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  1. State any five European countries that met at the Algeciras Conference

 in 1906.                  [5]

 

  1. Describe the hostility between Germany and France over Morocco in

 1911.                  [12]

 

  1. How far did this hostility increase tension in Europe?      [8]

     

    1. (a)  Identify any five countries that participated in the First World War.  [5]

 

  1. Describe the submarine warfare during the First World War.    [12]

 

  1. To what extent did the war at sea lead to the defeat of Germany and her

   allies?                  [8]

 

  1. (a)  Name any five countries which met at the Paris Peace Conference in

 1919.                  [5]

 

  1. Outline the aims and ideas of the peace makers at the Paris Peace

   Conference in 1919.              [12]

ecolebooks.com

 

  1. Why did the defeated powers condemn the decisions made at the Paris

 Peace Conference?                [8]

 

  1. (a)  State any five functions of the Secretariat of the League of Nations.  [5]

 

  1. Outline the weaknesses of the League of Nations up to 1939.    [12]

 

  1. How far did these weaknesses lead to the collapse of the League of

 Nations?                [8]

 

  1. (a)  Identify any five benefits enjoyed by the Italians under Fascism.    [5]

 

  1. Describe the domestic problems that were faced by the Italian government

   between 1919 and 1922.              [12]

 

  1. How successful was the Italian government in solving these problems

   up to 1939?                  [8]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2167/2 N2015

 

 

  1. State any five opponents of the Weimar Republic.      [5]

 

  1. Describe the efforts made by Gustav Stresemann to improve the German

 economy up to 1929.            [12]

 

  1. To what extent did the efforts of Stresemann contribute to the rise of

 Hitler?                  [8]

 

  1. (a)  List any five causes of the Great Depression in the United States of

 America (USA).                [5]

 

  1. Describe the effects of the Great Depression in America.      [12]

 

  1. To what extent can the American government be blamed for the

 Depression?                  [8]

 

  1. (a)  Identify any five territories which were occupied by Germany between

   1935 and 1939.                [5]

 

  1. Outline the reasons for the outbreak of the Second World War.    [12]

 

  1. To what extent can Britain and France be blamed for the outbreak of the

   Second World War?              [8]

 

  1. (a)  Give any five reasons for Hitler’s invasion of Russia in 1941.    [5]

 

  1. Describe the ‘Phoney War’ during the Second World War.    [12]

 

  1. What contribution did Britain and France make in the defeat of the Axis

   powers? Explain your answer.            [8]

 

  1. (a)  State any five basic elements of human rights enshrined in the United

 Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.        [5]

 

  1. Describe the functions of the United Nations Human Rights

 Commission.                [12]

   

  1. How successful has the Commission been in carrying out its functions?  [8]

 

 

 

 

 

 

2167/2 N2015

[Turn over

 

  1. Identify any five democratic states in Southern Africa.    [5]

     

  1. Describe the features of

 

  1. Representative or Indirect democracy, and

 

  1. Presidential democracy.  

                       [12]

 

  1. How successful has the Zimbabwean government been in implementing the principles of Presidential democracy?      [8]

 

  1. (a)  Identify any five provinces occupied by foreign countries in China before

 1936.                 [5]

 

  1. Describe the administration of Jiang Jiesh’s (Chiang Kai-Shek) government from 1930 to 1935. [12]

 

  1. To what extent did the weaknesses of Jiang Jiesh’s government lead to

   its downfall?                [8]

 

  1. (a)  State any five problems faced by the Communists in China before 1949.  [5]

 

  1. Describe the Chinese Civil War from 1946 to 1949.      [12]

 

  1. How important was the role played by the peasants in the Communists’

   victory?                  [8]

 

  1. (a)  State any five countries which formed the Commonwealth of Nations in

 1931.                  [5]

 

  1. Describe the functions of the Commonwealth of Nations.      [12]

 

  1. How successful has the Commonwealth been in dealing with the

 problems affecting its members?            [8]

 

  1. (a)  State any five agencies which deal with the social work of the United

 Nations Organisation (UNO).            [5]

 

  1. Describe the efforts made by the UNO in promoting international

 disarmament.                [12]

 

  1. Has the UNO been successful in promoting international disarmament?

   Explain your answer.              [8]

 

MARKING SCHEME

 

ZIMBABWE SCHOOL EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level

 

 

 

MARKING SCHEME

 

