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Week  Aspect  Topic

1.  Comprehension Story from Aludde’s Wealth

 Structure Questions Tags

 Writing Narrative Essay

 Speech work Review of Monophthongs


Structure Review of Verbs and Adverbs

 Writing Review of Descriptive Essay

 Speech work Review of Diphthongs

Grammar Direct and Indirect Speech

3. Comprehension From children’s Britannica, vol.11, p   135, 1981 Edn.

Structure Active and Passive Voices

Speech work Review of Consonant Sounds

Writing Informal, Formal and Semi-Formal



4. Speech work Emphatic Stress

Literature Review of Literary Terms  


5-10. Revision and Examination










Topic:   Comprehension: Story from Aludde’s Wealth

The passage is an extract from Khiddu Makubuya’s Aludde’s Wealth. The story narrates how Kamula Aludde made a surprising announcement to his family. He told them how their wealth was come by – from the soil. By that, Kamula meant that they worked the soil to get their money.


Evaluation: Do practice 2 on pg. 204 of Effective English bk.3.

Reading Assignment: Read Effective English bk.3 pg. 203-204

Reference: Effective English bk.3


Topic: Question Tags (Revision)


In all types of questions, the verbs in both the question and the answer must be in the same tense, for example, if the verb in the question is in the present tense, the verb in the answer must also be in the present tense.

Question tags / tag questions are mostly used when you want your listener(s) to agree with you on something. There are rules governing tag questions and answers. They are:

1.  Positive Statement, Negative Tag, Positive Answer

2.  Negative Statement, Positive Tag, Negative Answer

3.  An auxiliary verb repeats itself in the tag, but main verbs use the appropriate forms of  verb “DO”

4.  In a complex sentence, the tag is picked from the main clause.

5.  Statements containing negators are regarded as negative statements

Now consider the examples below:

Statement  Tag Answer

We are good friends, aren’t we? Yes, we are.

You will do the work, won’t you? Yes, I will.

She was there, wasn’t she? Yes, she was.

She didn’t send it, did she? No, she didn’t.

We went to the place, didn’t we? Yes, we did.

You have two pencils, don’t you? Yes, I do.

Your sister can sing very well when she is not tired   can’t she?  Yes, she can.

Although the rains have been good, the harvest this year is a poor one, isn’t it? Yes, it is.


Evaluation:  Do practice 2 on pg 93 of Effective English Bk. 3.

Reading Assignment: English Grammar by P.O Olatunbosun pg 76-79

References:  English Grammar for JSS, pg 76 – 79; Effective English Bk. 3.





Topic:    Narrative Essay (Revision)

 A narrative essay is one that requires you to relate an event or incident just as an eye witness would do. This is the art of story –telling, therefore, a wide experience in the reading of short stories, novels, etc. is required.


 – Your essay must be very interesting and convincing.

 – The narrative should follow the order in which the events took place

 – State the facts as they were

 – The dominant tense used in the narrative essay is past simple tense.

Evaluation:  Write an essay of about 250 words on the topic “My Most Memorable Day”

Reading Assignment: Read more on Narrative Essay from Exam Focus, pg18-19

References:  Countdown English by Ogunsanwo et al, pg 5-7; Exam Focus for JSCE.


Topic:    Review of Monophthongs

 The English vowel sounds are twenty in number. These vowels consist of twelve monothongs and eight diphthongs. The monothongs can be sub-divided into long and short vowel sounds. Below are the sounds with examples.



The short vowel sounds are seven (7). They are:

/ I /

‘a’  –  village, adage

‘e’  –  before, women, English

‘u’  –  business, busy, minute

‘ei’  –  foreign

‘ui’  –  build, guilt

‘y’  –  symbol, lynch, myth

‘O’  –  women

‘I’  –  sit, pig, big, pit, kid


/e /

‘a’  –  many, any

‘ou’  –  said

‘ay’  –  says

‘e’  –  bed, peg, egg, net.

