THIRD TERM

## SCHEME OF WORK

WEEK TOPIC

1. TABULATION EXERCISES ON SIMPLE COLUMN WORK WITH AT

MOST THREE COLUMNS

1. REVIEW OF THE VOWEL SOUND/SHORT FORMS AND PHRASES

– AND CIRCLE S/Z AND DOTING

3 TYPES OF DISPLAY HEADINGS (VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL)

4 PROCEDURE FOR ERASING IN TYPEWRITING – MATERIALS FOR

ERASING – TIPP-EX/CORRECTING FLUID – TYPING ERASER –

AUTOMATIC TYPING ERASER

1. REVISION AND MOCK EXAMINATION

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WEEK 1

TOPIC: TABULATION EXERCISES ON SIMPLE COLUMN WORK WITH AT

MOST THREE COLUMNS

Tabulated work is made more effectively by ruling lines either horizontally or vertically. If it is only horizontally lines that are to be ruled, underscore and let the line project at least two spaces beyond the margins that have been set on both sides. You must always turn up one single-line space before a horizontal underscore and two single-line spaces after. If, on the other hand, both horizontal and vertical lines are to be used, you will either underscore, in which case the paper will have to be removed from the machine after the table has been typed and re-inserted sideways to rule the vertical lines, or after typing the horizontal lines by underscoring the vertical lines with ink.

Vertical lines between columns must be ruled in the middle of each blank space. It is usually recommended that two or more spaces be left before ruling and the point on the scale at which the vertical line is to be used should be marked by a light pencil mark. To find the point at which to mark the vertical line, move the tab stop along the vertical line, divide the number of space between the columns by 2 and take the next highest figure. For example, 3 spaces between columns, divided by 2 give 1.5. You will now approximate .5 to 2. Or if it is 5 spaces between columns, divided by 2 gives 2.5 calls it 3. From the tab stop, backspace 2 and the point at which you are is the point to mark the vertical line.

Tabulation involves arranging items in columns. In a tabular arrangement therefore,

Items stand out below each other, vertically, and on the same line as another in the next column, if horizontally.

A tabular work has the following features:-

1 Top and bottom margins are equal, if vertical display.

2 Left and right margins are equal, if a horizontal display.

3 Equal spaces between the columns, usually odd number spaces such as 3, 5 or 7 spaces.

1. Left and right margins, being equal, the table is centred over the page

NOTE

1. The effectiveness of any display work, particularly, in tabulation depends on correct horizontal calculation.

2. Ensure correct with of your paper on the typewriter

3. Pica and elite typewriters have six standard spaces to a vertical 1 inch (25 mm).

4 Horizontal spacing: Pica – 10 characters (horizontal spaces = 1 inch). Elite – 12 characters (horizontal spaces = 1 inch).

TWO-COLUMN TABULAR DISPLAY

NATURAL RESOURCES LOCATION

Coal Enugu

Petrol Rivers

Tin Plateau

Limestone Kogi

Groundnuts Kano

Timber Delta

Cocoa Oyo

Palm oil Imo

FOUR-COLUMN TABULAR DISPLAY

SUBJECT LECTURERS

SHORTHAND ‘BOLA MATHEMATICS MUKORO

COMMERCE MARTINS BIOLOGY UWAH

EVALUATION

1 What are the typewriting typefaces?

2 What is most important in the effectiveness of any display work?

READ BUSINESS STUDIES FOR JSS3 by O. A LAWAL and others pages 152-154.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1. Pica and elite typewriters have ——— standard spaces to a vertical 1 inch (25 mm).a 5 b 6 c 7 d 8
2. For a vertical display top and bottom margins must be ————-

a odd number b unequal c equal d even number

1. To center the table heading, the left and right margins must be ——–a equal b even c odd number d unequal
2. The odd-number spaces between columns helps to insert ————

a missing words b missing letters c lines d decorations

1. To ensure the correct width of your paper on the typewriter by inserting the paper with left edge on scale point ———- a 25mm b 0 c 2 d 3

THEORY

1 Display with your typewriter the manuscript in Exercise 5 on page 155.

2 In an A4 landscape how many characters are there in a pica typewriter?

WEEK 2

TOPIC: REVEW OF THE VOWEL SOUNDS/SHORT FORMS AND PHRASES AND CIRCLE S/Z AND DOTING

VOWEL SOUNDS

In shorthand the sound of the first vowel in a word determines where and how a word is written. There are 12 vowels in Pitman Shorthand and in English Language. In shorthand these vowels are grouped as follows:

FIRST PLACE VOWELS

These are four in number and are written in the first place, that is, at the beginning of a stroke. When the first vowel in a word is a first place vowel, the outline is written in the first position, i.e. the first down stroke or upstroke in the outline is written above the line. Examples:

1 Long ‘ah’ is represented by a heavy dot as in

Pa, Ma, Calm, Palm, etc

2 Short ‘a’ is represented by a light dot as in

at, add, path, pal, pack, etc

3 Long ‘aw’ is represented by a heavy dash e.g.

saw, paw, pawpaw, ball, bought, talk, etc.