HISTORY 2167/2 : INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

 

NOVEMBER 2015

 

 

1  (a)  State any five European countries that met at the Algeciras Conference in 1906.                    [5]

 

  • Germany
  • Britain
  • France
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Italy
  • Spain
  • Russia

 

(b)  Describe the hostility between Germany and France over Morocco in 1911.                    [12]

 

  • Tribes rebelled against the Sultan in Morocco.
  • This is also known as the Second Moroccan Crisis.
  • France sent troops quickly to subdue them.
  • French troops occupied Fez which was under attack from nomadic tribes
  • Germany denounced the French move as illegal according to the Algeciras Conference.
  • Germany stepped in and in July 1911 a German gunboat the PANTHER was sent to Agadir.
  • Germany claimed she was protecting her interests but actually wished to take part in Morocco as compensation for French gains.
  • For a time feelings were so high that war between France and Germany seemed possible.
  • Britain terrified by the possibility of a German naval base at Agadir (Atlantic) so close to Gibraltar immediately sided with France in the crisis.
  • British fleet was prepared for action (British mobilisation).
  • This forced Germany to withdraw, embarrassed as it was clearly a French victory.
  • An agreement was reached whereby France was recognised as having a protectorate over Morocco but in return the German Cameroons were enlarged by two small slices from French Middle Congo.
  • Britain and France made a secret naval agreement to support each other in case of any eventuality.

 

 (c)  How far did this hostility increase tension in Europe?        [8]

 

  • The incident like the First Moroccan Crisis again pitted Germany on the one hand, and the British and French on the other, thus increasing world tension.
  • During the conference session, France, Britain and Russia had constantly outvoted Germany and the result was a decisive defeat for the Kaiser.

     

    However there were other factors besides the 1911 Moroccan crisis

     

  • quarrel between Austria-Hungary and Serbia
  • naval and arms race
  • colonial rivalry in Africa and the Far East
  • German Schlieffen Plan
  • economic rivalry among different capitalist countries of the world
  • rise of nationalism in Central and Eastern Europe
  • shifting balance of power as Germany threatened OLD powers like Russia, Britain and France.

 

 Level I:  Generalised or one-sided answer.      

 

(0 – 3)

 Level II:  Balanced answer without judgement.    

 

(4 – 6)

 Level III:  Balanced answer with judgement.      

 


 

(7 – 8)

2  (a)  Identify any five countries that participated in the First World War.

 

  • Germany
  • Britain
  • France
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Italy
  • Russia
  • United States of America (USA)

 [5]

 (b)  Describe the submarine warfare during the First World War.

 [12]

 

  • The war at sea was generally initiated by Germany and was a feature of war on Western front.
  • It was characterised by the use of dreadnaughts, submarines, U-Boats, torpedoes etc.
  • Initially a battle between Britain and Germany was signalled by sinking of a smaller British squadron off the coast of Chile in 1914 by the German Pacific fleet.
  • The sinking of the British Sussex.
  • The British Royal Navy fleet responded by having a blockade around Germany which continued until the end of the war.
  • The submarine warfare by Germany was a threat to the allies food supplies and military equipment.
  • Most significant naval battle was the battle of Jutland, 1916 where the Royal navy recorded a considerable loss to the Germans.
  • Although German surface ships made poor showing, their submarine campaign was the most effective and almost brought Britain to defeat in 1917.
  • The British resorted to convoy system to protect allied fleet.
  • Germany crippled the British supply lines in 1917 by sinking a majority of her merchant ships.
  • Britain remained with only 6 weeks supply of food.
  • New technology was introduced by the British to safeguard their merchant fleet,

    e.g. Echo-Sounders, Depth charges and radar system.

  • The unrestricted use of the U-Boats, 1915 led to the sinking of the Lusitania in which 1 198 lives were lost among them Americans, this signalled the entry of the Americans (USA) into the war in favour of the allies.
  • German crews became demoralised, some mutinied and the allies took final control of the seas thus Germany shifted her attention to concentrate on land.

 

 (c)  To what extent did the war at sea lead to the defeat of Germany and her allies? [8]  

  • Germany was denied supply of raw materials for her military industries.
  • Large German fleet and U-Boats/submarines were destroyed.
  • Blockage of German ports led to starvation and food riots became a permanent feature in Germany.
  • Entrance of the USA navy increased the scope of war.
  • German troops got demoralised due to the fresh marines from USA.
  • Fresh troops and equipment from USA tilted the war in favour of the allies.

