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Adverbs

Lesson Objectives.

Define an adverb.

Identify adverbs in sentences correctly.
Use adverbs of manner, time and frequency in sentences correctly.

Adverbs

Adverbs are words used to describe verbs (actions), adjectives or other adverbs. These words explain how, when and how often an action in a sentence occurs. The following sentences illustrate this idea.

  1. Esther sang the song nicely.
  2. Kubo is washing his shirt now.
  3. The choir practices everyday.

The adverbs nicely, now and everyday give us more information about the verbs or actions mentioned in the sentences above. 

The underlined words in the sentences are adverbs. These are words that explain how, when and how often the actions in the sentences occur.

For example:
How often does Atieno go to school? Everyday 
When is Kamau going to dig his farm? Now
How is Katana pushing the cart? Slowly

There are different kinds of adverbs, in this lesson however, we shall deal with adverbs of frequency (how often), time (when), and manner (how).

Information on nouns and pronouns would be useful in this lesson. Look at the following photograph and name all the nouns.

Some of the nouns in the photograph are: 
tree
nests
house
car
sky

If you want to describe the nouns in the photograph, you may talk of a permanent house, a blue sky or a tall tree. The words permanent, blue and tall are referred to as adjectives. These are words used to describe or tell us more about a noun or pronoun.

The highlighted words are more examples of adjectives:

1. Rosemary owns a beautiful house at Gachie 
2.Mature coconut 
3.Coastal trees 

Palm trees

Gradable and non-gradable adjectives 
A gradable adjective is an adjective which can have -er and -est added to it or be used with “more” and “most” when making comparisons.

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Examples
The tea is hotter than the porridge. 
Pine trees are more beautiful than wattle trees. 
Hot and beautiful are gradable adjectives 
On the other hand, non-gradable adjectives are absolute and therefore not comparable.

Examples 
An atomic bomb was used to destroy the city of Hiroshima. 
Njeri is an American citizen. 
Atomic and a American are non-gradable adjectives 

Identify adjectives in a sentence correctly. 
Give examples of gradable and non gradable adjectives.
Differentiate between gradable and non gradable adjectives.
Use adjectives in sentences correctly

Adjectives

Adjectives are words used to describe or give more information about a noun or a pronoun, for example short, beautiful, new and old as illustrated in the following sentences:

  1. Fatuma bought a beautiful dress.
  2. The farmer used an old lorry.
  3. Ketan drives a new car.

The adjectives used in the sentences above provide more information about the nouns. 
Insert pictures.

Left side: a man feeling cold in a sweater.
Right: a man feeling very cold in an overcoat and a shawl round his neck.
He is also wearing gloves. The man is shivering.
Left side: a bungalow on sale with a price tag of 1.5m.
Right side: a maisonette on sale with a price tag of 2m. 
Left side: a lady driving a big car
Right side: a lady driving a very big car.
Eldoret is _ cold than Limuru.
Sidis car is _ big compared to Damas.
A bungalow is _ expensive than a maisonette.
Insert an alphabet strip so that the learner can type in the answers.

Answers 
Less 
very 
extremely 
Study the sentences below paying attention to the highlighted words.
Diamond is a unique jewel.
My mother has a woolen sweater.
Some of the exhausted players were allowed to rest.
Highlight the words in the boxes in a different colour.
The highlighted words in the sentences are non gradable because they do not indicate degree. That is, they express a complete idea.
Assessment 3

Ungradable Adjectives

Reading is a mental process that involves the ability to interpret words and symbols and assigning them meaning to communicate ideas or thoughts. The ability to read effectively and fluently is vital both for academic purposes and life in general.

Good reading skills will help improve performance in schools, enhance information gathering and learning of concepts. Reading will expose you to new vocabulary ,new sentence structures and good models of language use.

Efficient reading is about reading in a way that allows you to understand the writer’s message without spending too much time in the process. It’s also about reading with a clear purpose in mind so that you only read material that is relevant. When you’re reading in preparation for an essay or for understanding generally, remember that good reading strategies go hand-in-hand with good note taking skills.

Efficient reading starts with choosing a strategy to suit the kind of text you have to read because your purpose in reading and the nature of text to be read will determine your strategy

There are various techniques employed in reading depending on the purpose. In this lesson you are going to explore Skimming and Scanning as examples of techniques commonly used in reading.

Skimming

This means reading the text quickly to understand the main points without studying the text in detail. Skimming is done when one wants to get an overall impression of the text

Scanning

This is done when one wants to locate specific information from a text .Scanning also involves looking through the text or material quickly to get required information. 
 