‘ea’  –  dead, bread, head

‘ue’  –  guess, guest

‘eo’  –  leopard, jeopardy, Geoffrey

‘ie’  –  friend

‘u’  –  bury

/ æ /  

‘a’  –  pat, hat, track, bag, trap

‘ai’  –  plait

/ ɒ/

‘a’  –  watch, want, what

‘ou’  –  cough, trough

‘au’  –  laurel, because, sausage

‘o’  –  cot, cod, pot, hot

‘ow’  –  knowledge

/ ʊ /

‘o’  –  woman, bosom, wolf

‘oo’  –  book, took, wood, wool

‘ou’  –  would, should, could

‘u’  –  pull, bull, put, sugar

The long vowel sounds are five (5). They are:

/ iː /

‘uay’  –  quay

‘ae’  –  Caesar, aesthetic

‘e’  –  mete, procedure, eve,

‘ee’  –  peel, meet, seek,

‘ae’  –  heat, seat, meat

‘ai’  –  machine, prestige

‘ei’  –  receive, deceive

‘ie’  –  relieve, believe

‘oe’  –  foetus, amoeba

‘ui’  –  suite

‘eo’  –  people

/ ɑː /

‘a’  –  father, pass, vase

‘ar’  –  car, park, mark

‘ear’  –  heart

‘er’  –  clerk, sergeant

‘al’  –  palm, calm, half

‘au’  –  laugh, aunt


‘er’  –  germ, verve, fertile,

‘ear’  –  learn, yearn, pearl

‘ir’  –  shirt, skirt, firm

‘ur’  –  burn, turn, curl, burden

‘our’  –  journey, mourners, courtesy.


‘a’  –  water, wall, talk

‘aw’  –  hawk, awe, law

‘au’  –  laud, caught, daughter

‘oa’  –  board, roar, hoard

‘ou’  –  bought, sought, fought

‘or’  –  fork, north, stoke

‘oo’  –  door

‘o’  –  floral, Florence

‘our’  –  count, bourdon

‘ar’  –  warm, war, wharf

/ uː/

‘eu’  –  feudal, leukaemia

‘ew’  –  ewe, stew, blew

‘o’  –  move, tomb, prove

‘oe’  –  shoe

‘ou’  –  soup, coup, youth

‘oo’  –  pool, tooth, school

‘u’  –  tune, rude, prune

‘ue’  –  sue, cue, blue

‘ui’  –  juice, fruit, suit

ʌ /

‘o’  –  mother, colour, money

‘oe’  –  does

‘ou’  –  country, tough, double

‘oo’ – blood, flood,

‘u’  –  cut, hut, but, much  



Schwa sound


‘ae’  –  away, above, ago

‘er’  –  daughter, brother

‘or’  –  doctor, monitor

‘our’  –  clamour, colour, favour


Evaluation:  Identify the vowel sounds underlined in the words below:

Perm / / Money / /

Gracious / /

Brother / /

Nuisance / /

Quality / /

Psalm / /

Crack / /

Jeopardy / /  

People / /

Reading Assignment: Read more on monophthongs from Exam focus for JSCE

References:  Standard Speech, pg 11-15; An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology of English by S.A Fatusin

Weekend Assignment: Do practice exercise 18 on pg. 78 of English Grammar by P.O Olatunbosun.








Topic:    Review of Verbs and Adverbs


 A verb is an action word. It tells us what the subject of a sentence does. There are two types of verbs: transitive and intransitive verbs.

Transitive Verbs

These are verbs that have / take objects.


One man does the work.


I broke my leg.


She slapped the boy.


The tailor made a beautiful dress.


Intransitive Verbs

These are verbs that don’t take / have objects


A cock crows.


I slept very well yesterday.


The baby cries everyday.  

However, some verbs can be used either as transitive verbs (that is, with objects) and as intransitive verbs (that is, without objects) e.g.;


i.  He ate rice (rice is the object)

ii.  He ate (no object)


i.  I can fight him (Him is the object)

ii.  I can fight (no object)


i.  Bimpe sings a song everyday (song is the object)

ii  Bimpe sings everyday (no object)


Verb Tenses

Tenses show the time actions take place in sentences. As the subject of a sentence does, the time an action takes place determines the form of the verb in a sentence.