 

However, it should be noted that:

 

  • Germany was supported by weak partners e.g. Turkey and Austria-Hungary.
  • Use of aerial bombardment by the allies.
  • Loans of about 10 000 million dollars given to the allies by America.
  • The morale of the British and French armies improved with the knowledge of American support.
  • Germany lost skilful commanders.
  • Italy switched sides and supported the allies.
  • Wilson’s 14 points persuaded Germany to accept an armistice.

 

 Level I:  Generalised or one-sided answer.        (0 – 3)

 

 Level II:  Balanced answer without judgement.      (4 – 6)

 

 Level III:  Balanced answer with judgement.        (7 – 8)

 

 

3  (a)  Name any five countries which met at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.  [5]

 

  • Britain
  • United States of America (USA)
  • South Africa
  • France –  Italy
  • China
  • Belgium
  • Japan
  • Netherlands/Holland

 

 

 

 (b)  Outline the aims and ideas of the peace makers at the Paris Peace    Conference in 1919.                [12]

 

  • Noone could criticise the aims of the peace markers or the good intentions of the principles they tried to follow.
  • They tried to prevent a second outbreak by weakening the old dynastic, militaristic empires to join a new experiment in international government.
  • The highly emotional atmosphere in which they (peace markers) had to work, and shortage of time made practical results of the settlement fall a long way behind the high sounding principles it was supposed to be based.
  • It was a mistake to give the ex-enemy no real chance to sit around the peace table.
  • The old minorities were freed, new minorities created which were a powerful factor in the outbreak of the Second World War.
  • The absence of Germany and Russia from the peace conference and the withdrawal of the USA from Europe weakened the peace conference.
  • Versailles gave only a breathing space of 21 years before Europe was plunged once again into a World War.
  • It reduced Germany dominance, military strength and aggressiveness.
  • It made impossible or astronomical reparations to Germany. (a vindictive act of malevolence)

   

 (c)  Why did the defeated powers condemn the decisions made at the Paris Peace Conference?                [8]

 

  • They were dictated to them.
  • Many of the provisions were not in accordance with the 14 points and were therefore a swindle.
  • The Disarmament clauses were deeply resented.
  • The War Guilt Clause – Germany objected to being saddled the entire blame for the outbreak of the war.
  • Allied powers wanted the Germans admit responsibility so that they would be liable to pay reparations.
  • Reparations – amount decided on was far too high at £6,6 million. –  Reparations were the final humiliation for the Germans.

 

However, Germany’s conduct during the war had been questionable e.g. the U-boat campaign and the treatment given Russia at Brest-Litovsk Treaty.

 

  • The Kaizer’s speech/welt politic.
  • There was an element of self-righteousness in the attitude of the Germans.
  • Germany however, had also been aggressive and encouraged Austria-Hungary to be aggressive in the Balkans.
  • Germany was a bully and had constructively prepared for a war e.g. the Schlieffen Plan.

 

 Level I:  Generalised or one-sided answer.        (0 – 3)

 

 Level II:  Balanced answer without judgement.      (4 – 6)

 

 Level III:  Balanced answer with judgement.        (7 – 8)

 

4  (a)  State any five functions of the Secretariat of the League of Nations.    [5]

 

  • Coordinated the League’s organs. –  Implemented the League’s resolutions. –  Prepared agendas.
  • Translated information.
  • Kept minutes of meetings.
  • Drafted the League’s budget
  • Wrote reports for the League etc.

 

 (b)  Outline the weaknesses of the League of Nations up to 1939.    [12]

 

  • Non-participation of the United States of America (USA).
  • The USA had emerged from the war as the greatest power and potential king of the League.
  • It is ironical that although Wilson, president of the USA had been the most dedicated champion of the League at the Peace Conference his country fully rejected the idea of the League.
  • Britain and France were left without resources to curb the aggressive external policies of Japan, Italy and Germany.
  • The exclusion of Germany and Russia.
  • The two countries concluded a mutual alliance known as the Treaty of Rapallo and developed into a secret military agreement and may be regarded as a forerunner of the Nazi-Societ Pact of 1939.
  • Absence of big powers.
  • The League appeared as an Anglo-French alliance.
  • The League had no army to deter aggression.
  • Economic sanctions proved ineffective.
  • Decisions had to be unanimous.
  • It lacked a sound monetary base.