4 Short ‘o’ is represented by a light dash e.g.

top, odd, doll, dog, job, etc.

SECOND PLACE VOWELS

These are represented by two heavy vowels ‘0’ and ‘a’ as in

1  toe, oat, oath, boat, both, etc. – these are represented by heavy dashes placed at the middle of the outlines and

2.  pay, may, say, bay, etc – these are represented by heavy dots at the middle of the outline and Two light vowels ‘o’ and ‘a’ as in

3  cup, us, up, touch, Dutch, etc – represented by light dashes at the middle of the outlines

4  get, engage, enough, etc. – represented by light dots at the middle of the outlines

THIRD PLACE VOWELS

These are four in number – two for long vowels ‘e’ and ‘oo’ as in

1  fee, feed, deep, keep, teach, theme, etc – represented with heavy dots at the end of the outlines, and as in

2.  chew, shoe, food, move, youth, etc. – represented by heavy dashes at the end of the outlines.

Two short ‘i’ and ‘oo’ as in

3  bit, pick, big, ship, etc – represented with light dots at the end of the outlines and

4  book, look, took, wood, etc. – represented with light dashes at the end of the outlines.

SHORT FORMS

These are frequently occurring words in English Language, hence short forms are designed for them for high speed writing.

They include- be, it, do, which, the, to, two or too, for, a or an, of, on, had, different or difference, put, wish, etc.

PHRASES

Are the act of joining two or more shorthand outlines together where possible to enhance speed writing. Examples are –

To be, to the, to do, to pay, pay the, can you, with you, they will, they will be, etc.

CIRCLE S/Z AND DOTING

For convenience, some words ending with ‘ing’ or S/Z end with dots in place of the ‘ing’ e.g.

Space, but spacing, set, but setting, sit, but sitting, seek, but seeking, etc

EVALUATION

1 How many short vowels are there in Pitman Shorthand? Give examples.

2 List 12 examples of words containing heavy vowels.

Read NEW ERA SHORTHAND pages 9-10 and 13-14

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1 The act of joining two or more shorthand outlines is called

a. joining b phrasing c consonant d vowel DING

2 The act writing frequently occurring words with one sign or one stroke is called

a. short forms b phrasing c frequency d diphones

3 The outline for the word ‘oat’ is ———— the line

a. on b above c through d none of the above

4. The word ‘bill’ is controlled by —– place vowel

a. 1st b 2nd c 3rd d 4th

5. There are ——- consonants in Pitman Shorthand.

a 10 b 20 c 25 d 24

THEORY

1 How many short vowels are there in Pitman Shorthand? Give examples

2 List 12 words containing long vowels vowels

WEEK 3

TOPIC: – TYPES OF DISPLAY HEADINGS – VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL

VERTICAL DISPLAY

Whether a typewriter has pica or elite typeface it should produce six standard line spaces to a vertical inch (25 mm). Six clear single line spaces make one vertical inch (25 mm), e.g.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Vertical spacing entails returning the carriage with the line space regulator at 1 from the top edge of the typing paper to the bottom edge of the paper.

When matter is vertically displayed, the top and bottom margins must be equal. T centre items, vertically, for example on A5 portrait paper, procedure as follows:-

1 Insert A5 portrait in the typewriter with the left edge on 0.

2 Clear all the tab stops.

3 Move the margin stops to the extreme left and right of the carriage.

4 Set the line space regulator at 1.

5 Adjust the typing paper on the roller.

6 Recall the number of vertical line spaces on A5 portrait.

7 Count the number of lines on the material to be typed.

8 Subtract the number of lines on the material from the number of line spaces on A5

Portrait.

9 Divide the remainder by 2, and add one space.

10 From the top edge of your typing paper, return the carriage the number of single line spaces arrived at in Step 9 and type the first line, etc.

HORIZONTAL DISPLAY

In horizontal spacing, 1 inch (25 mm) on elite typewriter contains 12 characters (12 horizontal spaces) while on pica typewriter, 1 inch (25 mm) contains 10 characters (10 horizontal spaces).

To centre a matter horizontally, the left and right margins must be equal. Proceed as follows:

1. Clear all tabs
2. Move the margin stops to the extreme left and right of the carriage
3. Set the line space regulator to 1.
4. Insert A5 landscape paper, for example, with the left edge on 0.
5. Adjust the paper evenly on the roller
6. Read the scale point on the right edge of the paper, pica is 82, elite is 100.
7. With a pencil, mark in pairs the characters, cluding spaces and punctuation marks, on each of the horizontal lines you wish to centre.
8. Bring the typing point to the centre of your typing paper, pica 41 and elite 50.
9. From this centre half, backspace once for every two letters on the horizontal line and type the first line at the point reached.
10. Return the carriage to the centre and backspace once for every two letters in the second line and type the line at the point reached.
11. Repeat these steps for the third and subsequent horizontal lines.

