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THIRD TERM E-LEARNING NOTE

 

SUBJECT: GOVERNMENT  CLASS: SS2

 

WEEK  TOPIC

  1. Nigeria Federalism-Origin.
  2. Factors Responsible For Nigeria Federation; The Structure, Features And Problems of Nigeria Federalism.
  3. The Development of Political Parties In Nigeria (i) Nigeria National Democratic Party
  4. (NNDP) (ii) The Nigeria Youth Movement (NYM) (iii) The National Council of Nigeria and
  5. Cameroon (N.C.N.C.)
  6. (i) Northern People’s Congress (N.P.C) (ii) The Action Group (A.G.)
  7. Minor Political Parties of First Republic- U.M.B.C., N.E.P.U.-Second Republican Political
  8. Parties – National Party of Nigeria (N.P.N), Unity Party of Nigeria (U.P.N)
  9. Nigeria People’s Party (N.P.P), Great Nigeria People’s Party (G.N.P.P.), People’s
  10. Redemption Party (P.R.P.), Nigeria Advance Party (N.A.P)
  11. Major Political Crises in Nigeria– (i) Kano Riot of 1953, (ii) Census Crises of 1962/63
  12. (i) Action Group Crises of 1962 (ii) Federal Election Crises of 1964.
  13. (i) Western Nigeria Election Crises of 1965 (ii) General election Crises of 1979 and 1983
  14. Kaduna State Executive/ Legislative Crises of 1981.
  15. The Nigeria Civil War.
  16. Revision/ Examination.

 

 

WEEK ONE

TOPIC: Nigerian Federalism

CONTENT

  • Origin

 

ORIGIN OF NIGERIAN FEDERALISM

Nigerian federalism can be traced far back to 1914, when the Northern and Southern protectorates were amalgamated though with unitary form of administration. Since then, governmental powers that existed in Nigeria started to be shared between the central government headed by the governor-general and the governments of Northern and Southern protectorates headed by the lieutenant governors. Therefore, with the autonomous parts of Northern and the Southern province, the administrative system of Nigeria wore a somehow outlook of a

federation.

 

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The further division of the country into three regions in 1946 by the then Governor of Nigeria Sir Arthur Richards under the Richards constitutional arrangements, gave more support to the emergence of Nigeria with a federal system of government. The 1951 Macpherson constitution gave further concrete support to the establishment of a federal system of government in Nigeria.

 

Apart from the division of Nigeria into three regions of Northern, Western and Eastern regions, the constitution appointed lieutenant governors to head these regions and granted legislative powers to the legislative and executive councils that were established. The 1954 Lyttleton constitution removed the final shades of unitary state from Nigeria by establishing a true federal state. The constitution that took effect from October 1, 1954 shared powers between the central and the regional government. The constitution went further to re-organize the judiciary in order to be inline with the federal structure of the country. Federalism involves the sharing of powers between the central government and other subordinate units(s), e.g. local government and state/ region. In 1954, we had two tiers of government- the central and regions, both had their powers defined and shared by the constitution. Exclusive legislative functions went to the central government; concurrent legislative functions went to both the central and regional governments while residual functions went to the regions.

 

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. What is exclusive list?
  2. What is concurrent list?

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Trace the origin of Nigeria Federalism.
  2. How did the Richards constitution promote federalism in Nigeria?
  3. How did the Lyttleton constitution establish true federalism in Nigeria?
  4. Discuss the positive and negative impact of colonialism.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Comprehensive Government Pages170-173

Essential Government Pages 187-190

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The list under which the federal government alone can legislate upon is called — (a) exclusive list (b) residual list (c) executive list (d) executive list
  2. The list under which both the state and the federal government can legislate upon is called (a) residual list (b) exclusive list (c) concurrent list (d) legislative list
  3. A system whereby governmental powers are shared between the central and component regions is referred to as (a) unitary system (b) a federal system (c) a confederal system (d) a presidential system
  4. True federalism started from — (a) 1954 (b) 1914 (c) 1952 (d) 1960
  5. The division of Nigeria into three regions was done under the – (a) Clifford constitution (b) Macpherson constitution (c) Richard’s constitution (d) Lyttleton constitution

 

THEORY

  1. What is federalism?
  2. How was it established in Nigeria?

     

    WEEK TWO

    TOPIC: FEDERALISM

    CONTENT

  • Factors responsible for Nigerian federation and structure of federalism
  • Features and problems of Nigerian Federalism

     

    FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR NIGERIAN FEDERALISM

    • Cultural diversity: Differences in culture, religion, language, custom, tradition, etc among different ethnic groups make the operation of a federal system possible.
    • The fear of one ethnic group dominating others necessitated the establishment of federalism in Nigeria.
    • To protect the interest of minority groups.
    • The large population and wide geographical areas of Nigeria, makes it necessary to establish federalism in Nigeria.
    • To ensure rapid and even development of all parts of Nigeria.
    • To bring government near to the people of Nigeria.
    • To bring about the division of powers in order to reduce the burden involved and make the art of governance less energy sapping, time saving, less fatiguing and make government more effective.
    • To create more employment opportunities through the division of powers and the duplication of ministries and offices.
    • To make it possible for diverse laws that will suit the diverse communities in Nigeria.
    • In order to preserve the local independence or autonomy of every ethnic group in Nigeria.

     

    EVALUATION

    State 5 reasons for the establishment of federalism in Nigeria.

     

    THE STRUCTURE OF NIGERIAN FEDERALISM

    The structure of federalism in Nigeria will be discussed based on the following;

  1. Federalism before independence.
  2. 1960-1966.
  3. 1967-1975.
  4. 1976 to date.

 

FEDERALISM BEFORE INDEPENDENCE

The colonial system of government in Nigeria introduced centralization of power. So, from the time of Clifford till about 1939, powers of administration and government were centralized. The other constitutions of Richards of 1946, and Macpherson of 1951 contributed in giving Nigeria different shades of the structure of federalism. It was 1954 Lyttleton constitution that gave Nigeria a true structure of federalism. The constitution which took effect from October 1, 1954, shared powers between the central and regional governments. The constitution changed the lieutenant-governor’s status to that of governor and the governor to that of governor-general at the federal level. It spelt out how legislative powers should be shared between the centre and the regions in a true federal spirit.

 

 

FEDERALISM BETWEEN 1960 AND 1966

The independence constitution which came into force on October 1, 1960 and which conferred independence status on Nigeria incorporated the federal structure started by Lyttleton constitution of 1954. The independence constitution introduced some minor modifications to the federal structure of Nigeria. This constitution retained the procedure for sharing powers and functions between the central and regional governments as was stipulated in the 1954 constitution. Under the independence constitution, one important feature of Nigeria federalism right from1954 constitution up to 1963 republican constitution is the division of the country into unequal regions. For instance the Northern region was larger than the Eastern and Western regions put together. The 1963 Republican constitution increased the regions from three to four with the creation of Mid-Western region.

