CHAPTER 2

This chapter introduces the student to what Spreadsheets are, the components, application areas and the practical usage.

2.3 create and edit a Spreadsheet

2.4 explain different cell data types

2.5 Apply cell referencing

2.6Apply functions and formulae

2.7 Apply data management skills

2.8 Apply charting and graphing skills

2.9 Print worksheet and graph

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A spreadsheet is a grid that organizes data into columns and rows. Spreadsheets make it easy to display information, and people can insert formulas to work with the data. The columns are marked by letters and the rows are marked by numbers. For example column A, B, C beyond letter 26 i.e Z, the columns are marked as AA, AB etcetera. The intersection of a row and a column is often known as a cell. Each cell has a name known a cell reference. Each cell is named by the column and the row in which the cell falls under. For example, Cell A3 means that it is on column A and row 3. The cell where the cursor is placed operations is known as an Active cell.

A spreadsheet is made up of three key components. These are: worksheet, database and graphs.

2.1.1 Worksheet

A spreadsheet is made up of many worksheets as shown above in the sheet tab. The total sum of all the worksheets, make up a workbook. The figure above is a workbook. Each of these worksheets may hold different sets of information. You can add as many worksheets as you wish in a workbook.

2.1.2 Database

A spreadsheet can hold many records properly ordered in a given format. These records are about particular people or things which make up the records, classified under specified fields. This is a database. Such records are related and could be placed together in one worksheet to mean a file of an entity.

2.1.3 Graphs

A spreadsheet provides a pictorial representation of data in the form of a graph. This is a key feature of a spreadsheet. Whereas words describe analysed data, graphs provide a quick way to visualize the same output.

2.2. Application areas of a spreadsheet

Spreadsheets are often used in the following application areas:

1. Statistical data analysis
2. Accounting
3. Data management
4. Forecasting(what if analysis)
5. Scientific application

2.2.1 Statistical Analysis

2.2.2 Accounting

2.2.3 Data management

2.2.4 Forecasting (what if analysis)

2.2.5 Scientific application

2.3 Creating a worksheet/workbook

2.3.1 Getting started

For purposes of this syllabus we shall use Microsoft Office Excel (MS-Excel).

• Go to start button
• Click Microsoft Office Excel
• The worksheet below will open

2.3.2 Worksheet layout

The following worksheet loads when you click on MS-Excel.

The parts of this worksheet has been explained above, section 2.0. The menus will be explained as we move along. The office button, operations button such as exit, minimize, maximize and restore remain the same as in Ms-Word.

2.3.3 Running the program

 Practical Learning: Starting Microsoft Excel

To start Microsoft Excel, from the Taskbar, click
Start -> (All) Programs -> Microsoft Office ->

Microsoft Office Excel

 The Office Button

 Introduction

When Microsoft Excel opens, it displays an interface divided

in various sections.

The top section displays a long bar also called the title bar.

The title bar starts on the left side with the Office Button .

If you position the mouse on it, a tool tip would appear:

 The Options of the Office Button

When clicked (with the mouse’s left button), the Office Button

As you can see, the menu of the Office Button allows you to

perform the routine Windows operations of a regular application,

including creating a new document, opening an existing file, or

saving a document, etc. We will see these operations in future

lessons.

If you right-click the office button, you would get a short menu:

We will come back to the options on this menu.

 Introduction

On the right side of the Office Button, there is the Quick Access

Toolbar .

Like a normal toolbar, the Quick Access displays some buttons.

appear:

right-click it and click

used for, you can position the mouse on. A tool tip would

appear. Once you identify the button you want,

you can click it.

buttons: Save,

Undo, and Redo. If you want to add more buttons or more

click Customize Quick

box:

click OK.

 The Quick Access Button

On the right side of the Quick Access toolbar, there is the

Customize button with a down-pointing arrow. If you click or

right-click this button, a menu would appear:

The role of this button is to manage some aspects of the top

section of Microsoft Excel, such as deciding what buttons

instead of using the Customize Quick Access

Toolbar menu item as we saw previously, you can click an

option from that menu and its corresponding button would

Commands…

This would open the Excel Options dialog box.

The main or middle area of the top section displays the name

of the application: Microsoft Excel. You can right-click the

title bar to display a menu that is managed by the operating

system.

On the right side of the title bar, there are three system buttons

that allow you to minimize, maximize, restore, or close

Microsoft Access.

Under the title bar, there is another bar with a Help button on

the right side.

 The Ribbon

 Introduction

Under the title bar, Microsoft Excel displays a long bar called the Ribbon:

 Minimizing the Ribbon

By default, the Ribbon displays completely in the top section

of Microsoft Excel under the title bar. One option is to show

it the way the main menu appeared in previous versions of

Microsoft Excel. To do this:

or the Ribbon itself, and click Minimize the Ribbon

• Click or right-click the button on the right side of the

This would display the Ribbon like a main menu:

To show the whole Ribbon again:

or one

of the Ribbon menu items, and click Minimize the

Ribbon to remove the check mark on it

• Click or right-click the button on the right side of the

remove the check mark on it

• Double-click one of the menu items of the Ribbon
 Changing the Location of the Ribbon

and the Ribbon displays under it. If you want, you can switch

their locations.

