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SAFETY IN OUR ENVIRONMENT

FIRST AID AND SAFETY
First aid is an immediate assistance care given to a sick or injured person before getting professional medical help.
IMPORTANCE OF FIRST AID
  • It helps to save life.
  • It helps to prevent the victim’s condition from becoming worse.
  • It also promotes recovery.
  • It helps reduce pain and suffering.
  • It helps to reassure the victim/ to restore confidence to the victim.
THE FIRST AID KIT
The first aid kit is the small box which contains items that are for providing first aid. This box should be clearly labeled “first aid” and stored in a safe and easily accessible place for instance on a shelf, on the wall in a laboratory or in a staff room.
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COMPONENTS OF FIRST AID KIT AND THEIR USES
SN
ITEM
USE
1
Plaster or adhesive bandage
Covering small wounds
2
Sterile gauze
Covering wounds to protect them from dirty and germs
3
Antiseptic
Cleaning wounds to kill germs
4
Soap
Washing hands/ wounds and equipment
5
pain killers
Relieving pain
Note: they should be placed regularly
6
scissor and razor blade
Cutting dressing materials
7
safety pins
Securing bandage
8
Bandages
Keeping dressing in place and immobilizing injured limbs
9
cotton wool
Cleaning and drying wounds
10
Thermometer
Taking body temperature
11
Disposable sterile gloves
Preventing direct contact with victim’s body fluids
12
petroleum jelly
Smoothing chapped skin
13
Torch
As a source of light
14
Whistle
Blown to call for help
15
Spirits
To kill germs in wound
The following are First Aid procedures that can help people in various situations;
Bee sting
Treatment
When a person is stung by a bee sting remains on the skin.
Remove the sting by scraping gently using a blunt object such as a plastic card
  • Do not use your fingers or sharp object because this makes Bee sting to release more venom into the body.
  • Wash the sting area with soap and water.
  • Apply baking soda paste or salt water on the bee sting.
  • The sting acidic baking soda/salt is base and it neutralizes the acid.
  • Apply a cold compress to relieve pain and swelling
Note:
If a victim develops allergic reaction, take the person to hospital immediately.
Electric shock
This is a sudden painful feeling that somebody gets when electricity passes through the body. Electric shock is caused by touching or stepping an exposed naked electricity live cable
Treatment
Remove the patient from the source of the danger.
  1. Switching off the electricity current
  2. Protecting yourself with a dry insulation materials such as rubber gloves or wrap your hand in dry clothing
  3. Loosen any light clothing around the neck, chest and waist
  4. Start artificial respiration immediately if the victim is unconscious
  5. Take the patient to the hospital immediately
Shock
This is the sudden violent disturbance of the mind or emotions.
Causes of Shock
  • Bad news
  • A frightening traumatic scene
  • Severe illness
  • Dehydration
  • Severe allergic reaction
  • Heavy bleeding inside the body
Treatment
  1. Have the person lie down with his feet higher than his head. However if he/she has a severe head injury put him/her a half sitting position.
  2. Stop any bleeding
  3. If the person feels cold, cover him with a blanket.
  4. If he/she is conscious and able to drink, give him/her sips of water or other soft drinks.
  5. Keep calm and rescue the person
Note:
If the person is conscious, lay he/she on his/her side with head low lifted back and to one side. If they seem to be shocked pull his/her tongue forward with your finger. Do not give him/her anything by the mouth until become conscious.
Wounds
Treatment
  1. First wash your hand with soap and water, then wash the abrasions gently and dry it
  2. Apply some gentian violet solution (GV) to keep it clean and dry more quickly
  3. When cleaning the wound be careful to clean all the dirty lift up and clean under any flaps of skin
  4. After the wound has been cleaned, place a piece of clean gauze or cloth over the top
Bleeding
a) Nose bleeding
Nose bleeding may occur as a result of
  1. Blowing the nose too hard as a result of dried mucus
  2. A punch direct to the nose from another person
  3. High blood pressure
  4. Air pressure changes
Treatment
  • Sit quietly
  • Blow the nose firmly for 10 minutes or until bleed stops. It is advised to breathe through mouth.
  • If this does not control bleeding, pack the nostril a wrap of cotton. Leaving part of outside the nose if possible. First wet the cotton with hydrogen.
Vomiting
To vomit is to remove food from the stomach through the mouth. It can be caused by food poisoning, contaminated water, fever or excessive eating.
Treatment
The person should get adequate rest. Give lots of fluids make a re-hydration drink by mixing 1 liter of clean water, 1.5 spoon of salt and 4 to 5 spoon of sugar.
Muscle cramps and sprains
  1. Sprains
It’s possible to know whether a hand or foot is bruised, sprained or broken, it helps to have an x- ray. To release pain and swelling, keep the sprained part raised high. Put the ice, wrapped in a cloth or plastic bag or cold wet cloth over the swollen joint for 20 to 30 minutes. Once even hour (when the swelling is no longer getting worse, soak the sprain in hot water several times a day.
Muscle cramps
Muscle cramp is sudden, involuntary and painful contraction of a single muscle or group of muscle. The cause of muscle cramps include
  1. Poor coordination of the muscle during exercise
  2. Cold
  3. Excessive loss of salt and body fluids due to too much sweating ,severe diarrhea or persistent vomiting (Dehydration)
Treatment foot muscle cramps
  • Help the victim to stand
  • When the first contraction is over, let the victim sit down.
  • Straight on the victim knee and draw his or her foot firmly and steadily upward towards the shin
  • Massage the muscle
  • Get the medical help if the cramps do not stop
POISONING
A poison is any substance that causes harm if it’s swallowed, inhaled or absorbed into the body. If the poison has been breathed in, move the person outside where there is plenty of fresh air, if the victim is not breathing start mouth breathing to move resuscitation.
If the poison has been swallowed, give a glass of milk or water or both. This helps to dilute and neutralize the poison, don’t introduce vomiting if the poison is a corrosive. Introduce vomiting if the poison is none corrosive substances. Vomiting can be induced by putting your finger in the victim’s throat or by making the victims gargle soap water or raw egg yolk, take the person to hospital immediately.