 

FEDERALISM BETWEEN 1967 AND 1975

This period was the evolution of the military in the political system. The military stunted the growth of political culture in the country. Not only that, it systematically destroyed all democratic and political institutions and other basic features of federalism. The government of Aguiyi Ironsi introduced a unitary system into the country with the promulgation of decree No 34. The overthrow of Major General J.T.U. Aguiyi Ironsi and the coming to power by the then Lt. Col.Yakubu Gowon caused antagonism between the Northern and Eastern regions. Yakubu Gowon created 12 states in an attempt to weaken Ojukwu’s attempt from seceding the Eastern region from Nigeria. Three days after the creation of states by Gowon, Ojukwu proclaimed the Eastern region as an independent state of Biafra. This led to the civil war which started in July 1967.

 

FEDERALISM FROM 1976 TO DATE

When General Murtala Mohammed came to power in 1975, a panel headed by Justice Ayo Irikefe was set up to look into the issue of creation of states in the country. As a result of the panel’s recommendation, seven more states were created on February 3, 1976, thereby bringing the number of states to 19. Two additional states of Katsina and AkwaIbom were created on 23rd September 1987 by General Ibrahim Babangida’s administration. In 1991, 27th August, General Ibrahim Babangida administration also increased the number of states in Nigeria to 30 states by creating additional 9 states. General Sanni Abacha further increased the number of states in Nigeria to 36 by creating additional 6 states on October1, 1996. Abuja remains the federal Capital Territory (FCT), with its own minister. Beside the Federal and State governments, Nigerian federalism contains local government that is concerned with their respective localities alone. It is the third level or tier of government which is subordinate to the federal and state governments and it is rested with the authority to perform local functions. Presently, that is, as at the period the book is being revised, the number of existed local governments in Nigeria is seven hundred and seventy-four(774).

 

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

Explain the structure of Nigeria federalism before independence

 

FEATURES OF NIGERIAN FEDERALISM

  • Constitutional division of power: There is division and sharing of governmental powers between the federal and regional government.
  • Written and rigid: The constitution adopted is rigid and written.
  • The different governments in Nigeria derive their powers from the constitution
  • Supremacy of the constitution.
  • Separation of powers: The constitution separated functions and personnel among the three organs of government-executive, legislature and the judiciary.
  • Existence of bicameral legislature.
  • Existence of Supreme Court for judicial interpretation and review.
  • The division of Nigeria into unequal regions/states.
  • Duplication of organs of government in all governments in Nigeria.
  • Secession is not allowed in a federal system.

 

PROBLEMS OF NIGERIA FEDERALISM

  • Revenue allocation: This has been the major problem in Nigeria. Government at different periods, haveset up commissions to advise on the acceptable revenue sharing formula, especially, as it affects the three tiers of government.
  • The problem of state creation: Almost every interest group in the country wants a state. This may not be possible in a country with over 250 different ethnic groups.
  • The problem of federal character: Appointments into federal establishments are not always based on merit. The various ethnic nationalities or groups must be considered in the allocation of appointments. This remains a problem in the Nigerian federalism.
  • Threat of secession: This threat by some units as a factor of divided allegiance or loyalty of citizens poses a great problem to a federal system.
  • The problem of minorities: Nigeria is made up of many ethnic groups consisting both majority and minority groups. The minorities are always afraid that the majority will dominate them to the extent that issues of national importance are affected.
  • Ethnic disharmony: There could be distrust among the various ethnic groups in a federal state. This can affect the unity and the very corporate existence of the country.
  • Boundary disputes: This has been a continuous problem between states or local governments and has capacity to threaten the corporate existence of the nation state.
  • Corruption, favoritism and nepotism: These are problems of the Nigerian federalism.
  • Power sharing: Power sharing among the component units creates a problem to the Nigerian federalism because it is not always properly defined.
  • Census: For some time now in the affairs of this country, there has been the problem of conducting reliable and acceptable census.

 

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. State five features of Nigerian federalism.
  2. How is revenue allocation a problem to Nigeria federalism?

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Account for the structure of Nigerian federalism between 1960-1963.
  2. Discuss the creation of states in Nigeria since 1967.
  3. Highlight 4 characteristics of a federation.
  4. What are the shortcomings associated with Nigerian Federalism?
  5. Discuss five features of nationalism before independence.
  6. How did the education contribute to nationalist activities in Nigeria?

 

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Essential Government Pages 187-193

Comprehensive Government pages 170-173

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The following are reasons for adopting a federal system of government except (a) to bring the government closer to the people (b) size of the country (c) homogeneous nature of the country (d) to protect the interest of minorities
  2. _____states were created by the Gowon’s regime (a) 11 (b) 9 (c) 12 (d) 10
  3. One of the following is not a main feature of the Nigerian federalism (a) unwritten constitution (b) division of powers (c) uniform development (d) supremacy of the constitution
  4. One of the major problems facing Nigerian federalism is – (a) revenue allocation (b) under population (c) good governance (d) over population
  5. The distribution of amenities and resources/employments based on quota system is called (a) revenue allocation (b) regionalism (c) federal character (d) constituency

 

THEORY

  1. Mention 6 factors responsible for Nigerian federalism.
  2. Identify some of the problems of the Nigeria federalism.

 

 

WEEK THREE

TOPIC: THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN NIGERIA

CONTENT

  • Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP).
  • The Nigerian Youth Movement (N.Y.M.).
  • The National Council of Nigeria and Cameroon (N.C.N.C.).

 

NIGERIAN NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY (NNDP)

The Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP) was formed in 1923, following the introduction of the elective principle by Clifford constitution of 1922. It was the first political party in Nigeria and was founded by Nigeria‘s father of nationalism, Herbert Macaulay. The party controlled the four elective legislative seats from 1923 to 1938. The Nigeria National Democratic Party (NNDP) also founded Lagos Daily News. This helped to aid political activities and campaigns of the party. The party was exclusively based in Lagos and had no national outlook as it name claimed. The party won all the three seats allocated to Lagos in the legislative council in the elections of 1923, 1928 and 1933.

 

THE NIGERIAN YOUTH MOVEMENT

The Nigeria Youth Movement (NYM) was formed in 1935. It was initially known as Lagos Youth Movement. The objective of the National Youth Movement was complete autonomy for Nigeria. In 1938, all the four elective seats in the legislative council were won by the Nigerian Youth Movement at the expense of the Nigerian National Democratic Party. Ernest Ikoli and Samuel Akinsanya were two of the party’s leaders. Internal party dispute led to the party’s destruction in 1944.