Note how the verb in each of the following sentences changes its form according to the time the action takes place.


Now Everyday Yesterday Already

Present Progressive Tense  Present Tense  Past Tense  Present Perfect


I am playing I play I played I have played

You are working You work You worked  You have worked

He is writing He writes He wrote He has written

She is doing it She does it She did it She has done it

We are going there  We go there  We went there  We have gone there

They are dancing They dance  They danced  They have danced


However, some verbs don’t change their forms in the present, the past and the perfect tenses, e.g.

Present Tense  Past Tense Perfect Tense

Broadcast broadcast broadcast

Shut shut shut

Spread spread spread

Burst burst burst

Cast cast cast

Sweat sweat sweat

Cost cost cost

Set set set


Evaluation:  List five verbs, use them in sentences and state whether the verbs are transitive or intransitive.

Change to simple present:

a.  Tolu bought a book

b.   We ate beans last night

c.  The children did the work

d.  I have learnt driving

e.  You are beating your brother



An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb in the same sentence.

Examples of adverbs are: quickly, slowly, loudly, boldly, beautifully, secretly, today, tonight, tomorrow, how, very, too, so, etc.

Types of Adverbs

i.  Adverb of Manner

 a. He ran quickly

 b. She walked slowly

ii.  Adverb of Time

a. I saw him yesterday.  

b. He will arrive soon

Do it now

iii.  Adverb of Place

a. I saw him there.

b.They are playing outside.

iv.  Interrogative Adverb

a. Where is my book?

b. When will you come to my house?

v  Appropriate adverb for expressing frequency of actions and events.

 (a) Always, (b) frequently (c) often normally, scarcely, barely etc

vi.  Adverbs that are intensifier are: very, too, so.

vii.  Adverbial Phrases

a. He is a little taller than I.

b. She visits me every Sunday.

c. He went there on Saturday.


Common adverbs that express negation include: nothing, nowhere, hardly, rarely, seldom, never, etc.

Evaluation: Point out adverbs and adverbial phrases in the following passage:

I was tired yesterday. My sleep was so deep that I did not wake up until Then I quickly got out of bed so that people would not know when I woke up.


Reading Assignment: Read chapter 7 of English Grammar.


Reference: English Grammar for Junior Secondary School by P.O. Olatunbosun


Topic:    Descriptive Essay (Review)


 The teacher reminds the students that:

a.  A descriptive essay is one that requires you to write a description of, for example, an object, a person, an animal, a process etc.

b.  The dominant tense used in the descriptive essay is present simple tense

c.  Great imagination is required in this kind of essay

d.  The descriptive should be presented in a logical order.

e.  The descriptive should be made very clear, interesting and informative.


Evaluation:  Write an essay of about 250 words on “The person I admire most”


Reading Assignment: Read more on Descriptive Essay from Exam Focus.


Reference:  Countdown English Language by Ogunsanwo Exam Focus for JSSCE


Topic: Review of Diphthongs


 The teacher reminds the students that:

a.  A diphthong is the combination of two vowel sounds produced together with the gliding movement of the speech organs. That is, to realize its sound, you glide from the first sound to the second one. There are eight diphthongs in English Language.


They are:

/ eɪ / as in cake, paid, day, great, eight, rain, reign

/ əʊ / as in go, toe, grow, sew, brooch

/ aɪ / as in height, eye, bike, tie, sky, bye, guy

/ aʊ / as in doubt, Hausa, crown, cow

/ ɔɪ / as in boil, boy, buoy, toy

/ ɪə / as in pear, fear, mere, sheer, fierce

/ eə / as in air, care, fair, hair

/ ʊə / as in poor, pure, sure, hour


Evaluation:  Indicate the diphthongs represented by the underlined letters in the words below:

1.   crowd  / / 7. clear / /

2.  fair / / 8. show / /

3.  serious  / / 9. coin / /

4.  Island / / 10. shake / /

5.  foe / /

6.  vein / /


Reading Assignment: Read more on Diphthongs from Exam Focus for JSSCE.

