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English interactive series


Welcome to Form Two English interactive series. In this series, we have eighteen lessons covering the four skills of English. You are expected to navigate through this vital English learning resource and interact with the content. You will find many activities and exercises which will help you grasp the concepts addressed in the CD. As you take this exploratory journey through selected topics in English, it is hoped that you will adventure and learn. Welcome! 

Listening and Speaking 

Stress and intonation
In this lesson we will discuss stress and intonation in English language.Stress and intonation are critical to effective communication. Correct placement of stress and correct intonation in English ensure that speech is easy to understand and unambiguous.

Stress and Intonation

In this lesson we will discuss stress and intonation in English language.

Stress

Stress refers to the extra force given to a syllable in a word when articulating it. 
 

Syllables

Word syllables play a big role in stress placement. What then is a syllable? A syllable is the part or parts into which a word is divided. The part usually contains a vowel and one or more consonant sounds. Study the underlined units of the following words. These fragments are known as syllables.

Grammatical function

Stress in a word is important because it affects grammatical function in a sentence. This however applies to some words. If we stress the first syllable, then the word is either a noun or an adjective. If stress is on the second syllable, then it is a verb.
Listen carefully to these words as they are said. Note how the stress on different syllables brings out the differences in word class.
 

  1. His ‘conduct’ was questionable (Noun)
  2. They conduct their business well (Verb)
  3. Mwangi is a ‘frequent visitor to Mombasa (Adjective)
  4. The learners frequent the library during the school holidays (Verb)


Intonation

Intonation is the rise and fall of voice when speaking especially when a desired effect is aimed at in communication.

Application in Speech

In speech, stress and intonation are inseparable as they go hand in hand to make communication effective. Falling intonation is used in statements that have an air of finality, wh-questions, commands and invitations.
The rising intonation is used with questions requiring Yes or No answers and statements intended to be questions.

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Dialogue

A dialogue is a formal discussion between two or more people. It is important for the people involved in a dialogue to be attentive to one another. This can be effective if the persons take turns to speak. Turn-taking ensures that effective communication takes place.

Examples;
Just like adverbs, adverb phrases will state the degree, frequency, place, manner or time of an action. For example:
The classroom is spotlessly clean. (degree)
He whispers all the time. (frequency)
The arrow fell on this spot. (place)
The baby laughed with a lot of glee. (manner)
The guest of honour arrived in the afternoon. (time)

Explanation
In sentence one, fast is an adverb modifying the verbs is walking
In sentence two, very is an adverb modifying the adjective handsome
In sentence three, quite is an adverb modifying the adverb loudly
 

Stress and Intonation

Stress and intonation are critical to effective communication. Correct placement of stress and correct intonation in English are used to ensure that speech is easy to understand and unambiguous and thus avoid confusion.
Objective;
By the end of the lesson, you should able to use correct stress and intonation. 

Background Information

Every community has ways of explaining their origin and heroic deeds
of their people. This is usually done through their myths and legends.The information is passed on from one generation to the next through word of mouth such as songs, proverbs and stories among others.

Objectives
By the end of the lesson, you should be able to;
(a) Identify features of myths.
(b) Identify features of legends.
(c) Explain the differences and similarities between the legends and myths.
(a) Identify features of myths.
(b) Identify features of legends.
(c) Explain the differences and similarities between legends and myths.

Different communities have different stories to explain the creation of the world, origin of human beings, animals and other natural and supernatural phenomena which are beyond human understanding. These stories are referred to as myths and are usually taken seriously in each community. Myths sound like a simple description rather than a story. 

Your knowledge of phrases will be useful in this lesson. As learnt earlier, a phrase is a group of words that forms part of a sentence and does not make sense on its own. A quantifier is a word that shows amount or quantity. Some words that show quantity are:
Plenty
Few
Little
Many
Some
one
two
several

A phrasal quantifier is a group of words that express quantity in terms of amount or number.