 

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF NYM

  • To fight for the improvement of Yaba Higher College by getting it affiliated to British University.
  • To gain independence for Nigeria.
  • To work towards the unity of Nigeria.

 

ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE NIGERIAN YOUTH MOVEMENT

  • It won all the three elective seats allocated to Lagos in the legislative council.
  • It acted as the first nationalist movement with a national outlook.
  • NYM gave birth to modern nationalism in Nigeria.
  • The movement promoted Nigerian unity and national consciousness.
  • The movement established a powerful newspaper called Daily Service.
  • NYM set the machinery in motion for the political emancipation of Nigeria.

 

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • Explain the formation of the Nigerian National Democratic Party( NNDP)
  • State the aims of the Nigerian Youth Movement.

 

THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF NIGERIA AND CAMEROON (NCNC)

The National Council of Nigeria and Cameroon (NCNC) was formed in August1944. The first president was Herbert Macaulay and the first general secretary was Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe. At the death of Macaulay, Azikiwe took over as the president. The NCNC was the first political party to be organized to seek total independence for Nigeria.

 

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE NCNC

  • To achieve self government for Nigeria.
  • To spread political education to the people.
  • To arouse the political consciousness of the masses.
  • To organize and collaborate with all its branches throughout the country.
  • To provide members with a medium of expression.

 

THE CONTRIBUTIONS/ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE NCNC

  • The party encouraged the unity of Nigeria and helped in the struggle for self government in Nigeria.
  • The party encourages Nigerians on their political rights.
  • It introduced and published the West Africa Pilot which served as a powerful platform for opposing colonial rule.
  • The party was the brain behind nationalist opposition to the 1946 Richard’s Constitution.
  • The NCNC formed the first regional government of Eastern region and contributed greatly to its development.
  • It formed coalition government with NPC in 1960 and produced the first president.
  • The NCNC raised the funds which were used in sending protest delegation against 1946 constitution to London.

 

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • Explain the formation of NCNC.
  • What were the aims and objectives of NCNC?

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Explain the origin of NNDP.
  2. Who were the founding fathers of NYM?
  3. Enumerate the contributions made by the NCNC.
  4. Discuss 5 internal factors that gave rise to nationalist movement in Nigeria.
  5. Highlight 5 factors that gave rise to slow nationalist movement in French West Africa.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Comprehensive Government pages 175-17- Essential Government pages 194-195

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The first political party in Nigeria was established by —- (a) Ernest Ikoli (b) Herbert Macaulay (C) Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe (d) Obafemi Awolowo
  2. The Nigeria National Democratic Party was formed in —- (a) 1923 (b) 1925 (c) 1942 (d) 1950
  3. The first political party to seek for the independence of Nigeria was —- (a) NCNC (b) NNDP (c) NYM (d) UPN
  4. The Nigerian Youth Movement was formally known as —- (a) People’s party (b) United party (c) Lagos Youth Movement (d) Progressive Front
  5. One of the following was the founding father of the NYM (a) Herbert Macaulay (b) Samuel Akinsanya(c) ObafemiAwolowo (d) Tafawa Balewa

     

THEORY

  1. What were the achievements of the Nigerian Youth Movement?
  2. What contributions did NCNC make to the political development of Nigeria?

 

 

WEEK FOUR

TOPIC: THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN NIGERIA

CONTENT

  • Northern People’s Congress (NPC)
  • The Action Group (AG)

 

THE NORTHERN PEOPLE’S CONGRESS (NPC)

The Northern People’s Congress (NPC) emerged from a socio-cultural group in Northern Nigeria. The party was formed in 1951 under the leadership of Sir Ahmadu Bello with Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa as deputy. The party was dominated by the Hausa/Fulanis, and Islam was the main focus. It ruled northern Nigeria from 1951-1965. The party produced the first prime minister of Nigeria.

 

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF NPC

  • To develop the North, both politically and economically.
  • To work towards making the North autonomous
  • To create an atmosphere for common understanding among the people of the North.
  • To help in educating the Northerners on their political rights.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF NPC

  • It controlled and ruled northern Nigeria for a number of years.
  • The party produced the first prime minister of Nigeria and ruled throughout the first republic.
  • The party created an atmosphere for common understanding among the people of the North.
  • The party was involved in most of the constitutional conferences, both within and outside Nigeria.
  • The party helped to educate the people on their political rights and also increased the political awareness of the people of the North.

 

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • Explain the formation of the Northern People’s Congress (NPC)
  • What were the aims and objectives of the party?

 

THE ACTION GROUP

The Action Group (AG) was formed from a Yoruba cultural association, EgbeOmoOduduwa, in 1951. Late chief Obafemi Awolowo was the founder and leader of AG. Other prominent members of the party were chief Bode Thomas, S.L. Akintola, Rewane, chief Shonibare, Yoruba traditional rulers including the late Ooni of Ife, Sir AdesojiAderemi.

 

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF ACTION GROUP

  • To contest and win elections and control western region.
  • To challenge the political dominance of the NCNC.
  • To co-operate and work with other nationalists towards the achievement of independence for Nigeria.
  • To co-operate and strengthen all tribal organizations in the western region.

 

THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF ACTION GROUP

  1. It dominated Western Nigeria‘s political scene for about 11 years.
  2. Action group formed the opposition party in the House of Representatives which played the role of a watchdog.
  3. Action group introduced free primary education in the Western region in 1955.
  4. The party played a significant role in the nationalist struggle for the independence of Nigeria.
  5. Action Group tried to enlighten the masses by providing political education for them.
  6. The party was in the forefront in the agitation for the 1951 constitutional reforms.
  7. The motion for self government was moved by Chief Anthony Enahoro in 1953. He was a member of Action Group.

 

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. Explain the formation of Action Group.
  2. What were the aims and objectives of the party?

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. State the contributions of the Action Group (A.G.).
  2. What were the achievements of NPC?
  3. Mention the names of the founding fathers of Action Group (A.G.).
  4. Explain the composition of the Nigerian Council of 1914.
  5. State 5 effects of the National Congress of British West Africa.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Comprehensive Government pages 177-179

Essential Government pages 197-199

 

WEEKEND ASSINGMENT

  1. The Action Group was formed in — (a) 1952 (b) 1951 (c) 1956 (d) 1936
  2. The Northern People’s Congress was formed under the leadership of—- (a) Nnamdi Azikiwe (b) Sir Ahmadu Bello (c) Chief Obafemi Awolowo (d) Tafawa Balewa
  3. The first Nigerian prime minister was produced by —- (a) Action Group (b) Nigerian National Democratic Party (c) Northern People’s Congress (d) Middle Belt Congress
  4. The Action Group was dominated by the— region (a) Western (b) Eastern (c) Northern (d) Mid- Western
  5. ___ was the main focus of the Northern People’s Congress (a) Islam (b) Christianity (c) Tradition (d) Employment

 

 

THEORY

  1. What were the contributions of the Action Group?
  2. What were the aims and objectives of the Northern People’s Congress (NPC)

 

 

WEEK FIVE

TOPIC: MINOR POLITICAL PARTIES

CONTENT

  • The United Middle Belt Congress (UMBC).
  • The Northern Element Progressive Union (NEPU).
  • Political Parties in the Second Republic (The National Party of Nigeria (NPN), Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN).