References:  Oral English by Sam Onuigbo; Diction in English year 10


Topic:    Direct and Indirect Speech


Direct speech refers to the quoting by a speaker or writer, of the actual utterance of another speaker or writer. It contains all the actual words used by the original speaker.

Things to note about direct speech are:

a.  After the subject (speaker) and the verb, put a comma.

b.  Put quotation marks before you start writing the first words of his speech

c.  Write in capital the first letter of the first words of his speech

d.  Put the appropriate punctuation mark at the end of the speech. e.g., a full stop, a question mark, or an exclamation mark.

e.  Finally, close the speech with a quotation mark.


Rules Governing Indirect Speech

a.  After mentioning the speaker (subject) and the verb, the reported speech is introduced with conjunction ‘that; where appropriate

b.  All the verbs in the present tense in a quotation must be changed to past tense, e.g, says to said; has to had; is to was; can to could; may to might; shall to should; will to would; but the verb must not be changed if it expresses a permanent truth or customary fact. E.g. He said that the world is round.

c.  All pronouns must be changed to the third person, e.g. I to he; me to him/her; we to they; our to their.

d.  All words of nearness must be changed to corresponding words of remoteness e.g. now to then, here to there; this to that; these to those; yesterday to the previous day, tomorrow to the next day, last week to the previous week and next year to the following year.

Study the examples below:

i.  a.  Direct speech: Akin said, “I can do it.”

 b.  Indirect speech: Akin said that he could do it.

ii.  a.  Direct speech: Ladi remarked, “My team wins this year.”

 b.  Indirect speech: Ladi remarked that his team would win
that year.

iii.  a. Direct speech: The teacher says, ‘The sun rises in the east’

 b. Indirect speech: The teacher says that the sun rises in the east.

iv.  a.  Direct speech: Our Geography teacher said, ‘The earth is spherical.’

b.  Indirect speech: Our Geography teacher said that the earth is spherical.


Evaluation: Do practice exercise sixteen of English Grammar for JSCE pg 70-72


Reading Assignment: Read more on Direct and Indirect Speech from English Grammar by Olatunbosun.


Reference: Countdown English Language by Ogunsanwo


Weekend Assignment: Effective English page 236-237, question 25-44


























Topic:  Reading from children’s Britannica, vol. 11p. 135, 1981 page 233


 The passage gives a brief description of the Island of Mauritius. The Island is located in the Indian Ocean about 885 kilometres east of Madagascar. It is named after a Dutch Prince,

Maurice of Nassau. The country is an independent state and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Mauritius is an egg shaped Island, surrounded by coral reefs. The climate is very hot from November to April but cool and fairly dry for the rest of the year.


Evaluation: Question 1-10 on pages 233 and 234


Reading Assignment: Effective English for JSS3, pg233


Reference: Effective English for JSS 3.




Structure: Active and Passive Voices (Revision)


Study the examples below:

Active structure: I kick a ball.

Passive structure: A ball is kicked by me.

Active structure: He writes two letters

Passive structure: Two letters are written by him.

Active structure: I kicked a ball.

Passive Structure: A ball was kicked by me.

Active structure: I was kicking a ball

Passive structure: A ball was being kicked by me

Active structure: I had kicked the ball before he arrived.

Passive structure: The ball had been kicked by me before he arrived.

Active structure: He will do the work

Passive structure: The work will be done by him

Active structure: She would sing a song

Passive structure: A song would be sung by her.


Evaluation:  Change the following sentences to passive structures:

i.  We read many novels every month.

ii.  They are sending a message.

iii.  He has written two letters.

iv.  I read some novels last year.

v.  The boy had written two letters when the rain started.

Change the following sentences to active structures:

i.  The assignment will have been finished by them.

ii.  Two letters are being written by us.

iii.  The sentences have been changed by us

iv.  The food was eaten by her.

v.  The students are flogged by the teacher.