 

 (c)  How far did these weaknesses lead to the collapse of the League of Nations?                  [8]

 

  • Disarmament Conference of 1932 was shelved because of differences among League members.
  • Germany withdrew from the League and immediately increased her armaments.
  • The Japanese invasion of Manchuria weakened the League.
  • Mussolini and Hitler were not hesitant to exploit the weaknesses of the League when the opportunity arose.
  • Italy withdrew from the League in 1937, spelling out the virtual end of the League.
  • Italy now turned to Hitler for support paving the way for the Rome-Berlin Axis. –  Nobody never bothered to appeal to the League to intervene when crises arose.

 

 

 

However other factors contributed to its collapse.

 

  • Great depression
  • emergence of Fascism
  • discovery of new technologies in the military industries and also the nonparticipation of the USA.

 

 Level I:  Generalised or one-sided answer.        (0 – 3)

 

 Level II:  Balanced answer without judgement.      (4 – 6)

 

 Level III:  Balanced answer with judgement.        (7 – 8)

 

 

5  (a)  Identify any five benefits enjoyed by the Italians under Fascism.    [5]

 

  • more land for farming created
  • peace
  • security
  • national pride restored
  • local currency revalued (Lira)
  • low and order establishment
  • employment created
  • Hydro Electricity production doubled

 

 (b)  Describe the domestic problems that were faced by the Italian government    between 1919 and 1922.                [12]

 

  • Italians fought in the First World War but got very little rewards.
  • Italians lost economically in the war and she expected compensation which she did not get.
  • There was no employment for returning soldiers.
  • High inflation and food shortages.
  • Poverty as peasants struggled to survive.
  • Emergence of several parties unable to offer any solution to the problems in

    Italy.

  • Governments were formed from coalitions which did not last long.
  • Government failed to control opposition groups like the Fascists.
  • Violence and thuggery were prevalent.
  • Land seizures by ex-soldiers and peasants.
  • widespread strikes.
  • Conflict of communism among business and class.

 

 

 (c)  How successful was the Italian government in solving these problems    up to 1939?                    [8]

 

  • All opposition was banned thereby reducing political instability and violence.

Trade Unions and strikes were banned bringing stability to the economy. There was price stability.

  • Employment was generated through the public works programme.
  • Lateran Pact signed with the Pope in 1929 solving the dispute between the church and state.
  • Censorship of press, silenced the opposition.
  • Free trade unions were banned.
  • Human rights and freedom of speech no longer enjoyed by the Italians.
  • Use of secret police (OVRA)
  

Level I:  Generalised or one-sided answer.    

(0 – 3)

  


 

  
  

Level II:  Balanced answer without judgement.  

(4 – 6)

  


 

  
 

Level III:  Balanced answer with judgement.    

(7 – 8)

6

(a)

State any five opponents of the Weimar Republic.


 

 [5]

 

  • The Nationalists
  • The unemployed
  • The Industrialists
  • The Ex-soldiers who opposed the Versailles Treaty
  • The Communists who wanted a Russian-style revolution
  • The Officer-class which opposed left-wing government

 

 (b)  Describe the efforts made by Gustav Stresemann to improve the German economy up to 1929.              [12]

 

  • He established a new German mark.
  • He helped German industry recover.
  • He negotiated a reduction in reparations.
  • Stressman got Germany accepted as an equal by by other European states which signed the LOCARNO treaties.
  • Got Germany admitted as a member of the League and became a permanent member of the Council.
  • He persuaded American banks to make massive loans to help Germany industry recover.
  • Unemployment fell.
  • The German mark was stable
  • The living standards were rising.
  • The extremist parties became less popular.
  • False prosperity – much of the improvement depended on American loans.
  • Few Weimarians (i.e. few Germans were fervent supporters of the Republic – others like Nationalists, ex-soldiers, communists and industrialists still preferred some other system.
  • The army would use its own interests even if that meant a threat to the Republic.
  • Many German banks were ruined.
  • There was a fall in German exports.

(c)  To what extent did the efforts of Stresemann contribute to the rise of Hitler?                    [8]

 

The October 1929 Wall Street Crash which had immediate effects in Germany were;

 

  • American banks recalled loans which propped up Germany industry and trade.
  • Many German banks were ruined.
  • German exports fell.
  • Unemployment rose – it looked as if the Republic was going back to the harsh days of 1923 again.