 

UNITED MIDDLE BELT CONGRESS (UMBC)

The United Middle Belt Congress was founded in 1955 under the leadership of late J.S. Tarka. The party concentrated its political activities in the middle belt and demanded for the creation of a middle belt region out of the Northern region.

 

NORTHERN ELEMENT PROGRESSIVE UNION (NEPU)

The Northern Element Progressive Union was formed in August 1950 under the leadership of Late Mallam Aminu Kano. The political party was both radical and democratic.

 

POLITICAL PARTIES IN THE SECOND REBUBLIC

The National Party of Nigeria(NPN)

The NPN was officially launched in September 1978 in Lagos after the lifting of ban on party politics. The NPN could be seen as an off shoot of NPC (first republican political party). The major bulk of the leaders of the NPN came from the former NPC and few others from other parts of the country. The leaders included; AlhajiAliyuMakamaBida, Ali Monguno, ShehuShagari, AdamuCiroma, AdisaAkinloye ( the party’s chairman) etc.

 

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF NPN

  • To develop an enviable housing scheme for all at both urban and rural settings.
  • To build a strong and united nation where contented citizens would live in peace and harmony.
  • To show respect to the provisions of the constitution.
  • To build a prosperous and self- reliant Nigeria based on a strong agricultural and industrial sector where all Nigerians would be given equal opportunities regardless of sex, race, religion or tribe.

 

CONTRIBUTION OF THEN.P.N

  • National party: The party had a true national coloration because it members spread to almost all parts of the country.
  • The party won the 1979 and 1983 republican presidential election.
  • The party produced the first executive president for the country.
  • The party also won governorship election in seven states of the federation.
  • N.P.N. to some extent implemented its housing scheme in all the states.
  • The party helped in producing seasoned politicians who can stand the test of type anytime and anywhere.

 

 

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. Briefly explain the formation of the United Middle Belt Congress.
  2. Mention 3 aims and objectives of N.P.N.

 

UNITY PARTY OF NIGERIA (UPN)

It was the UPN that emerged as the first political association after the ban on political activities was lifted by the military government. Chief Obafemi Awolowo was the founder and leader of UPN. Other prominent personalities of the party included; Chief AdekunleAjasin, AlhajiLateefJakande, Chief Bola Ige, Chief BisiOnabanjo, Professor Ambrose Alli, etc. Chief Obafemi Awolowo was the presidential candidate of the party. Majority of the members of UPN belonged to the first republic Action Group.

 

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF UPN

  • Free education at all levels.
  • Integrated rural development.
  • Free health services for all citizens.
  • Full and gainful employment for all the able bodied.

 

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE UPN

  • The party won gubernatorial elections in five states in 1979 and lost one of them in 1983 elections.
  • UPN successfully acted as a strong opposition party that reduced the excesses of the ruling NPN.
  • The party introduced free education in all the states won by UPN.
  • The party produced eminent politicians in Nigeria.
  • The party helped to educate the citizens through their programmes and activities e.g rallies symposia etc.

 

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. Explain the formation of UPN.
  2. What were the aims and objectives of UPN?

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Mention the names of the founding fathers of NPN.
  2. Give the names of the people that founded UPN.
  3. Highlight the achievements made by UPN.
  4. Highlight 5 features of the Clifford constitution.
  5. Enumerate 5 failures of the Richards constitution.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Essential Government pages 197-198

Comprehensive Government pages 179-181

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The UMBC was founded by —- (a) J.S. Tarka (b) ObafemiAwolowo (c) H.O.Davies (d) Nnamdi Azikiwe
  2. The Northern Element Progressive Union was led by —– (a) Shehu Shagari (b) Aminu Kano (c) Murtala Mohammed (d) Tafawa Balewa
  3. The presidential candidate of the Unity Party of Nigeria was —– (a) Shehu Shagari (b) Chief Bola Ige (c) Chief Obafemi Awolowo (d) Nnamdi Azikiwe
  4. The National Party of Nigeria won ___ states in the 1979 general elections (a) 7 (b) 6 (c)8 (d) 10
  5. The presidential candidate of the National Party of Nigeria was —– (a) Chief Olusegun Obasanjo (b) Chief ObafemiAwolowo (c) ShehuShagari (d) AdekunleAjasin

 

THEORY

  1. What were the achievements of the NPN?
  2. Explain the contributions made by UPN.

 

 

WEEK SIX

POLITICAL PARTIES IN THE SECOND REPUBLIC

CONTENT

  • The Nigeria people’s party (N.P.P)
  • Great Nigeria people’s party (G.N.P.P)
  • People’s Redemption Party (P.R.P.)

     

The Nigeria People’s Party

It was Alhaji Waziri who led the group of Nigerians that formed the NPP. Other members were, ChiefAdeniranOgunsanya who later became the chairman of the party, Chief Olu Akinfosile, Chief Mathew T. Mbu, Dr Obi Wali Chief Sam Mbakwe, Chief Dominic Nwaobodo, Chief Solomon Lar, Alhaji Ado Ibrahim etc. Chief Nnamdi Azikiwe joined the party after its formation and later became its leader and presidential candidate.

 

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF NPP

  • To promote and sustain the unity of Nigeria.
  • To work towards full employment of all Nigerians.
  • For a better standard of living by providing shelter and food.
  • To work for a secular state that upholds democracy, rule of law and guarantee fundamental.human rights.
  • To work towards a virile and self reliant economy.

 

CONTRIBUTIONS OF NPP

  • The party won gubernatorial elections and controlled three states of Imo, Anambra and Plateau.
  • The party contributed in producing prominent politicians in Nigeria.
  • The party served as a link between the government and the people.
  • The party co-operated with the ruling party in government to ensure a sustainable second republic administration.
  • It helped to recruit leaders to political offices in the government as well as in the parties.

 

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • List 5 members of the NPP
  • List 4 aims and objectives of NPP

 

GREAT NIGERIA PEOPLE’S PARTY

The great Nigeria People’s Party was formed by Alhaji Ibrahim Waziri who was a founding member of NPP. He left NPP as a result of disagreement he had with other members of the party caucus over the post of party chairman and presidential candidate and formed the GNPP. Alhaji Ibrahim Waziri the author and advocate of Politics without Bitterness became the national leader and the presidential candidate of the party. The party won and controlled states of Borno and Gongola.