Reading Assignment: English Grammar for JSS 3, pages 51 and 52


Reference: English Grammar for JSS3.




Speech work: Revision of Consonant Sounds.


 Consonants are sounds that are produced with some obstruction in the speech passage. In their production, two organs of speech normally come together to close the speech passage totally or partly. In English, we have twenty-four consonants. Some of these sounds are represented by symbols which generally correspond with the letters of the English alphabet, while others are not.

Below are the consonant sounds of English with examples of words that contain them.

/ p/


 ‘p’  –  pain, promise, nap, improve

 ‘pp’  –  pepper, apple, supply


/ b /  

‘b’  –  baby, break, disturb

 ‘bb’  –  babble, robber, rubble


iii.  / k /  

 ‘c’  –  cat, record, conflict

 ‘ck’  –  crack, rack, black

 ‘ch’  –  chemical, chaos, Christ

 ‘k’  –  king, keg, key

 ‘q’  –  queue, cheque

 ‘cc’  –  account, occupy, occasion

iv.  / g /

 ‘g’  –  goat, gun, bag

 ‘gg’  –  haggle, baggage, biaer

 ‘gh’  –  ghost, ghastly

v.  / t /

 ‘t’  –  two, active, study

 ‘tt’  –  attack, matter, bottle

 ‘d’  –  kicked, missed, slapped

 ‘th’  –  Thomas, thyme, Thames


vi.  /d/

 ‘d’  –  do, den, duty, bed

 ‘dd’  –  daddy, muddy, paddle

vi.  /s /  

 ‘s’  –  so, send, saviour

 ‘ss’  –  miss, glass, cross

 ‘ce’  –  rice, glance, slice

 ‘zz’  –  pizza  

 ‘x’  –  axe, tax, pixels

 ‘sc’  –  science, sceptre, scent

vii.  / z /  

 ‘z’  –  zero, zip, dozen

 ‘zz’  –  buzz, dazzle, muzzle

 ‘s’  –  rise, says, does

 ‘ss’  –  possess, scissors

‘x’  –  example, exit, exult

viii.  / l /  

 ‘I’  –  lip, listen, below

 ‘ll’  –  wall, silly, yellow

ix.  / m /

 ‘m’  –  many, came, member

 ‘mm’  –  stammer, mummy

 ‘mb’  –  lamb, bomb, climb

 ‘mn’  –  condemn, damn, hymn

x.  / n /

 ‘n’  –  no, snob, bend

 ‘nn’  –  banner, manner, annual

 ‘pn’  –  pneumonia, pneumatic

 ‘kn’  –  know, knock, knee

 ‘gn’  –  gnat, gnash, sign

xi.  / w /

 ‘w’  –  wear, watch, woman

 ‘wh’  –  why, while, wheel

xii.  / h /

 ‘h’  –  hope, house, mishap

 ‘wh’  –  whole, whore

xiii.  / ŋ /  

 ‘ng’  –  sing, young, long

 ‘nk’  –  sink, bank, ink

 ‘nc’  –  anchor, uncle, zinc

 ‘nx’  –  anxious

xiv  / j /

 ‘y’  –  yam, year, you

 ‘u’  –  use, unity, utensil

 ‘eu’  –  Europe, eunuch, Eunice

 ‘l’  –  onion, opinion

xv.  / ʃ /

 ‘s’  –  sure, sugar, explosion

 ‘sch’  –  schedule, schwa

 ‘sh’  –  shabby, relish, shrub

 ‘ss’  –  mission, pressure, possession

 ‘ch’  –  machine, chef, champagne

 ‘ci’  –  precious, vicious, spacious

 ‘t’  –  nation, promotion

xvi.  / r /

 ‘r’  –  rain, story, scream

 ‘rr’  –  hurry, carrot, worry

 ‘rh’  –  rhetoric, rhyme, Rhoda

xvii.  / f /

 ‘f’  –  farm, proof, soft

 ‘ff’  –  cliff, Clifford, stuff

 ‘gh’  –  rough, laugh, enough

 ‘ph’  –  physics, Philips, chlorophyll

xviii.  / v /

 ‘v’  –  vigour, revoke, Victor

 ‘ph’  –  Stephen

xix.  / θ /

 ‘th’  –  think, thank, wealth, faith, oath, author, path, breath

xx.  / ð /  

‘th’  –  than, that, those, they, gather, breathe, smooth

xxi.  / ʒ /

 ‘s’  –  measure, treasure, pleasure, explosive

 ‘sion’  –  confusion, decision, explosion, conclusion

 ‘ge’  –  garage, mirage, camouflage

xxii.  / tʃ /

 ‘ch’  –  church, choose, search

 ‘tu’  –  future, fracture

xxiii.  / dʒ /

 ‘j’  –  jug, jacket, Jesus

 ‘g’  –  George, badge, germ, ginger, gibe, gin


