintain it.
    4. The settlers were expected to produce raw materials for British industries
    5. The colonial government wanted to counter Asia influence in Kenya by encouraging European settlement
    6. The Kenya highlands were suitable for European settlement in terms of climate and soils

 

(b)  State three methods which were used by the colonial government to acquire land for European settlement

  1. The colonial government got some of the land through signing of treaties with Africans. For instance, the Maasai were evicted of their land through the agreements of 1904 and 1911.
  2. Some of the land was acquired through the use of force. For instance, after the defeat of Nandi, large tracts of their land were annexed and alienated or European settlement reserves were established for Africans
  3. Some parts of unoccupied land were declared crown. These areas were leased, granted or sold to the settlers.

 

(c)  Apart from providing settlers, state six ways through which the colonial government promoted settler agriculture in Kenya

  1. The colonial government provided continuous flow of African labour to the settlers by imposing heavy taxes and enacting forced labour laws. The

Kipande system was introduced to restrict the movement of labourers

  1. Agricultural activities of the Africans were controlled to reduce competition for markets. For instance, up to the 1930’s. Africans were not allowed to grow any main cash crops.
  2. The colonial government boosted settler agriculture by providing adequate transport network to ease marketing of their produce and delivery of farm produce
  3. The colonial government provided extension services through the department of agriculture and established research stations to facilitate the development of better breeds for better yields
  4. Banking system and loan facilities were introduced to subdue settlers’

initiative

  1. The government encouraged settlers to form cooperatives such as KCC and KFA. These facilitated political representation in the legislative council, they managed to get many concessions

    (viii) Through political representation in the legislative council, they managed to get many concessions from the government such as tariff barriers and removal of custom duties

 

 (d)  List economic problems that white settlers in Kenya

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  1. Lack of labour
  2. Competition for the white highlands by Asians
  3. Scarcity funds
  4. Animal diseases
  5. Crop diseases
  6. Variations in climate/ harsh climate conditions/ unfovourable weather conditions
  7. Marketing problems/ fluctuation of prices/ economic depression
  8. Lack of experience in farming/ delay in expecting goods

 

 

3.  (a) Give three reasons why the Portuguese came to the Kenyan Coast by

the beginning of the sixteenth century

  1. Look for Prester John
  2. Look for sea route to India
  3. Participate in the Indian Ocean
  4. Spread Christianity
  5. Carry out revenge against the Muslim
  6. Explore/ adventure
  7. Colonize the Kenya coast in order to protect their commercial interest

 

(b)  What were the results of the Portuguese rule over their settlements along the Kenyan Coast

  1. The Portuguese rule along the coast disrupted trade between the coast and Arabia, Persia and India
  2. Their rule led to the decline of coastal settlements such as Geddi. This was due to the fact that the Portuguese rulers were corrupt and inefficient and taxed them heavily.
  3. The Portuguese build churches along the Kenyan Coast and attempted to convert some of the coastal communities to Christianity
  4. The coastal communities borrowed a few Portuguese word, which were incorporated into the Kiswahili language. For example the Kiswahili word meza was borrowed from Portuguese
  5. Portuguese rule along the coast disrupted Islam in the region. This was due to constant fighting and destruction of mosques.
  6. Portuguese Built some structures along the costs e.g. Fort Jesus and Vasco Da Gama Pillar in Malindi. These survived their decline an remained important to date. Punitive raids by the Portuguese led to lose of life and destruction of their settlement.
  7. Harsh Portuguese administration led to suffering of the people and forced some to flee
  8. The Portuguese administered the Kenyan Coast Gao this in turn contributed to the development of strong links between the coast and India.

 

  1. Identify three factors which contributed to the establishment of British colonial rule in Kenya by the end of the 19th century
    1. Some communities such as the Wanga collaborated with the British
    2. Lack of unity among African communities made it possible for the British to subdue them one at a time
    3. The British used superior weapons and tactics
    4. Civil wars and epidemics weakened some communities such as the Maasai so they could not resist
    5. Development of local and international trade/ commerce
    6. Establishment of industries such as food processing industries promoted the expansion of agricultural activities
    7. Exploitation of mineral resources in the country e.g. soda ash at magadi and gold in K.K
    8. Development of urban areas such as Nairobi, Nakuru and Kisumu
    9. Introduction of exotic breeds of livestock e.g. sheep, pigs and cattle
    10. Development of tourists industry e.g. establishment of game reserves and parks
    11. Establishment of research stations/ centers to improve farming methods and breeds
    12. Development diseases and unfavourable climate

 

  1. (a) State five problems that the imperial British East African Company

    faced in administering Kenya

    1. Lack of funds to undertake its tasks
    2. Rivalry from the Germany Company for the control of the region
    3. Hostility and attacks by the local people
    4. Lack of personnel to administer the colony
    5. Lack of co-ordination between the headquarters and company representatives in Kenya
    6. Lack of good means of transport to facilitate the coordination of their activities
    7. Lack of experienced administrators
    8. Tropical diseases and unfavourable climate

 