 

PEOPLE’S REDEMPTION PARTY (PRP)

The People Redemption Party was formed by Mallam Aminu Kano who became the party’s national leader and the presidential candidate. The party won gubernatorial elections and controlled two states of Kano and Kaduna.

 

The last party to be registered, Nigeria Advance Party (NAP) was formed by a Lagos lawyer Mr. Tunji Braithwaite. The party was registered after the 1979 general election and it contested the 1983 elections but did not win the presidency or any gubernatorial election.

 

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. What was the major contribution made by the GNPP?
  2. Who were the founding fathers of GNPP?

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. State five aims and objectives of NPP.
  2. Give 4 achievements of NPP.
  3. What contribution did PRP made?
  4. State 6 features of the Macpherson constitution.
  5. Highlight the recommendations made at the London constitutional conference of 1953.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Comprehensive Government pages 179-180

Essential Government pages 199-200

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. All the following were the founding fathers of NPP except__ (a) Dr Obi Wali (b) Chief Obafemi Awolowo (c) Alhaji Ibrahim Waziri (d) Sam Mbakwe
  2. Who is regarded as the advocate of Politics without bitterness? (a)Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe (b) Alhaji Aminu Kano (c) Alhaji Ibrahim Waziri (d) Herbert Macaulay
  3. People’s redemption party was formed by ___ (a) Mallam Aminu Kano (b) Alhaji Ibrahim Waziri (c) Dr Festus Okotie (d) NnamdiAzikiwe
  4. Who was the presidential candidate of NPP? _ (a) ObafemiAwolowo (B) DrNnamdiAzikiwe(C) Alhaji Ibrahim Waziri (d) Solomon Lar
  5. The GNPP was formed by (a) Chief Sam Mbakwe (b) Alhaji Ibrahim Waziri (c) Chief Solomon Lar (d) Sam Mbakwe

     

    THEORY

  • List 5 contributions of the NPP.
  • List the political parties in the second republic.

 

WEEK SEVEN

TOPIC: MAJOR POLITICAL CRISIS IN NIGERIA

CONTENT

  • Kano Riot
  • Census crisis of 1962/63

     

    KANO RIOT OF 1953

A serious riot broke out in the ancient city of Kano in the Northern Nigeria on May 16 1953. In March 1953, a member of Action Group (AG) in the House of Representatives, Chief Anthony Enahoro, moved a motion requesting that Nigeria should be granted self government in 1956. The leader of the Northern People’s Congress (NPC), Sir Ahmadu Bello, moved a counter motion. He proposed an amendment that self –government should be granted as soon as practicable. This led to disagreement over the motion and equally resulted to a strained relationship between the northern and southern leaders. All the AG and NCNC members in the house walked out as a result of the adjournment motion.

 

When the northern delegates left the house they were confronted by hostile crowds in Lagos who insulted, jeered and called them all sorts of names. Members of the northern delegation were embittered and in their Eight Point Programme in the Northern Regional Legislative House, they sort for secession. The last straw that broke the camel’s back was a tour by a delegation of the AG and NCNC led by Chief S.L. Akintola. That tour which was aimed at campaigning for self government acted as the immediate cause of the Kano riot. It sparked off a chain of disorder that culminated in the riot.

 

Political implications of the Kano Riot

  • The riot worsened the relationship between the northern and southern leaders.
  • The riot showed that only federal system of government could hold Nigeria together.
  • The riot ushered in the London Constitutional Conference of 1953.
  • The riot also brought about a temporal working alliance between the NCNC and the Action Group.

     

    EVALUATION QUESTION

Account for the cause of the Kano riot of 1953

 

THE CENSUS CRISIS OF 1962/63

A population census was conducted in Nigeria in 1962, but the outcome of the result was widely criticized. Some people claimed it was rigged and should be cancelled. The government had to cancel it and another one was proposed in 1963. A census board was set up under the authority of the prime minister, to handle the 1963 population census. A new census was conducted in November 1963 and in February 1964 the provisional figures that put the population of Nigeria at 55.7 Million were published. A breakdown of the figures gave the north 29.8 Million, East 12.4 Million, West 10.3 Million, Mid-West 2.5 Million and Lagos 0.7 Million. However, it was accepted by the federal government, so also the Northern and Western Regions. The Eastern and Mid-Western Regions rejected the figures outright claiming that they were inflated and characterized by gross irregularities and inadequacies. Eastern Region went to the Supreme Court challenging the authenticity and the Federal Government’s acceptance of the results. The court ruled in favour of the Federal Government, stating that Eastern Region did not have a locus standing to sue on the issue. These figures, therefore, remained the official figures used as base figures for projections for all developmental matters, constituency delimitations, allocation of seats to the parliament, boundary adjustments, etc.

EVALUATION QUESTION

Account for the cause of the Census Crisis of 1962/63

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. What is the implication of the census crisis of 1962/1963?
  2. Discuss the political implications of the Kano Riot of 1953.
  3. State the main provisions made by the Lyttleton constitution.
  4. Discuss 5 defects of the Lyttleton constitution.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

    Essential Government by C.C. Dibie Pages 205-210

    Comprehensive Government by Anyaele U. 184-191

     

    WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  5. The 1962 population census was criticized because —- (a) people were killed (b) it was claimed to be rigged (c) some areas were neglected (d) it was free and fair
  6. The prime minister of Nigeria during the 1962/63 census was —- (a) Ernest Ikoli (b) Nnamdi Azikiwe (c) Chief Obafemi Awolowo (d) Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
  7. In the 1963 census, the Northern Region had ____ figures —- (a) 12.4 Million (b) 10.3 Million (c) 29.8 Million (d) 17.5 Million
  8. All the following were the political implications of the Kano Riot except —- (a) It united the Northern and Southern Region (b) it ushered in the constitutional conference of 1953 (c) It worsened the relationship between the Northern and Southern leaders (d) it brought unitary system of government
  9. The motion for self government was moved by —- (a) Chief Anthony Enahoro (b) Chief Obafemi Obasanjo (c) S.A. Akintola (d) Nnamdi Azikiwe

     

    THEORY

  10. Explain the political implications of the Kano Riot.
  11. Describe the events that led to the outbreak of the Kano riot of 1953.

     

     

    WEEK EIGHT

    TOPIC: MAJOR POLITICAL CRISIS IN NIGERIA

    CONTENT

  • Action Group Crisis.
  • Federal election crises of 1964.