 

Other factors

 

  • Hitler’s propaganda.
  • Hitler promised employment and stability to the middle classes.
  • Restoration of German national pride –
    Use of violence
  • Hitler’s remarkable gift of orality

 

 Level I:  Generalised or one-sided answer.        (0 – 3)

 

 Level II:  Balanced answer without judgement.      (4 – 6)

 

 Level III:  Balanced answer with judgement.        (7 – 8)

 

 

7  (a)  List any five causes of the Great Depression in the United States of America (USA).                  [5]

 

  • too many goods for the home market to absorb
  • maldistribution of income
  • introduction of tariffs against American goods (by many European states)
  • great rush of speculation on the stock market
  • building up of the glut of consumer goods
  • the development of self-fulfilling expectations

 

 (b)  Describe the effects of the Great Depression in America.      [12]

 

  • The Stock Market crash ruined millions of investors who paid high prices for their shares.
  • Banks were in a shacky position – people withdrew their savaings and kept money at home.
  • Banks closed down.
  • Life saving disappeared.
  • Men were laid off and factories closed (unemployment).
  • Image From EcoleBooks.com of the farmers lost all their property.
  • Drop in living standards – with bread queues, charity soup kitchens, evictions when tenants could not afford the rent.
  • Creditors lost heavily since they had no hope of receiving payment.
  • Industrial production declined e.g. 1933 production was only half of 1929 total.

There was starvation for many.

  • No unemployment and sickness benefits to help out.
  • Homeless people lived in camps outside every large city (camps were nicknamed as Hoovervilles).

 

 (c)  To what extent can the American government be blamed for the Depression?                  [8]

 

  • It was fashionable to blame the unfortunate president Hoover.
  • The Republican party as a whole must too share the blame.
  • The government should have taken several measures to control the situation e.g.

    encouraging big business to lower prices and substantially increase wages.

  • The government’s laissez-faire approach.

 

 Level I:  Generalised or one-sided answer.        (0 – 3)

 

 Level II:  Balanced answer without judgement.      (4 – 6)

 

 Level III:  Balanced answer with judgement.        (7 – 8)

 

 

8  (a)  Identify any five territories which were occupied by Germany between    1935 and 1939.                  [5]

 

  • Bohemia
  • Sudetenland
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Austria
  • Rhineland
  • Saar
  • Memel

 

 (b)  Outline the reasons for the outbreak of the Second World War.    [12]

 

  • Failure of the League of Nations – It proved powerless as machinery created to avert another war.
  • Failure by Britain to persuade her allies to lift some of the harsh terms of the Versailles on Germany.
  • The policy of appeasement encouraged German aggression which culminated in a war in 1939.
  • Hitler marched troops into the Rhineland in defiance of the Versailles.
  • In 1938, he invaded Austria to complete the Anschluss.
  • 1938 – 1939 Munich Conference and the invasion of Czechoslovakia.
  • 1939 invasion of Poland and outbreak of the war.
  • The failure of Britain and France to work together further encouraged aggression.
  • The British and French refusal to work with USSR worsened the situation.
  • Hitler’s strategies (exploited the British – French policy of appeasment) made him move from strength to strength.

The Russo-German Pact of 1939 was the most immediate cause.

  • Other agreements signed include;
  • Anglo-German naval agreement
  • Rome-Berlin and Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
  • Pact of Steel
  • Stressa Front

 

 (c)  To what extent can Britain and France be blamed for the outbreak of the    Second World War?                [8]

 

  • The appeasers should have taken a firm line with Hitler before Germany became too strong.
  • The Munich Agreement convinced Hitler that Britain and France would remain passive.
  • Hitler was a brilliant opportunist taking advantage of the mistakes of the appeasers.
  • States like Germany felt they had been ill-treated at the Peace settlement of 1919. Germany was filled with betterness and the desire to revenge.
  • The League’s failure to secure general disarmament and to control potential aggressors.
  • The annexation of the Austria also demonstrated to Hitler the advantage of his alliance with Mussolini (Rome-Berlin Axis).
  • The invasion of Poland by Germany in 1939.