 (b)  Explain five social effects of colonial rule into the Africans in Kenya

  1. The colonial government introduced Western Education, which undermined indigenous form Education
  2. Hospitals were built and modern medicine introduced, these undermined traditional medicine practices
  3. The introduction of Western health care improved standards of some

Africans in Kenya

  1. The introduction of Christianity created new alliances and divisions among Africans
  2. Colonial rule influenced Africans to adapt to Western values and practices

e.g. new ways of dressing

  1. Colonial rule promoted the construction of permanent and improved building
  2. Colonial rule led to the expansion and improvement of transport and communication system
  3. Improved means of transport and communication promoted interaction between different African communities

 

  1. Name the company which administered Kenya on behalf government up to

    1895

    The imperial British East African Company (I.B.E.A)

 

 

  1. Identify two factors which enabled the white settlers to establish farms in Kenya Highlands during the colonial period

 

  1. Government policy and support i.e. providing loans, land and laborers
  2. Favourable climate i.e. adequate rainfall
  3. Availability of transport/ especially the railway and feeder roads (iv)

   Fertility of the soil

 

  1. (a)  Outline five reasons why the Nandi resisted the imposition of the
    British colonial rule over their territory
    1. They wanted to maintain their independence
    2. They wanted to protect their land
    3. They wanted to reserve their culture
    4. They did not want the Uganda railway to be constructed through their

    territory

    1. They did not want strangers to pass through their territory
    2. They hated the whites because according to mythology they were a sign of a bad omen
    3. They wanted to protect their livestock

 

 (b)  Discuss factors which led to the defeat of the Nandi resistance by the

British

  1. The British were supported by some of the local communities e.g. Somalia and Maasai soldiers so the Nandi warriors were outnumbered.
  2. The British used superior weapons such as repeat rifles while Nandi used spear and arrows
  3. The British tricked the Nandi and used treacherous methods. For example in October 1905, the commander of the British troops in Nandi territory

Captain Meinerzhagen arranged to have a meeting with the Nandi

Orkoiyot, Koitalel Arap Samoei when he had already arranged to kill him. The Orkoiyot was killed in cold blood by the British and this demoralized and weakened the Nandi.

  1. The British used scorched earth policy- They buried down the houses and food stores of the Nandi and confiscated their livestock. The Nandi were deprived of the sources of their livelihood and this forced them into submission
  2. Natural calamities, the small pox, epidemics that broke out in the 1890’s killed many people of the Nandi and weakened the survivors.
  3. Lack of transport from the neighbouring Kenyan communities such as Abaluyhia and Luo

 

  1. Give the MAIN reason why the British were able to conquer Kenyan during the 19th century

 –  Military superiority of the British

 

  1. State two reasons why the British used the imperial British East Africa

    Company (I.B.E.A) to administer her possessions

    1. Absence of clear policy on the administration of colonial possession
    2. Lack of funds/ the colonies were not politically viable
    3. Lack of personnel
    4. IBEA a long experience with the region

 

  1. State ways through which the construction of the Uganda railway contributed to the development of settler farming in Kenya
    1. Provided cheap and reliable transport network
    2. Opened up the Kenyan highland to the settlers

 

  1. Give ONE reason why Africans were denied equal educational opportunities with others races during the colonial period
    1. Europeans aimed to produce and maintain semi- skilled labour force for the colony
    2. Fear of competition from educate Africans/ racial discrimination/ claim for the rights

 

  1. (a)  Why the British become interested in establishing their control over

    Kenya during the second half of the 19th century

    1. Britain wanted to gain access to Uganda so as to control of the Nile
    2. In order to establish a market for her manufactured goods
    3. To use Kenya as an outlet for surplus capital investment
    4. To protect European missionaries and other British nationals who were already settled in Kenya and Uganda
    5. To prevent Kenya from being colonized by other European powers
    6. To stop slave and introduce legitimate trade
    7. To control the fertile highlands

 

 (b)  Explain why some African communities resisted the establishment of

British rule in Kenya

  1. Some communities had established strong socio- political systems which they were not willing to allow foreigners to destroy
  2. Those communities which were (military) superior to their neighbours believed that no other race/ community could defeat them and thus resisted
  3. Some communities resisted because their socio- economic political set ups were strong enough to sustain resistance
  4. They wanted to protect their independence against foreign invaders
  5. Some communities were encouraged by their foreign invaders
  6. Most communities underestimated the military strength of the British
  7. They were against the alienation of their land
  8. They were opposed to forced labour for Europeans farms
  9. Imposition of unpopular elders by the British
  10. Racial discrimination and arrogance of the British (xi)  Lack of political representation

 

  1. Give two reasons why the Africans were opposed to British colonial rule
    1. Land alienation
    2. Imposition of taxes
    3. Loss of independence
    4. Forced labour
    5. Disruption of coastal trade by the British

 

  1. State two terms of the Anglo German Agreement of 1880
    1. A 1 km coastal strip was awarded to the Sultan of Zanzibar (10 miles)
    2. The Islands of Pembe, Pate, Zanzibar and Lamu and river Ruvuma were given to the Germans
    3. Witu and territory between River Umba and Ruvuma were given to the