EVALUATION

1 How will you centre the expression ‘JESUS IS LORD’?

2 What are the typewriter typefaces?

Read BUSINESS STUDIES FOR JSS3 BY O. A. LAWAL and others pages 102-102.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1 When matter is vertically displayed, the top and bottom margins must be ———–

a even number b uneven c equal d unequal

2 Whether a typewriter has pica or elite typeface it should produce —— standard line spaces to a vertical inch (25 mm). a six b seven c eight d nine

3 When items are displayed in closed capitals the space between each word should be — a three b two c one d four

4 Displaying work in spaced capitals will involve giving ———– spaces between words. a one b two c three d four

5 The appropriate finger for depressing the spacebar is —————————————–

a right thumb b left thumb c right index finger d left index finger

THEORY

1.  Type the following expression in spaced capitals ‘The quick brown fox jumps right over the lazy dog.

2.  List and type with typewriter, 15 parts of the typewriter.

WEEK 4

TOPIC: – PROCEDURE FOR ERASING IN TYPEWRITING

In typewriting work, errors and mistakes must be corrected. If the typewriter eraser is being used, first move the carriage so that the mistake is outside the type basket. Then turn up the paper so that the error, or mistake rests on the erasing table of the carriage. If the rubber eraser is being used, lightly rub the mistake up and down until the mistake is cleared. If on the other hand, the correcting fluid is being used, rub the tin liquid across the mistake, and allow to dry. After making the correction, return the roller to the line of typing and type in the correction.

MATERIALS FOR ERASING INCLUDE:

1 Tipp-ex/ correcting fluid

2 Typing eraser

3 Automatic typing eraser

4 Red liquid fluid

EVALUATION

2 List three typewriting errors correcting materials

Rubber Eraser

The traditional erasing method involved the use of a special typewriter eraser made of hard rubber that contained an abrasive material. Some were thin, flat disks, pink or gray, approximately 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter by ⅛ inch (3.2 mm) thick, with a brush attached from the center, while others looked like pink pencils, with a sharpenable eraser at the “lead” end and a stiff nylon brush at the other end. Either way, these tools made possible erasure of individual typed letters. Business letters were typed on heavyweight, high-rag-content bond paper, not merely to provide a luxurious appearance, but also to stand up to erasure.

Typewriter eraser brushes were necessary for clearing eraser crumbs and paper dust, and using the brush properly was an important element of typewriting skill; if erasure detritus fell into the typewriter, a small buildup could cause the type bars to jam in their narrow supporting grooves.

Correction Fluid

In the 1950s and 1960s, correction fluid made its appearance, under brand names such as Liquid Paper, White-Out and Tipp-Ex; it was invented by Bette Nesmith Graham. Correction fluid was a kind of opaque, white, fast-drying paint that produced a fresh white surface onto which, when dry, a correction could be retyped. However, when held to the light, the covered-up characters were visible, as was the patch of dry correction fluid (which was never perfectly flat, and frequently not a perfect match for the color, texture, and luster of the surrounding paper). The standard trick for solving this problem was photocopying the corrected page, but this was possible only with high quality photocopiers.

A different fluid was available for correcting stencils. It sealed up the stencil ready for retyping but did not attempt to color match.

Correction Paper

Correction paper, or correction film, its plastic based equivalent, is a tab of plastic with one side coated with white correction material. It is used to correct typing errors made when using a typewriter. When inserted between the paper and the ribbon, the impression of the type bar presses the shape of the character into the film, which prints the white correction material onto the paper, hiding the erroneous character and preparing the document for the correct character.

Read page 108 of BUSINESS STUDIES for JSS3 by O. A. LAWAL and others

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1 ——————— method of correcting error is allowed to dry before correction is effected. a Rubber eraser b correcting fluid c Red ink d Pencil eraser

2 ————– is NOT a material for the correction of typewriting errors. a Red fluid b Tipp-ex c Rubber eraser d Automatic typing eraser

3 The carriage is moved outside the type basket in order to prevent ————— from the typewriter.

4 Care of the typewriter includes the following except ———– a covering the machine when not in use b covering the carriage to prevent movement c dusting the machine daily d applying water and soap

5 .Which of the following cannot lead to typing error?

A Sitting position of the typist b Level of training of the typist c Quality of manuscript d Brand of the typewriter.

THEORY

1 List three materials used for correcting errors in typing and explain how they are used.

2 Explain five approaches to preventing typing errors.

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