    ACTION GROUP CRISIS OF 1962

    The Action Group crisis broke out in 1962 as a result of the serious conflict within the party. The following factors contributed to the crisis.

  • Personality clash: There was personality clash between Chief Obafemi Awolowo the party leader, and Chief Akintola the party deputy leader.
  • Factions: The party was divided into two main factions, one led by Chief Awolowo while the other was led by Chief Akintola.
  • Adoption of a new ideology: A.G as a party later had adopted a new ideology-democratic socialism, which advocate a mixed economy whereby it would combine elements of public and private enterprise. Akintola supporters did not receive this new ideology.
  • Expulsion motion: The Governor dismissed Chief Akintola from office as Premier and appointed Alhaji D.S. Adegbenro the parliamentary leader of the House in his place.
  • Alliances: Awo’s faction sought to form a progressive alliance with NCNC in order to get the conservative NPC out of power. Akintola’s faction on the other hand, sought to cooperate with the NPC.
  • Tension: The tension and confusion in the region continued to grow wider and wider. The police were called in to stop the attempt by Akintola’s supporters to disrupt the proceeding of the House.
  • State of Emergency: The federal government declared a state of emergency in the Western Region and appointed Dr. M.A. Majekodunmi, as the administrator of the region.
  • Formation of new parties: On coming back to power, Chief Akintola and his supporters formed a new political party, the United Progressive Party and with some members of the NCNC with whom they formed a new coalition government joined together to form the Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP).
  • Creation of Mid-West Region: This was a crisis because A.G. did not support the creation of Mid-West from Western Region but Akintola government supported it.

     

    The Consequences of the Action Group Crisis of 1962 on Nigeria

  • A state of emergency was declared. This means dissolution of the Western House of Chiefs and House of Assembly.
  • A temporal administration under a sole administrator under the, Dr. M.A. Majekodunmi, the Federal Minister of Health, was constituted.
  • Chief Obafemi Awolowo and his followers were charged with plotting to overthrow the Federal Government and were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment.
  • The dismissed deputy leader of the party, Chief S.L. Akintola formed a new political party named United Progressive Party (UPP).
  • A coalition government was formed by the United Progressive Party (UPP) and the National Council of Nigeria Citizens (NCNC).
  • Formation of the two major alliances to contest 1964 federal elections, N.N.A. and U.P.G.A.
  • The eventual overthrow of the federal government in the January 1966.
  • The crisis brought about the weakness of the constitution, that the governor could not remove the premier.

     

    EVALUATION QUESTION

What factors contributed to the action group crisis of 1962?

 

FEDERAL ELECTION CRISES OF 1964

Another crisis that shook the foundation of Nigeria and threatened the unity of the country was the crisis that arose from the general election of 1964.The federal election witnessed the formation of alliances by both the major and minor political parties. For instance, factions of A.G. and NCNC together with the Northern progressive front made up of NEPU-Northern Element Progressive United, Middle Belt Congress, joined together to form the United Progressive Grand Alliance (UPGA) under the leadership of Dr. M.I. Okpara on June 3, 1964. On August 20 1964, the NPC, NNDP, the Mid- Western Democratic Front (MDF) and the Dynamic Party formed the Nigeria National Alliance (NNA) under the leadership of the Premier of Northern Region, Sir Ahmadu Bello.

 

As the electioneering campaign commenced all sorts of crude and obnoxious methods were employed as campaign strategies. UPGA candidates complained of their inability to file nomination papers in the Northern and Western Regions controlled by the NPC and NNDP. Electoral officers were reported to be absent when UPGA candidates wanted to file their nomination papers. A delegation of UPGA met with the president protesting their grievances and that if not redressed, they would boycott the election. President Nnamdi Azikiwe requested the Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa, to postpone the election. However the request was rejected by the prime minister. The election still held on December 30, 1964. Members of the UPGA in different parts of the country boycotted the election. Elections took place in Northern and Western Regions, some parts of Mid-West and Lagos, but it did not take place at all in the Eastern Regions.

 

The outcome of the election was favourable to the NNA. The president declared on January 1, 1965 that he found it awkward to exercise his constitutional duty of calling on the winning party leader to form a new government. There was a deadlock and for three days there was no government at the federal level. This forced some prominent Nigerians like the chief Justice of the federation to intervene. At last the president invited the out-going Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, a member of NNA who promised to form a broad based government. The government was made up of members of NCNC but no single member of the Action Group was included in the cabinet.

 

EVALUATION QUESTION

Explain the causes of the election crisis of 1964

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. State 5 causes of the Action Group crisis of 1962.
  2. What were the consequences of the Action Group crisis?
  3. Highlight the recommendations made by the Willinks Commission of Inquiry.
  4. State the effects of the recommendations.

     

    READING ASSINGMENT

    Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pages 206-207

    Comprehensive Government by Anyaele pages 185-186

     

    WEEKEND ASSINGMENT

  5. NCNC Means (a) Nigeria Council of Northern Congress (b) National Council of Nigeria and Cameroon (c) National Congress for Nigeria and Cameroon (d) Nigeria congress of Northern Council
  6. The United Progressive Grand Alliance was formed under the leadership Of—- (a) Dr. M.I. Okpara (b) DrNnamdiAzikiwe (c) Chief ObafemiAwolowo (d) Michael Ani
  7. The major political parties that contested the 1964 federal election were (a) NCNC and NEPU (b) NPC and NNDP (c) UPGA and NNA (d) UPN and UPGA
  8. The leader of the Northern Element Progressive Union was (a) Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (b) Sir Ahmadu Bello (c) Olusegun Obasanjo (d) Mallam Aminu Kano
  9. The president of Nigeria during the 1964 federal election crisis was (a) Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe (b) Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (c) Michael Okpara (d) Obafemi Awolowo

     

    THEORY

  • What were the consequences of the Action Group crisis of 1953?
  • Explain the event that led to the federal election crisis of 1964.

     

     

     

    WEEK NINE

    TOPIC: MAJOR POLITICAL CRISIS IN NIGERIA

    CONTENT

  • Western Nigeria Election Crisis of 1965.
  • General Election Crisis of 1979.
  • General Election Crisis of 1983.

     

    WESTERN NIGERIA ELECTION CRISIS OF 1965

With the emergence of United Progressive Grand Alliance (UPGA) and the Nigeria National Alliance (NNA) as the two dominant parties through coalitions, the rivalry between them at the national level shifted base to the Western Nigeria election of 1965. The A.G. represented (UPGA) and NNDP (NNA). Both of them saw this election as very important and should not be under-estimated. Before the commencement of the election, the party in power in Western Nigeria, the NNDP imposed curfew and some other stringent measures aimed at frustrating the efforts of UPGA members in some part of the regions. With the dissolution of the Western House of Assembly, preparatory to the elections, the irregularities that featured at the federal elections manifested. For instance, UPGA candidates were not privileged or opportune to collect nomination forms and in most cases electoral officers would be absent at their duty posts. The electioneering campaign was also characterized by acts of thuggery, hooliganism, killing, arson and looting.