Material– describes what something is made from, for example, A wooden spoon. 
Size – tells you how big or small something is, for example a large envelope.
Age – tells you how young or old something or someone is, for example, Fort Jesus is an ancient building. 

Colour – describes the colour of something. For example, A blue dress
Shape – describes how something looks like. For example, a round- faced clock. 
Origin – describes where something/someone comes from, for example, A Kenyan footballer 

Intensive Reading

In this lesson we discuss comprehension and style in poetry and prose

Public writing 

Myths and Legends 
In this lesson we will discuss myths and legends.
Do you have a story in your community where the chameleon or any other animal delayed to deliver an important message to humanity? 
 

Legends

Legends, like myths are also specific to a group of people. They are stories about historical figures, characters or events. They are specific to a particular community. The hero/heroine in a legend usually possesses superhuman qualities. The qualities of legendry figures are sometimes exaggerated and may sound like fantasy. For example, Lwanda Magere, a legendry character among the Luo community had a body of rock and strength was in his shadow.

Attention and Turn Taking

In this section we shall explore the skills of attention and turn taking through use of dialogue.

Watch the following video clip and listen carefully to the dialogue between a prefect and other students. Take note of the instances where effective communication does not take place.

insert here


Now listen to the same prefect and students. Take note of how they demonstrate the listening and speaking skills better by paying attention and taking turns.

You will realize that there is a difference between the two dialogues. For effective communication to take place, one has to consider the following turn-taking features:

Objectives:
By the end of the lesson we should be able to:
Communicate correctly, confidently and appropriately. 
Demonstrate acceptable communication skills. 
Telephone Conversation 
This lesson takes you through correct habits in ordinary face to face conversations and also telephone conversations

Communicate correctly, confidently and appropriately.
This lesson takes you through correct habits in telephone conversations.

Etiquette

Etiquette is a set of rules and conventions governing correct or polite behavior in society in general or in a specific social or professional group or situation. These rules form an important social code of interaction. They are applicable in various settings such as speaking, eating, dressing and working among others. We are going to concentrate on the set of rules and conventions governing the correct behaviour in telephone conversations.

Listen to the telephone conversation and answer the following questions by typing in the correct answers.

Parent: Hallo, I want to speak to the principal 
Secretary: The principal is not in.
Parent: Can I leave a message?
Secretary: That is up to you.
Parent: When will he be back?
Secretary: How can I know, I am just a secretary.
Parent: Then tell him that Grace is sick and will not come to school
Secretary: Which Grace, we have so many Graces in this school.
Parent: Your job is to take in messages and not ask questions.
Secretary: If that is how you feel, then I can not help you. Bye!

Parent: Good morning? Is that Jamii High School? 
Secretary: Yes it is. How may I help you?
Parent: My name is Peter Muli the parent to Grace Muli of form 
2 North. May I speak to the principal please?
Secretary: I am sorry the principal is not in at the moment. Could 
you leave a message?
Parent: Please tell her that Grace is unwell and will not come to 
school tomorrow. 
Secretary: I am very sorry to hear that sir, I will inform the principal 
as soon as she comes in.
Parent: Thank you and have a nice day.
Secretary: Thank you sir. We wish Grace a speedy recovery. 
Let us summarise the points that will help you develop appropriate telephone etiquette. 

A phrasal quantifier is a group of words that express quantity in terms of amount or number
By the end of this lesson you should be able to:

  • Identify phrasal quantifiers in sentences
  • Use phrasal quantifiers in sentence construction
  • Use phrasal quantifiers in sentence construction

In form 1 you were introduced to the correct use of rules in construction of English sentences. In form two, we will further explore these rules. In this lesson we will discuss phrasal quantifiers

  1. Identify phrasal quantifiers in sentences.
  2. Use phrasal quantifiers in sentence construction.



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EcoleBooks | English Form 2 - English interactive series

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