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SECOND TERM E-LEARNING NOTE

 

SUBJECT: CATERING CRAFT PRACTICE    CLASS: SS 1

 

SCHEME OF WORK

 

WEEK  TOPIC

1.  Food Commodities- Meat and poultry

2.  Food Commodities- Eggs and Fish

3.  Food Commodities- Milk, Vegetables and Fruits

4.  Food Commodities- Cereals, Pulses, Herbs and Flavouring

5.  Food Commodities- Floor Cookery

6.  Principle of Cooking Methods

7.  Methods of Cooking- Boiling, Poaching and Steaming

8.  Methods of Cooking- Stewing and Frying

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9.  Methods of Cooking- Baking, Roasting and Grilling

10.  Standard and Local Measuring Equipment

11.  Practical and Revision

12.  Examination

 

REFERENCES

  • BASIC CATERING FOR SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS 1-3 BY OMOTAYO AND OLORUNDA.
  • CATERING CRAFT PRACTICE FOR SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS 1-3 BY AMINU S.N. BARIKI.

 

 

WEEK ONE

TOPIC: FOOD COMMODITIES

CONTENT  

  • Meat
  • Poultry

 

FOOD COMMODITIES

Food commodities are those ingredients which are combined together to get a complete meal. They refer to the entire sources from which we derive the food nutrients. Food commodities include the following:

  1. Meat
  2. Poultry
  3. Game
  4. Fish
  5. Vegetables
  6. Fruits
  7. Eggs
  8. Milk and milk products [ cheese and yoghurt]
  9. Food Additives [colouring and flavouring].

 

MEAT

Meat is the muscle or flesh derived from animals after slaughtering them. It consists of bundles of muscle fibres joined together by connective tissues and connected to the bones by tendons. A certain amount of fat is embedded in the connective tissues in between the fibres.

 

FOOD VALUE OF MEAT

  1. PROTEIN: The major nutrient in meat is protein of the first class because it contains all the essential amino acid.
  2. MINERAL ELEMENTS: Meat is rich in mineral elements like sulphur, calcium, phosphorus and iron.
  3. VITAMINS: It contains vitamins such as the B-complex vitamins e.g. riboflavin, thiamineand nicotinic acid. The fatty meat like pork is rich in vitamin A and D.
  4. FAT: Meat provides fat from the connective tissues between the fibres.
  5. WATER: Meat contains water but the percentage of water varies according to the type of meat.

 

TYPES OF MEAT

Since there are different types of animals, it follows there will be different types of meat.

 

Animal Source 

Name 

Cow 

Beef 

Calf 

Veal 

Sheep 

Mutton 

Young sheep 

Lamb 

Pig 

Pork, Ham, Bacon 

Bush animals like rabbit, antelope, deer 

Game 

Soft white fat from pig 

Lard 

Hard fat from other animals

Suet 

Domesticated birds 

Poultry 

 

EVALUATION

1. Define food commodities.

2. List and explain the nutritive value of meat.

 

CUTS OF MEAT

Meat from different parts of the animal are called different cuts of meat. Examples of cuts of meat are:

  • Head
  • Neck
  • Chuck
  • Rib-roast
  • Brisket
  • Ox-tongue
  • Ox-tail
  • Leg beef etc.

 

APPEARANCE OF MEAT

WHITE MEAT: They are more tender in texture with less amount of fat and connective tissues e.g. veal, rabbit, chicken, etc.

 

RED MEAT: They contain more fat and connective tissues e.g. beef, pork, lamb, etc.

 

LEAN MEAT: This is the part of the meat that contains little or no fat.

 

EXTRACTIVES: These are the water soluble parts of meat responsible for the flavor. They are extracted from the meat by boiling in water. They account for the variation in the taste between different kinds of meat.

 

OFFAL: The internal organs of animals which are eaten as food are called offal. These include liver, kidney, tripe, sweat bread tongue, brain, lungs, etc. They are rich in protein, mineral elements, vitamins B complex, etc. They are highly perishable and should be cooked as quickly as possible if no refrigerator is available.

 

FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN PURCHASE OF MEAT

  1. Colour:
    The
    colour of quality meat
    is purplish, Red or blood red. dark brown or black meat should not be chosen.
  2. Odour:
    Meat with an offensive odour should not be chosen.
  3. Tenderness:
    This refers to the measure of the toughness softness of the meat. Tenderness should be considered in relation to the type of cut required, the purpose for which the meat is meant and the cooking method to be used.
  4. Lean meat should be bright red with very little unnecessary fat.
  5. The cut surface of any meat must not be dry but moist.
  6. In young animals, the bones should be pink and porous so that when cut, a degree of blood is seen in their structure.