 

 Level I:  Generalised or one-sided answer.        (0 – 3)

 

 Level II:  Balanced answer without judgement.      (4 – 6)

 

 Level III:  Balanced answer with judgement.        (7 – 8)

 

 

9  (a)  Give any five reasons for Hitler’s invasion of Russia in 1941.      [5]

 

  • feared that Russia might attack Germany while she was still occupied in the West
  • hope that the Japanese would attack Russia in the Far East
  • the need to create Lebensraum
  • need for materials such as wheat oil, coal, iron and steel
  • provide a link with Japan
  • he believed that the slav people were sub-human

 

 (b)  Describe the ‘Phoney War’ during the Second World War.      [12]

 

  • Britain and France could not save Poland
  • German military generals were unwilling to attack France
  • France, secure behind the maginot Line, was not militarily prepared to attack Germany and its Siegfried Line
  • Britain was even less prepared
  • Both countries shared varied hopes

    Peace terms might still be arranged. The “Munich Mentality” dominated most British and French thinking

  • A naval blockade might bring Germany to her knees –  Time was needed to build up British and French forces.
  • Few hostilities took place in the winter of 1939.
  • Only Finland offered any resistance in a war which began in November 1939 and ended in Russian victory in March 1940.
  • Allies lost the battleship ROYAL OAK sunk in Scapa Flow by a German midget submarine.
  • The Great Spee was forced into Montevideo harbour by three British Cruisers. –  There was no offensives in the West and the Allies remained on the defensive.
  • For the French and British, the struggle still seemed quite unreal “A PHONEY

    WAR”

 

 (c)  What contribution did Britain and France make in the defeat of the Axis    powers? Explain your answer.              [8]

 

  • The first significant achievement was in the Battle of Britain in 1940 when the RAF beat off the Luftwaffe attacks, making Hitler to abandon his invasion plans.
  • Successful attacks on the Italian fleet at Taranto and Cape Matapan.
  • The sinking of the German battleship TIRPITZ by heavy bombers in Norway.
  • The German navy chief complained to Hitler that more U-Boats were being destroyed by aircraft than by Naval vessels.
  • Dive bombers operating from aircraft carriers won the Battle of Midway Island in June 1942.
  • British and Americans later flew parachute troops to aid the landings in Sicily (1943 July) and Normandy (June 1944).
  • They provided air protection for the invading armies.
  • However, similar operation at Arnhem (September 1944) was a failure.
  • Germans bombed London and other important cities and ports.
  • Allied strategic air offensive was one of the decisive reasons for the Axis Powers’ defeat.

 

 Level I:  Generalised or one-sided answer.        (0 – 3)

 

 Level II:  Balanced answer without judgement.      (4 – 6)

 

 Level III:  Balanced answer with judgement.        (7 – 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10  (a)  State any five basic elements of human rights enshrined in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.        [5]

 

  • the right to life, liberty and security of every person
  • freedom from slavery or any form of servitude
  • freedom from torture
  • freedom from arbitrary arrest, inhuman and degrading treatment
  • equality before the law and protection from any form of discrimination
  • freedom of thought, movement and association

 

(b)  Describe the functions of the United Nations Human Rights Commission.                  [12]

 

  • to protect, develop and uphold human rights
  • to engage in programmes of public education to inform the public about human rights
  • to monitor and assess the observance of human rights
  • to advise government on how it can take effective measures to promote human rights
  • to stimulate public awareness about values of constitutionalism in general and human rights in particular
  • to ensure that the Bill of rights provided for is respected and adhered to
  • to conduct investigations on its own initiative and to receive complaints and to act upon these complaints
  • to visit jails, prisons, mental institutions etc in order to ensure that the conditions in these institutions comply with accepted human rights standards
  • to commit persons to the contempt of its orders
  • to issue summons or other orders requiring the attendance of any person before it, and the production of any documents relevant to an investigation

 

 (c)  How successful has the Commission been in carrying out its functions?  [8]

 

  • UN representative to Zimbabwe after the Operation Murambatsvina
  • UN election observes during election campaigns and the voting exercise
  • brought to book Human Rights violators as was the case in Rwanda, Bosnia and Kosovo
  • punish political leaders who were known critics of capitalism and globalization

 

 Level I:  Generalised or one-sided answer.        (0 – 3)

 

 Level II:  Balanced answer without judgement.      (4 – 6)

 

 Level III:  Balanced answer with judgement.        (7 – 8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11  (a)  Identify any five democratic states in Southern Africa.      [5]

 

  • South Africa
  • Zimbabwe
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Botswana
  • Namibia
  • Lesotho

     

 (b)  Describe the features of

 

  1. Representative or Indirect democracy, and

 

  1. Presidential democracy.  

                         [12]

 

  • Representative or Indirect Democracy

 

  • people elect representatives for the purpose of carrying out the day to day    governing of the country on the people’s behalf.
  • The number of representatives vary from country to country
  • The representatives make decisions and they must reflect the will of the people
  • The representatives are accountable to the people and this calls for transparency in their actions and decisions.
  • This type of democracy entails regular elections where people may replace or retain their representatives.