Lesson Objective.

By the end of the lesson you should be able to read a passage within a given time

Speed Reading

The process of reading involves more than just looking at words. It entails interpreting and assigning meaning to words and symbols to communicate desired information. The speed at which you read is determined by how fast and efficient your eyes transfer the information to the brain and how quickly the brain interprets the message. You have to pratise reading fast in order to save time and at the same time access and process information required within a given time.

Read the passage provided as fast as you can.

The palm tree is a wonder tree. Its fronds can be used to decorate outdoor events when they are freshly cut and green. The dry fronds can be used to make brooms and mats. weaved into ‘Makuti’ pieces, they make beautiful thatching material. Palm trees are also used for timber and firewood. The fruits of the palm tree are very nutritious, palm seeds can also be used to produce palm oil.

In some cases the sap of the young fronds can be tapped and then fermented to make palm wine. All these uses, make the palm tree a major economic resource for the communities living along the Coastal regions.

Create a clock such that the passage disappears from the screen after a minute and a half. Let the students access the same passage if they want to do the exercise again. 

Read the passage again in one minute and try to find answers to the questions below.
What is made from dry fronds?
Which part of the palm tree is said to be very nutritious?
What is fermented to make palm wine?
Which people benefit from the palm tree?

Provide the passage again for only 11/2 minutes and provide a check answer button. The answers are.
Broom and mats
the coconut 
the sap
People living along the coastal region

Read the following passage in 11/2 minutes and as you read try to find answers to the questions below.
What ailments are brought about by smoking?
Why is smoking unhygienic? 
Why is smoking equated to a worm?
Does smoking affect unborn babies?

Smoking is a harmful habit. The tobacco used to manufacturing the cigarettes causes side effects to the smoker.

Tobacco is carcinogenic. It causes cancer of the mouth, oral tract and the lungs. In addiction it causes discoloration of the teeth and the fingers. Not only does smoking affect those who smoke but it also affects the unborn babies in the case of pregnant women who smoke. Passive smokers or those who inhale the smoke indirectly are also at great risk, smoking weakens and clouds the brain and creates thirst of alcohol.
Smoking is also dirty and unhygienic. Many smokers litter their precincts with ashes and cigarette butts.

Tobacco smoking can be equated to a worm that eats you slowly from inside such that by the time the symptoms are visible the damage is irreparable.

Provide a check answer button. The answers are:

Cancer of the mouth, oral tract and lungs.

It’s unhygienic because many smokers litter their precincts with ashes and cigarette butts.
Smoking is equated to a worm because it eats one from the inside and by the time the symptoms are visible, the damage is irreparable.

The process of reading involves more than just looking at words. The speed with which you read is determined by how fast and efficient your eyes transfer what they see to the brain and how quickly the brain interprets the message.

You have to practice reading fast especially when you have to save time. In order to learn how to read fast, one needs to do the following.
Understand how reading takes place.
Read word groups rather than individual words.
Fast: I cooked delicious food for the family.

Slow: I cooked delicious food for the family.
The first sentence has been read by a fast reader while the second is by a slow reader.
Try to avoid distractions like noise, loud music etc.

Read extensively to be informed in various areas.
Keep assessing yourself,. Occasionally time yourself as you read widely on available reading materials.

Poetry is a form of expression either oral or written. Poems can either be sang, recited or chanted to convey desired information. Play the animation below to see the building up of the storm as you read the poem ‘A Sudden Storm’. 

A SUDDEN STORM.
The wind howls, the trees sway,
The loose housetop sheets clatter and clang,
The open window shuts with a bang,
And the sky makes night of the day.
Helter skelter the parents run,
Pressed with a thousand minor cares
Hey, you there! Pack the house wares!
And where on earth is my son?
Home skip the little children
Where have you been, you naughty boy?
The child can feel nothing but joy,
For he loves the approach of the rain.

The streets clear, the houses fill,
The noise gathers as children shout,
To rival the raging wind without,
And naught that can move is still-
A bright flash! A lighted plain;
Then, from the once black heavens,
Accompanied by noise that deafens,
Steadily pours the rain.

Pious Oleghe

African Poetry for schools




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EcoleBooks | English Form 1 - Adverbs

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2 Comments

  • EcoleBooks | English Form 1 - Adverbs

    Bello Isah, September 19, 2023 @ 9:59 am Reply

    Good arrangements

  • EcoleBooks | English Form 1 - Adverbs

    John Nnamaka, September 18, 2023 @ 3:57 pm Reply

    I like this website. Keep it up guys

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