    Germans

    1. The territory between River Umba and Jumba were given to the British

 

  1. Give one reason why British colonial government encouraged white settlers to come to Kenya

 (i)  To make the colony self- sustaining/ economic viability of the land (ii)

   To produce raw materials for their home industries

 

  1. (a) What factors facilitated the establishment of the British control over

    Kenya
    during the 19th century

    1. Christian missionary factor
    2. Presence of trading company (IBEA)
    3. Superior military power/ good army/ force
    4. Disunity among African Communities
    5. Collaboration of some communities with British/ signing of treaties
    6. The British policy indirect rule
    7. Financial support from home government

 

(b) Why were the British interested in establishing their control over Kenya during the Europeans scramble for Africa?

  1. Had strong military system
  2. Understood the terrain
  3. Adopted guerilla warfare
  4. Had reliable foods supply/ stable economic background
  5. Were proud, confident, community having subdued their neighbouring e.g.

Maasai

  1. Had strong unifying institution of the Koiyot
  2. Kimnyoles prophecies
  3. Superiority in numbers
  4. Distance of replenishing of suppliers e.g. food, arms

 

  1. Give reasons why the British allowed the imperial British East Africa Company to administer their possession in East Africa during Nineteenth century
    1. The British tax payers were not ready to sustain the administration of the colony because it was expensive
    2. The company officials were familiar with the region – based on their trading experience in the area.
    3. The British taxpayers did not see the economic benefits of the colony (iv)

   The British had inadequate personnel

 

  1. Give two reasons why the Uganda railway was built
    1. To link Uganda with Coast
    2. To provide quick, save and convenient means of transport for government administration/ troops
    3. Open up Kenya for economic/ stop slave trade/ for legitimate

 

  1. Identify one institution which advised the governor in Kenya in the administration
    of the colony during the early twentieth century

 (i)  The executive advisory  (ii) The Legislative council

 

  1. Identify one method, which was used by the colonial administration to attack

    European Setters to Kenya

    1. Provide efficient railway transport connecting the coast and the interior
    2. Alienation of the white highland for European settlement
    3. Advertising the availability of free land in Kenya in foreign newspapers
    4. Loans
    5. Security

 

  1. (a)  Describe five results of the collaboration between Mumia of the

    Wanga and the British

    1. Mumia of the Wanga was made a paramount chief of the Abaluhya/ the whole of Western Kenya
    2. He was assisted by the British to subdue his enemies such as the Luo of

    Ugenya and other Abaluhya sub- clans

    1. The British assisted him to expand his kingdom and he rule over a vast area
    2. The kingdom was used as a base in Western Kenya by the British for more

    British people visited Wanga kingdom.

    1. The kingdom was used by the British to subdue/ colonies communities in

    Western Africa

    1. Mumias lost his independence to the British when the Wanga kingdom was made part of the British East Africa Protectorate/ colony
    2. Colonization

 

(b)  Explain six reasons why the British were interested in establishing control over Kenya during the scramble for East Africa

  1. Britain wanted free access through Kenya and Uganda in order to control the source of Nile this was critical to her interests in the Nile Valley and Egypt.
  2. Britain wanted to establish strategic stations along the coast to safeguard their interest in India
  3. Britain wanted a source of raw materials for her industries and market for her manufactured goods
  4. To protect British traders and missionaries who were already operating in the region
  5. To help stop a slavery through direct occupation of the region
  6. To promote legitimate trade in the region by developing other economic ventures e.g. Plantation farming/ investments of surplus capital.

Naturalism plus prestige

 

  1. (a) Why did the Africans resist the colonial rule?
    1. European settlers were provided with large tracts of land which were alienated from Africans through various land legislations
    2. The introduction of forced labour on European farms ensured steady supply of cheap labour
    3. The introduction of Kipande system ensured that Africans remained in employment.
    4. The squatter system ensured that Africans residing on the settlers farms provided that required labour in turn for small plots where they practiced subsistence farming
    5. Forced settlement of Africans in overcrowded and unproductive reserved forced them to seek wage unemployment in settlers’ farm

 

  1. (a)  What economic reason encouraged the British to colonize Kenya

    during the 19th century?

    1. To establish reliable markets for their manufactured goods
    2. To establish source for industrial raw materials for industries in Britain
    3. Control the coast in order to safe guard their trade in the Far East
    4. To stop the slave trade and establish legitimate trade
    5. To find areas to invest surplus capital

     

    (b)  Explain six ways though which the colonial government promoted settler farming

    1. European settlers were provided with large tracts of land while were alienated from Africans through land legislations
    2. The introduction of forced labour on European farms ensured steady supply of cheap labour
    3. The introduction of the Kipande system ensured that Africans remained in employment
    4. The squatter system ensured that Africans residing on the settlers farms provided that required labour in turn for small plots where they practiced subsistence farming
    5. Forced settlements of Africans in overcrowded and unproductive reserved

 forced them to seek wage unemployment in settler’s farm.  




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EcoleBooks | ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN  KENYA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

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