To do that, right-click the Office Button, the Quick Access

Below the Ribbon:

To put them back to the default locations, right-click the Office

Show Quick Access

Toolbar Above the Ribbon.

 The Tabs of the Ribbon

The ribbon is a type of property sheet made of various property

pages.

Each page is represented with a tab. To access a tab:

• You can click its label or button, such as Home or Create
• You can press Alt or F10. This would display the access key of each tab:

• To access a tab, you can press its corresponding letter

on The keyboard. For example, when the access keys

display, if you press Home, the Home tab would display

• If your mouse has a wheel, you can position the mouse

anywhere on the ribbon, and role the wheel. If you role

the wheel down, the next tab on the right side would

be selected. If you role the wheel up, the previous tab

on the left would be selected. You can keep rolling

the wheel until the desired tab is selected

To identify each tab of the Ribbon, we will refer to them by

their names.

 The Sections of a Tab

Each tab of the ribbon is divided in various sections, each

delimited by visible borders of vertical lines on the left and

right.Each section displays

a title in its bottom side. In our lessons, we will refer to

each section by

that title. For example, if the title displays Font, we will call

that section,

“The Font Section”.

Some sections of the Ribbon display a button . If you see such

a button,

you can click it. This would open a dialog box or a window.

 The Buttons of the Ribbon

Since there are various buttons and sometimes they are

unpredictable,

to know what a particular button is used for, you can

position your mouse on it. A small box would appear to let

you know what that particular button is used for; that

small box is called a tool tip:

You can also use context sensitive help in some cases to

You can add a button from a section of the Ribbon to the

Remember that, to remove a button from the Quick Access

Remove From Quick

 The More Buttons of the Ribbon

In some sections of the Ribbon, on the lower-right section,

there is a button:

That button is used to display an intermediary dialog box for

some action.

We will see various examples as we move on.

 The Size of the Ribbon

When Microsoft Excel is occupying a big area or the whole

area of the monitor, most buttons of the Ribbon appear

with text. Sometimes you may need to use only part of the screen.

That is, you may need to narrow the

Microsoft Excel interface. If you do, some of the buttons may

display part of their appearance and some would display only

an icon. Consider the difference in the following three

screenshots:

In this case, when you need to access an object, you can

still click it or click its arrow. If the item is supposed to have

many objects, a new window may appear and display those

objects:

From this:

To this:

 The Work Area

 The Name Box

Under the Ribbon, there is a white box displaying a name like

A1(it may not display A1…), that small box is called the Name

Box:

 The Insert Function Button

On the right side of the Name box, there is a gray box with

an fx button. That fx button is called the Insert Function button.

 The Formula Bar

On the right side of the Insert Function button is a long empty

white box or section called the Formula Bar:

You can hide or show the Formula Bar anytime. To do this,

on the Ribbon,

click View. In the Show/Hide section:

• To hide the Formula Bar, remove the check mark on the

Formula Bar check box

• To show the Formula Bar, check the Formula Bar check

box

Under the Name Box and the Formula bar, you see the column

headers. The columns are labeled A, B, C, etc:

There are 255 of columns.

On the left side of the main window, there are small boxes

called row

at 1 on top, then 2, and so on:

 The Cells

The main area of Microsoft Excel is made of cells. A cell is the

intersection of a column and a row:

A cell is identified by its name and every cell has a name.

By default,Microsoft Excel appends the name of a row to the

name of a column to identify a cell. Therefore, the top-left

cell is named A1. You can checkthe name of the cell in

the Name Box.

 Practical Learning: Using Cells
1. Click anywhere in the work area and type A
(It doesn’t matter where you click and type)
2. Click another part of the worksheet and type 42XL
3. Click again another place on the worksheet type

Fundamentals

and press Enter

 The Scroll Bars

On the right side of the cells area, there is a vertical scroll bar

that allows you to scroll up and down in case your document

cannot display everything at a time:

In the lower right section of the main window, there is a

horizontal scroll bar that allows you to scroll left and right

has more items than can be displayed all at once:

Sometimes the horizontal scroll bar will appear too long or

too narrow

for you. If you want, you can narrow or enlarge it. To do this,

click and drag the button on the left side of the horizontal

scroll bar:

 The Sheet Tabs

On the left side of the horizontal scrollbar, there are the

worksheet tabs:

By default, Microsoft Excel provides three worksheets to start

with. You can work with any of them and switch to another

at any time by clicking its tab.

On the left side of the worksheet tabs, there are four navigation

buttons:

If you happen to use a lot of worksheets or the worksheet names

Are using too much space, which would result in some

worksheets being

hidden under the horizontal scroll bar, you can use the

navigation buttons to move from one worksheet to another.

 The Status Bar

Under the navigation buttons and the worksheet tabs, the

Status Bar provides a lot of information about the job that

is going on.

 Microsoft Excel File Operations

 Saving a File

A Microsoft Excel file gets saved like any traditional Windows

file.