Evaluation:  Write three words that contain each of the sounds below:








Reading Assignment: Read Exam Focus for Jss3.


References:  Countdown English by Ogunsanwo, Diction in English BK 10.

Topic:  Informal, Semi-Formal and Formal Letters (Revision).


 The teacher reminds the students that:  

  1. Informal letters are private or personal letters. They are letters we write to people who are very familiar to us such as our parents, friends, classmates, etc.



1.  Writer’s address and date

2.  Salutation e.g. Dear Efe,

3.  Introduction

4.  Body of the letter

5.  Conclusion

6.  Subscript, Yours friend,

b.  Semi-formal letters are letters we write to people who are not totally strange to us but are not close enough to us to deserve personal letters. E.g. our teachers, family doctor, priest etc. The semi-formal letter is more related to the informal letter than to the formal letter.



1.  Writer’s address and date

2.  Salutation e.g. Dear Mr Eze, Dear Mrs Jones,

3.  Introduction

4.  Body of the letter

5.  Conclusion

6.  Subscript, e.g. Yours sincerely,

c.  Formal letters are also called official or business letters. They are written to people in their official positions. They are people we do not know personally, e.g. Local government chairmen, commissioners, etc.



1.  Writer’s address and date

2.  Receiver’s address

3.  Salutation e.g. Dear Sir, Dear Madam

4.  Heading or topic or title e.g. Application for the Post of a Teacher; Invitation to a Religious Seminar etc

5.  Body of the letter

6.  Conclusion (usually very short)

7.  Subscript e.g. Yours faithfully,


Writer’s full name.


a.  Write a letter to your elder brother who is schooling at home, telling him your problems in school and asking him to help contact your parents.

b.  Write a letter to the director of your school, telling him why you cannot resume with your mates on your resumption day.

Reading Assignment: Read more on the topic from Exam Focus.

References:  Countdown English Language by Ogunsanwo; 120 Graded Essays for Junior Secondary School by Omoju

Weekend Assignment: Effective English for JSS 3 page 239 – 240, questions 6












































Topic: Emphatic Stress


 Empathic Stress is also known as contrastive stress. It is the stressing of a particular word more than the other words in a sentence. Such a stress normally has its implications in terms of the meaning of the sentence.

Consider the sentence below and notice how it’s meaning changes according to the word that has been stressed.

a.  JAMES borrowed the novel

 (i.e., James, not anybody else borrowed the novel)

b.  James BORROWED the novel.

 (i.e., James didn’t, for example, steal or buy the novel; he borrowed it)

c.  James borrowed THE novel

 (i.e., James borrowed a particular novel well known to the discussants.)

d.  James borrowed the NOVEL

 (i.e., James borrowed the novel, not the magazines, not the journal etc.)


Evaluation:  Now answer the following questions:

1.  The man takes COFFEE every Sunday morning.

 a.  Does the man take coffee every Monday morning?

 b.  Does the man take coffee every Sunday morning?

 c.  Does the man take tea every Sunday morning?

2.  Students must study HARD to pass their examinations.

 a.  Who must study hard to pass their examinations?

 b.  Why must students study hard?

 c.  How must students study to pass their examinations?