EXERCISE
WRITE TRUE OR FALSE
  1. You should induce vomiting, if a person has swallowed kerosene TRUE.
  2. First aid helps to rescue the victim TRUE.
  3. You should remove bee stings, using a needle FALSE.
  4. Before taking a snake bite victim to hospital you must first capture the snake TRUE.
  5. It is important to reduce the rate at which poison spread in the body TRUE.
  6. You should move a victim of electric shock using a metal object FALSE.
  7. A person who is nose bleeding should lie down TRUE.
  8. We can use clean water, salt and sugar to make a re-hydration drink for person who has vomited TRUE.
SAFETY AT HOME AND SCHOOL
Many accidents occur in our schools as well as at home, children handicapped are more to get accidents. The common accidents at home and school including drowning poisoning, choking, cuts and scratches, falls, bites and electric shock.
Common accidents and how to prevent them
Accident
Preventing and safety and how to prevent them
Fire burns and scalds
Switch off Bunsen burners and cookers which not in use
Drowning
– Don’t go swimming alone
– Use a bridge when crossing rivers and streamsEXERCISE
WRITE TRUE OR FALSE
  1. You should induce vomiting, if a person has swallowed kerosene TRUE.
  2. First aid helps to rescue the victim TRUE.
  3. You should remove bee stings, using a needle FALSE.
  4. Before taking a snake bite victim to hospital you must first capture the snake TRUE.
  5. It is important to reduce the rate at which poison spread in the body TRUE.
  6. You should move a victim of electric shock using a metal object FALSE.
  7. A person who is nose bleeding should lie down TRUE.
  8. We can use clean water, salt and sugar to make a re-hydration drink for person who has vomited TRUE.
– Avoid going near water bodies when its dark
– Don’t allow children to play near the water bodies
– Cover or fence all pools of water in the home or school
Falls
– always walk careful
– avoid playing dangerous games like climbing trees and walls
– put up signs to indicate where there stairs or steps
– do not run unnecessarily
– wipe spilled liquids on the floor immediately
– do not leave fruits and vegetable peels on the floor
Poisoning
– label all containers clearly
– store all poisonous substances in a safe lockable place when not in use
Choking
– do not talk while eating
– s
it up right when eating or drinking
– eat slowly and do not take part in eating competition
– do not give children small objects to play with as they could put them in the mouth
Bites and stings
– don’t irritate animals
– stay away from beehives and wasp net
– cut bushes and fall grasses that could have dangerous animals
Cuts and stretches
– store sharp tools in the safe place
– property dispose of broken glass and empty tins
– do not walk bare foot outside
– do not plant thorny bushes very near
– do not give children sharp objects to play with
Electric shock
– switch off electrical appliance that are being used
– do not touch electrical equipments with your hands
– ensure all electrical appliances are properly installed
– do not push sharp object in to electric switch




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EcoleBooks | BIOLOGY O LEVEL(FORM ONE) NOTES - SAFETY IN OUR ENVIRONMENT

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1 Comment

  • EcoleBooks | BIOLOGY O LEVEL(FORM ONE) NOTES - SAFETY IN OUR ENVIRONMENT

    Mpmbpemba, March 15, 2024 @ 1:39 pm Reply

    I have to study for my exam has passed thanks

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