To save a file:

• You can press Ctrl + S

button

• You can click the Office Button and click Save

Two issues are important. Whenever you decide to save a

file for the first time, you need to provide a file name and

a location. The file name helps the computer identify that

particular file and register it.

A file name can consist of up to 255 characters, you can

Include spaces and dashes in a name. Although there are

many characters you can use in a name (such as

exclamation points, etc), try to avoid fancy names.

Give your file a name that is easily recognizable, a little

explicit. For example such names as Time Sheets,

Employee’s Time

Sheets, GlobalEX First Invoice are explicit enough. Like any

file of the Microsoft Windows operating systems, a Microsoft

Excel file has an extension, which is .xls but you don’t have

to type it in the name.

The second important piece of information you should pay

attention to when saving your file is the location. The location

is the drive and/or the folder where the file will be saved.

By default, Microsoft Excel saves its files in the My

Documents folder. You can change that in the Save As

dialog box. Just click the arrow of the Save In combo box

and select the

folder you want.

Microsoft Excel allows you to save its files in a type of your

choice.

To save a file in another format:

• Press F12 or Shift + F12
• You can click the Office Button and position the mouse

on Save As and select the desired option:

• On the Quick Access Toolbar, you can click the Save button .

Then, in the Save As dialog box, click the arrow of the Save As

Type combo box and select a format of your choice

There are other things you can do in the Save As dialog box:

 Practical Learning: Saving a File
1. To save the current document, on the Quick Access

Toolbar,

2. click the Save button
3. Type Fundamentals
4. Click the Save button

 Saving under a Different Name and New Folder

You can save a file under a different name or in another

location,

this gives you the ability to work on a copy of the file while

the original is intact.

There are two primary techniques you can use to get a file in two

names or the same file in two locations. When the file is not

being used by any application, in Windows Explorer

(or in My Computer, or in My Network Places, locate the file,

right-click it and choose Copy.

To save the file in a different name, right-click

in the same folder and choose Paste. The new file will be named

Copy Of… You can keep that name or rename the new file with

a different name (recommended).

To save the file in a different location, right-click in the

appropriate folder and click Paste; in this case, the file will

keep its name.

In Microsoft Excel, you can use the Save As dialog box to

save a file in

a different name or save the file with the same name

(or a different name) in another folder. The Save As dialog

box also allows you to create a new folder while you are

saving your file (you can even use this technique to create

a folder from the application even if you are not

saving it; all you have to do is create the folder, click

OK to register the folder, and click Cancel on the Save As

dialog box).

 Practical Learning: Save a File With Different Settings
1. To save this file using a different name, click the Office

Button, position the mouse on Save As, and click

Excel 97-2003 Workbook

2. Change the name of the file to

Employment Application

3. On the toolbar of the Save As dialog box, click the
4. Create New

Folder button (if you have a hard time finding it,

press Alt + 5

5. Type My Workbooks and press Enter. The My Files

folder should now display in the Save In combo box.

If you clicked Cancel or pressed Esc now to dismiss the

Save As dialog box, the computer

would still keep the folder

6. After making sure that the My Files folder displays in

the Save In

combo box, click the Save button

 Opening a File

The files you use could be created by you or someone else.

They could be residing on your computer, on another

medium, or on a network. Once one of them is accessible, you can

You can open a document either by double-clicking its icon in

Windows Explorer, in My Computer, from the Find Files Or

Folders

window, in My Network Places, or by locating it in the Open

dialog box.

To access the open dialog box, on the main menu,

click File -> Open…

You can also click the Open button on the Standard toolbar.

A shortcut to call the Open dialog box is Ctrl + O.

2.4 Cell Data Types

The data that you enter in a cell can take any of the

following for types:

Labels- these are data which are in text form. For example

titles on top of the columns or at the start of each row.

Values- these are the result from a calculation. They are

often in the form of numbers, currencies, dates and so on.

Formulae- these are data that uses operators such as

+,-,/,*, Brackets.

Functions- these are the cell data types which contains the

Formulae which the spreadsheet has memorized and is

available in the library. A function usually contains an

equal sign(=),function name such as sum, average, maximum

and so on, values to be used with the function. Example

of a function in a cell would be: =sum(A2:A4).

2.4 Cell referencing

A cell must have a cell address. The name of the cell. The

Cells are addressed using column letter and row number.

For example cell A3, means a cell positioned on column A

and row 3. Microsoft Excel, just like any other spreadsheets,

work with cell references instead of values. This is because

the references provide an easy way to amend contents of a

Example of use of a cell reference:

The first uses cell references to add the two numbers. When

this happens, you can easily change the contents of any of

the two cells, and immediately the answer will change to

correspond with the change you have made. In the second

formula, even if you change the content of the formula,

the answer will not change at all.

2.4.2 Absolute Referencing

A cell whose contents need to remain constant

Throughout the calculation period is referred to as

Absolute reference. It is usually denoted by a dollar sign

thus, \$B\$2, this can be done simply by highlighting

the cell reference and then pressing F4 on the Keyboard

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