 

  • Presidential Democracy

 

  • The legislature and the executive are independent of each other. That is the people elect members of the legislature and the head of the executive (president)
  • The president holds office for specified periods
  • The president is not subject to the direct control of the legislature, the legislature can check on the president’s powers and vice versa.
  • The president may be from one political party and the majority of the legislature may be from another political party.

 

(c)  How successful has the Zimbabwean government been in implementing the principles of Presidential democracy?        [8]

 

  • holding regular presidential elections at stipulated intervals or periods (terms) –  the legislature and executive are independent of each other
  • the legislature has no powers to check on the president’s powers but the other way round
  • elections not free and fair
  • no stipulated terms for presidential office
  • President of ZANU PF heading the majority of the legislature from opposition parties (GPU)

 

 Level I:  Generalised or one-sided answer.        (0 – 3)

 

 Level II:  Balanced answer without judgement.      (4 – 6)

 

 Level III:  Balanced answer with judgement.        (7 – 8)

 

 

12  (a)  Identify any five provinces occupied by foreign countries in China before 1936.                  [5]

 

  • Manchuria
  • Kiangsi
  • Shanghai
  • Nanking
  • Peking
  • Yenan
  • Shangtung
  • Chunking

 

 (b)  Describe the administration of Jiang Jiesh’s (Chiang Kai-Shek) government from 1930 to 1935.          [12]

 

  • Warlords had been wiped out or had accepted Jiang’s rule
  • Communists had been driven from Kiangsi to Japanese controlled northern regions
  • Western businessmen came back to the Southern ports
  • New factories were built by foreigners and Chinese
  • New roads, airlines and railway introduced
  • Improved postal services, telecommunications and other public services
  • Intellectuals opposed him because of the dictatorial rule and its inefficiences
  • Business people suffered from raging inflation
  • Peasants had been ignored at best and ill-treated generally by Jiang’s illdisciplined forces
  • Patriots resented the small part Jiang had played in the anti-Japanese war
  • Its army was disloyal

 

 (c)  To what extent did the weaknesses of Jiang Jiesh’s government lead to    its downfall?                  [8]

 

  • Western firms had special privileges “extra-territorial rights” and angered Chinese remembering Shun Zhong Shen’s (Sun Yat-Sen) principles
  • Jiang’s government did little for the peasants, landlords were its main supporters
  • It let 20 000 peasants die of starvation each year in Shanghai
  • He ignored the principle of people’s democracy
  • Chinese intellectuals grew critical of Jiang Jiesh’s government which favoured the few, ignored the peasants and allowed corruption by the T.V. Soong’s family and others to spread –  Mao Zedong’s ability to lead
  • Intellectuals admired the honesty of Mao’s government
  • Patriots admired Mao’s persistent resistance to the Japanese

 

Level I:


 

Generalised or one-sided answer.  

(0 – 3)

Level II:


 

Balanced answer without judgement.

(4 – 6)

Level III:

Balanced answer with judgement.  

(7 – 8)

 

 

13  (a)  State any five problems faced by the Communists in China before 1949.  [5]

 

  • nationalist attacks
  • drought
  • poverty
  • unemployment
  • foreign attacks
  • poor education

 

 (b)  Describe the Chinese Civil War from 1946 to 1949.        [12]

 

  • The Guomidung (GMT) controlled China south of the Yangste and held most of the cities in the north and in Manchuria.
  • The communists controlled the countryside so that contact between GMT forces had to be by air.
  • Jiang Jiesh launched a three-pronged attack towards Shantung, Yenan and Manchuria.
  • He promised that the Reds would be defeated in 6 months.
  • Communists retreated from Yenan, made their way to the South and set-up a base in the Tapeh mountains.
  • Using guerrilla tactics, the Reds controlled the route to the north from the Yangste.
  • Having gathered and trained a peasant army in 1948, Mao Zedong went on the offensive.
  • Armed with Russian weapons and American arms sold by corrupt leaders in Jiang’s army, Mao drove Jiang’s forces into bases.
  • By January 1949 the Communists had captured every city north of the Yangtse. –
    Many cities surrendered without fighting.
  • Jiang’s men deserted in their thousands.
  • Many of Jiang Jiesh’s generals wanted to negotiate a deal with Mao.
  • The advance of the Reds was welcomed by most Chinese anxious to have honest, efficient and disciplined government.
  • Jiang Jiesh’s army held out at Canton for a short while before fleeing to Formosa (Taiwan) in December 1949.