 

The petition Alhaji D.S. Adegbenro who was the leader of UPGA sent to the Governor Sir OdeleyeFadahunsi about the malpractices did not yield any result. The election which took place on October 11, 1965, in an atmosphere characterized by many electoral malpractices such as smuggling of ballot boxes and , burning opponents ballot boxes and unfair counting of votes. At the end of the election, it was announced that NNDP won 88 out of the 98 seats contested. In a counter reaction, AlhajiAdegbenro summoned a press conference at Ibadan in the house of jailed Chief Awolowo in which he announced that UPGA won 68 out of the 98 seats. He pronounced himself as the premier of the region and appointed eight ministers of his cabinet. With two governments in the same region, the stage was therefore set for a serious political crisis. At last, Chief Akintola was sworn in as the Premier of the region while AlhajiAdegbenro was arrested. As a result of all these heavens was let loose for violent demonstrations, chaos, rioting and complete breakdown of law and order in the Western region. It was reported that about 1,000 people lost their lives and about 5,000 houses were burnt down while the newly elected premier took to his heels and went into hiding. The political crisis continued until the January 15, 1966 coup d’etat that put it to a stop.

 

GENERAL ELECTION CRISIS OF 1979

The 1979 general elections were unique because they took place under the newly introduced federal system of government. The elections that ushered in Nigeria second republic after 13 solid years of military government. Before the elections, the Federal Electoral Commission (FEDECO) headed by Chief Michael Ani had registered five political parties out of about 52 political associations that emerged when the ban on political associations was lifted. The registered political parties were, National Party of Nigeria (NPN), Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN), Nigeria People’s Party (NPP), Great Nigeria People’s Party (GNPP) and People’s Redemption Party (PRP).

 

The chairman of NPN was Chief A.M.A. Akinloye while AlhajiShehu Shagari was its presidential candidate. Chief Obafemi Awolowo was the national leader and the presidential candidate of UPN. The chairman of NPN was Chief AdeniranOgunsanya and Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe was the presidential candidate. Alhaji Ibrahim Waziri and Mallam Aminu Kano were the leaders and presidential candidates of GNPP and PRP respectively. Five different elections took place between July 7, and August 18, 1979 on different five Saturdays. For the senate, July 7, House of Representatives July 14, State Assemblies July 21, Governorship July 28 and presidential August 11, 1979.

 

In the election into the senate, out of a total of 95, NPN won 36 seats, UPN 29, NPP 16, GNPP 8 and PRP 7. The most controversial election of all the elections was the presidential election. The controversy arose as a result of the fact that none of the candidates was able to win 25% in two thirds of the federation. Alhaji Shehu Shagari who was eventually declared the winner won 25% of the votes cast in 12 states of the federation. The mathematical riddle that arose was what should be 122/3 of 19. The NPN formula of 122/3 was accepted by FEDECO and Alhaji Shehu Shagari was declared the winner. Chief Awolowo who came second took the matter to the Presidential Election Tribunal, headed by Justice B.O. Kazeem and later to the Supreme Court presided over by the then Chief Justice of the federation Justice Atanda Williams and all declared that the election of Alhaji Shehu Shagari was in order.

 

EVALUATION QUESTION

Briefly describe what led to the Western Election crisis of 1965

 

GENERAL ELECTIONS OF 1983

At the end of President ShehuShagari’s first term in office (4years), another election was conducted. This was to usher in the third republic. The 1983 general election was to be conducted by the civilian government in place. In 1979, five registered political parties participated in that election, but this time an additional one had been added to the already existing five. The election commission (FEDECO) before the election, registered Nigeria Advanced party formed by MrTunji Braithwaite, bringing the total number of parties for the elections to six. All the five political parties that contested the 1979 elections did not make much changes in the candidates fielded for the 1983 elections. The arrangement for this general election by the government controlled electoral body, FEDECO, under the chair-man ship of Justice Ovie Whiskey, took a different shape from what it was in 1979. This time the presidential election was to come up first, followed by governorship, senatorial, House of Representatives and finally state Legislative assemblies. It was argued that, this new arrangement was mainly to favour the party in power. Alhaji Shehu Shagari was declared the winner after the August 6 presidential elections. Massive rigging, falsification of election figures were alleged in many centers. Similarly, the NPN controlled states now increased from 7 to 10 states. The party in government was accused of having masterminded the act of rigging, possibly to remain in government. There were reports of rioting, looting, arson, violent demonstration in some areas etc. The outcome of this ugly scene was the military intervention of December 31, 1983.

 

EVALUATION QUESTION

Explain the causes of the general election crisis of 1983.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Account for the causes of the general election crisis of 1979.
  2. State the main provisions made by the Lyttleton constitution.
  3. Discuss 5 defects of the Lyttleton constitution.
  4. Why was the Independence constitution criticized?

     

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

    Essential Government by c.c. Dibie pages 208-210.

    Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pages 187-189.

     

    WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  5. The Chairman of the Electoral Commission that conducted the 1983 general elections was (a) Ovie Whiskey (b) MichealAni (c) AttahiruJega (d) Abel Guobadia
  6. The Nigerian National Alliance was chaired by (a) Chief Obafemi Awolowo (b) Mr. EyoEsua (c) Sir Ahmadu Bello (d) Tafawa Balewa
  7. All the following were the causes of the Western election crisis of 1965 except—- (a) smuggling of ballot boxes (b) riot and demonstration (c) burning of opponents ballot boxes (d) registration of voters
  8. The federal Electoral Commission (FEDECO) that conducted the 1979 general elections was headed by (a) Justice B.O.Kazeem (b) Chief Michael Ani (c)Ovie Whiskey (d) Yakubu Mohammed
  9. The winner of the presidential election of 1979 was (a) Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe (b) Herbert Macaulay (c) Chief Obafemi Awolowo (d) Alhaji Shehu Shagari

     

    THEORY

  10. What factors contributed to the Western election crisis of 1965?
  11. Briefly describe the crisis that erupted from the 1979 general election.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

    Essential Government by C.C. Dibie Pages 210

    Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele Pages 189

     

    WEEK TEN

    TOPIC: MAJOR POLITICAL CRISIS IN NIGERIA

    CONTENT

Kaduna state executive/legislative crisis of 1981.