3.  Many students are weak in ORAL English.

 a.  Are many students weak in written English?

 b.  Are many students strong in Oral English?

 c.  Who are weak in Oral English?


4.  Adamu OPENLY disagreed with his principal.

 a.  Did Adamu openly disagree with his friend?

 b.  Did Adamu secretly disagree with his principal?

 c.  Who openly disagreed with his principal?

5.  Honesty is ALWAYS the best policy.

 a.  Is honesty always the best policy?

 b.  Is honesty seldom the best policy?

 c.  Is dishonesty always the best policy?


Reading Assignment: Read Exam Focus for more information.


Reference: Ogunsanwo’s Countdown English Language.





Literature: Review of Literary Terms (major/minor characters, theme, plot, tragic and comic elements, etc.)


Characterization: This refers to the way the author presents his characters in terms of qualities peculiar to them. This may be through narration, description, dialogues, speeches etc. We could have major and minor characters in a play.

Major character: A character that features prominently or throughout a play or prose e.g. Joseph in “Village Boy” Agbalowomeri and Justice Faderin are also major characters in “The Incorruptible Judge”

Minor character: A character that features once a while or less prominently in a work of friction.

Theme: This refers to the central or main idea that is discussed in a work of friction. It is the major message in the work. The themes of hard work, courage and humility are discussed in the “Village Boy”; the theme of corruption in “The Incorruptible judge”

Plot: This is the organization of events in a literary work. The organization is done following the principle of cause and effect. A plot could either be linear or complex.

Setting: This refers to the totality of the environment of a story. It refers to the period, place, situation, atmosphere, etc., of a story.

Comic Relief: This is a comic element inserted in a tragic work to relieve tension.

Flashback:  This is a scene in a play, film or novel that shows an event which had happened earlier.


Evaluation:  In your own words, discuss the following:

a.  Major character

b.  Theme

c.  Plot

d.  Comic relief

e.  Flashback


Reading Assignment: Read “Element of Literature” on page 156-157 of Exam Focus.


Reference: Exam focus: English for JSCE




Topic:  Review of Literary Terms for Poetry


 Literary terms for poetry include:

a.  Simile: This is the description of a thing by comparing it to another thing that is similar to  it using “Like’ and “As” E.g.;

 She is as beautiful as a peacock.

 You are like a tortoise.

 He is as proud as a peacock.

 The righteous is as bold as a lion

b.  Metaphor:  Here, one thing is equated to another that shares the same quality with it, e.g.

1.  She is a fox.

2.  Jude is a lion.

3.  You have caught a big fish today.


c.  Personification: This is realized when human quality (ies) is/are given to inanimate objects; e.g.

My car is coughing.

The sun is smiling at me.

The trees are clapping.

d.  Hyperbole:  This is another word for over statement or exaggeration, e.g.

Tola finished that mountain of pounded yam!

There is no water everywhere.

e.  Euphemism:  This refers to the presentation of an unpleasant thing in a pleasant way.

The king has joined his ancestors.

I want to visit the ladies.

f.  Alliteration:  Repetition of the same consonant sounds in a sequence, e.g.

Felix fried fish for father Fred

Orunmila makes my medicine potent.


g.  Assonance:  Occurrence of the same vowel sound in words that follow one another, e.g.

The boy wet the bed.

Make hay while you may.

h.  Metonymy:  The use of one thing to stand for another thing with which it has a direct relationship, e.g.

 “Crown” is used for a king

  “All hands” must be on deck.

“hands” represents human beings.

Many lives were lost during the crisis.

i.  Oxymoron:  Using two words of opposite meanings

Parting is a sweet sorrow

You are as a wise fool

Death is a cruel


j.  Synecdoche:  The use of a part of a thing to represent the whole, e.g.


“Pen” is used for a journalist

  “Sword is used for a soldier”


Evaluation:  With one example for each, discuss the following terms in your own words:

Oxymoron, alliteration, simile, metaphor, personification and metonymy

Reading Assignment: Read page 157-158 of Exam Focus: English for JSCE

Reference: Exam Focus: English for JSCE

















Revision & Examination  







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