 

 

 (c)  How important was the role played by the peasants in the Communists’    victory?                    [8]

 

  • Red army was made up of peasants.
  • Other peasants hid, fed and helped Mao’s forces.
  • Chinese peasants led the revolution.

 

   However other factors also contributed;

 

  • Mao’s land policies
  • military tactics of the Red Army
  • Support from Businessmen and intellectuals who admired his policies

 

 Level I:  Generalised or one-sided answer.        (0 – 3)

 

 Level II:  Balanced answer without judgement.      (4 – 6)

 

 Level III:  Balanced answer with judgement.        (7 – 8)

 

 

14  (a)  State any five countries which formed the Commonwealth of Nations in 1931.                    [5]

 

  • Britain
  • Australia
  • Canada
  • New Zealand
  • South Africa

 

 (b)  Describe the functions of the Commonwealth of Nations.      [12]

 

  • originally an association of Britain and her dominions (the whiteman’s club) drawn up by the 1931 statute of Westminister.
  • The Commonwealth changed with the admission of the new Asian and African states into a multi-racial organisation.
  • It is a loose association based on voluntary co-operation in which member states are equal partners
  • Provides grants and advisers for projects in the poorer countries of the Commonwealth e.g. Canadian engineers, Australian teachers to Malaysia.
  • Provided financial, technical and educational aid for the emerging African nations.
  • Provides help to poverty stricken countries.
  • Builds infrastructure, e.g. universities. – Develops hydro-electric schemes.

 

 

 

 

 

 (c)  How successful has the Commonwealth been in dealing with the problems affecting its members?              [8]

 

  • Nigeria received help to develop its Hydro-electric schemes.
  • It set up a University in Malawi.
  • The Commonwealth set up the Special Commonwealth African Assistance Plan (1960) to provide the financial, technical and educational aid for the African members states.
  • Commonwealth was unable to prevent or solve serious problems such as civil wars.
  • The rest of the Commonwealth members were alarmed with the British entry into the European Union, as her trading relations with the Commonwealth gradually faded as she traded more with Europe.

 

 Level I:  Generalised or one-sided answer.        (0 – 3)

 

 Level II:  Balanced answer without judgement.      (4 – 6)

 

 Level III:  Balanced answer with judgement.        (7 – 8)

 

 

15  (a)  State any five agencies which deal with the social work of the United Nations Organisation (UNO).              [5]

 

  • ILO
  • FAO
  • WHO
  • UNESCO
  • UNRWA
  • UNICEF

 

 (b)  Describe the efforts made by the UNO in promoting international disarmament.                  [12]

 

  • The Atomic Energy Commission 1946 – hope to arrange for international control of the production of atomic energy.
  • USSR refused to be inspected
  • USA the only state with atomic weapons refused to destroy
  • Disarmament Commission set in 1957 arranging the cessation of nuclear testing
  • guard against the secret development of nuclear arms
  • Test Ban Treaty – first fruits of this work
  • The Treaty of Principle Governing the Activities of State in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space signed in Moscow, Washington and London – banning the use of space for military purposes.

 

 

 

 

 (c)  Has the UNO been successful in promoting international disarmament?

   Explain your answer.                [8]

 

  • Progress made in the years 1945 – 1978, but it has helped to control the proliferation of the most destructive weapons
  • USSR stock of atomic energy destroyed after a long time.
  • USA refused to be inspected in fear of USSR (Cold War).
  • Managed to bring USSR and USA to talks SALT 1 and SALT 2 (Still-To Be

    Ratified)

  • Searching for such weapons in suspected countries like Iran, Korea etc.

 

 Level I:  Generalised or one-sided answer.        (0 – 3)

 

 Level II:  Balanced answer without judgement.      (4 – 6)

 

 Level III:  Balanced answer with judgement.        (7 – 8)

 

 

 

 




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