 

KADUNA STATE EXECUTIVE/LEGISLATIVE CRISIS OF 1981

Main Features

  • The PRP won the gubernatorial election in 1979 in Kaduna state and Alhaji Balarabe Musa its flag bearer became governor of the state on October1, 1979
  • PRP as a party did not have the majority seats in the state assembly.
  • The NPN that won the majority seats in the House had both the speaker of the House and the majority leader.
  • In adherence to the constitutional provision which required the governor to present his nominated candidates as commissioners to the State House of Assembly.
  • Alhaji Balarabe Musa presented the list of his nominated commissioners for three good times and the House rejected the lists for three good times.
  • This led to the strained relationship between executive and the legislatures.
  • The NPN controlled legislature was bent on removing the governor through the process known as impeachment.
  • Different charges and accusations of different proportions were levelled against the governor, so as to create enough reasons for his impeachment or removal.
  • Some state assemblies in the country came in to mediate but all to no avail. The legislators were determined to remove the governor.
  • The report of the committee set up to investigate the allegations was adopted and the speaker of the House, AlhajiMamman Dan Musa served the impeachment notice on the governor as the governor of Kaduna State.

     

    EVALUATION QUESTION

Explain the causes of the Kaduna state executive/legislative crisis of 1981.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. State 6 main provisions of the 1963 republican constitution.
  2. Give 5 disadvantages of the constitution.
  3. Explain the composition of the federal legislature under the 1963 republican constitution.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

    Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pages 210.

    Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pages 189.

     

    WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  4. The gubernatorial election of 1979 in Kaduna state was won by (a) Alhaji Shehu Shagari (b) AlhajiBalarabe Musa (c) AlhajiMamman Dan Musa (d) Ali Ndume
  5. The party that won the majority seat in Kaduna state House of Assembly election in 1979 was (a) NPN (b) PRP (c) NNDP UMBC
  6. Balarabe Musa decided to rule the state without commissioners because (a) there were no qualified people (b) the constitution allowed it (c) there was no need for commissioners (d) the assembly rejected the nominated candidates
  7. Governor Balarabe Musa was removed from office through (a) impeachment (b) disqualification (c) coup (d) vote of no confidence
  8. The speaker of the Kaduna State House of Assembly in 1981 was (a)Balarabe Musa (b) Mamman Dan Musa (c) Alhaji Waziri (d) Aminu Tambuwal

     

    THEORY

Why did the House of Assembly reject the nomination of commissioners by the governor?

 

 

WEEK ELEVEN

TOPIC: The Nigerian Civil War

The Nigerian Civil War started on July 6, 1967 and formally ended on January 15, 1970. Major-General Philip Effiong, the chief of staff of the Republic of Biafra, formally renounced the existence of a state called Biafra. This exercise took place at Dodan Barracks Lagos on January 15, 1970.

 

CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR

There were remote and immediate causes of the war and some of them were.

 

IMMEDIATE CAUSES

  • The massacre of the Ibos in Northern Nigerian army by the politicians of the first republic.
  • Another immediate cause of the civil war was the personality clash between Ojukwu and Gowon.
  • Both Ojukwu and Gowon believed that they could only reach agreement through violence which was another immediate cause of the civil war.
  • Secession Bid: The declaration of the Eastern Region as the Republic of Biafra on May 30, 1967 after the federal government had created 12 states out of the former 4 Regions.
  • Aburi Declaration: The failure of General Gowon to implement his own side of the agreement reached with Ojukwu at Aburi, Ghana was another cause of the civil war.

     

    REMOTE CAUSES

  • The rigging of the Western election of 1965.
  • The fear of one tribe dominating others resulting from the January 15, 1966 first military coup in Nigeria contributed remotely to the civil war.
  • The abolition of federal system of government in place of unitary system of government by General J.T.U. Aguiyi Ironsi was another remote cause of the civil war.
  • The refusal of General Ironsi to bring January 15, 1966 coup plotters to book played a part in causing the civil war.
  • Another remote cause of the civil war was the over ambition of some military officers to placed themselves in power. Many of the army officers wanted to test power by all means.
  • The intention of the Eastern Region to control the oil discovered in that part of the country was another remote cause of the civil war.
  • The unilateral division of the country into twelve states by Gowon’s government played a major role in causing the civil war.

     

    EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • When did the civil war start and when did it end?
  • Enumerate the immediate causes of the civil war.

     

    POSITIVE CONSEQUENCES OF THE CIVIL WAR

  • The territorial integrity and unity of Nigeria was maintained.
  • The civil war reduced the possibility of secession by any ethnic groups or states.
  • The war made the central government to become more powerful.
  • The war enables the federal government to create more states in the then Northern, Eastern and Western Regions.
  • The war enabled Nigeria to improve in the area of technology.
  • The war enhanced the confidence of the federal government in O.A.U. as there were only four countries that recognized the state of Biafra.

     

    NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCIES OF THE CIVIL WAR

  • Loss of lives and properties: Lives and properties were lost during the war, which led to the reduction in the population of Nigeria.
  • The war also reduced the population of Nigerian soldiers. Many soldiers lost their lives in the war front while fighting a war they did not cause.
  • The civil war cost the country a lot of money and other materials.
  • The civil war caused a lot of untold hardship on the people of Nigeria.
  • Another negative consequence of the civil war was the disruption of education in many parts of the federation.
  • Economic activities in the country came to a stand still as a result of the civil war.
  • The war led to the division of the country into twelve states.
  • Another major consequence of the civil war was that it brought disrespect to Nigeria.
  • Peace and tranquility in the country was jeopardized as a result of the war.

     

     

    EVALUATION QUSTION

    Enumerate the positive consequences of the civil war

     

    GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Highlight 5 remote causes of the Nigeria Civil War.
  2. Enumerate 5 negative consequences of the Civil War.
  3. Highlight 5 achievements of the second republican constitution of 1979.
  4. State 5 differences between 1963 and 1979 republican constitution.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

    Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pages 211-212.

    Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pages 189-191.

     

    WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  5. The Nigeria civil war started in (a) 1973 (b) 1961 (c) 1965 (d) 1967
  6. The following were the immediate causes of the Nigeria civil war except (a) the rigging of Western election of 1965 (b) The killing of Ibos (c) Secession bid (d) Aburi declaration
  7. One of the following was the remote cause of the civil war (a) the Aburi agreement (b) over ambition of some military officer (c) personality clash between Ojukwu and Gowon (d) massacre of the Ibos
  8. The renouncement of the Republic of Biafra was formally announced by (a) Major General Philip Effiong (b) Ojukwu (c) Brigadier Ogundipe (d) OdumeguOjukwu
  9. The following were the negative impact of the civil war except (a) lost of lives and properties (b) lost of money (c) improvement in technology (d) disruption of the educational system

     

    THEORY

  10. State four immediate causes of the Nigerian civil war.
  11. Highlight four positive consequences of the war.



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