 

Factors affecting the tenderness/toughness of Meat

The toughness or tenderness of meat depends on the age and activities of the animals.

  • Older animals have thicker, longer gristle muscle fibers (tough meat).
  • Younger animals have thinner, shorter fibres with less connective tissue (tender meat).
  • Animals whose muscles have done more active work are stronger and tougher and have more connective tissues than muscle from other parts of its body which have less work to do.

 

Tough meat can be tenderized in the following ways:

  • Beating with rolling pin i.e. mechanically tenderization
  • They may be acted upon by enzymes e.g. papain s in pawpaw leaves.
  • Boiled with seasoning e.g. garlic, onions, etc.
  • By hanging.
  • By adding crushed tomatoes before cooking e.g. in the preparation of soups
  • By cooking in a pressure cooker.

 

METHODS OF COOKING MEAT

The various methods of cooking meat are:

  • Boiling
  • Frying
  • Stewing
  • Roasting
  • Grilling

 

Effects of Heat (Cooking) on Meat

1. Cooking makes meat digestible by converting the connective tissues into gelatin.

2. It improves the flavour and appearance.

3. Cooking helps to remove some of the fat which may be indigestible if too much is consumed.

4. It causes shrinkage due to coagulation of protein, loss of juice and loss of fat.

 

PRESERVATION OF MEAT

  1. Salting – Meat can be pickled in brine (solution of salt and water).
  2. Chilling – Meat is kept at a temperature just above freezing point in a controlled atmosphere.
  3. Freezing – Meat can be kept frozen until required and then thawed out before use.
  4. Canning – Large quantity of meat can be canned with the aid of some chemical preservatives e.g. corned beef.
  5. Smoking- Meat can be preserved by smoking. The smoke from the fire or charcoal contains some chemicals such as phenols and aldehyde that are natural preservatives.
  6. Drying- Meat are cut into desire shape, wash and salted then spread in the sun to dry.

 

EVALUATION

1. State five ways in which tough meat can be tenderized.

2. State three ways meat can be preserved.

 

POULTRY

This is meat derived from some domesticated birds such as chicken, duck, turkey and guinea fowl, etc. Poultry flesh is classified into two:

a) White meat derived from the breast and wings. White meat is more digestible than the dark meat.

b) Dark meat derived from the legs, thigh and drum stick. It is more muscular and coarse.

 

TYPES OF CHICKEN

Chicken is the most popular type of poultry used in catering and are available in various types which include:

1. Spring Chicken: 4-6 weeks old.

2. Broiler Chicken: 3-4 months old and they provide soft meat which could be fried, grilled or roasted to provide soft juicy meat.

3. Cockerels and Old Layers: They provide tough meat which can be prepared by stewing or to prepare soup.

4. Old hen: used for stocks and soups.

 

FOOD VALUES OF POULTRY

1. Proteins: Like meat, poultry flesh is rich in protein of good quality. It is a 1st class protein that contains all the essential amino acids.

2.
Fat: Poultry have little fat which lies under the skin and around the giblet. It is not embedded in fibres as in meat.

3. Mineral salts: Poultry contains iron and phosphorus.

4. Vitamins: Poultry have small quantity of the B-complex vitamins, but less nicotinic acid around the legs.

5. Water: Poultry meat contains water.

 

EVALUATION

1. What is poultry meat?

2. List and explain two types of meat derived from poultry.

 

FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN PURCHASE OF POULTRY

1. The legs should be smooth and pliable.

2. The weight of the bird should be more than that of the feathers after plucking.

3. The eyes of the bird should be bright and sparkling.

4. The breast should be plump.

5. The comb and wattles should be small, bright red and attractive in colour.

6. There should be no grain of corn in the crop.

7. The bird should not be too old.

8. It should be lively and strong.

 

PREPARATION OF POULTRY

After killing the bird, its carcass becomes stiff, rigid and difficult to bend. This stage is known as the period of rigor mortis. Hang the bird the bird for at least one hour to enable rigor mortis to be over, then the flesh will become relaxed and tender. Alternatively, pluck and prepare immediately the bird is killed.

 

Raw poultry has a very strong flavor. To remove this, squeeze a whole lime or lemon on the cut pieces, rub well and then rinse with water.

 

STORAGE OF POULTRY

Poultry can be stored in two forms:

Live- The live poultry is one not yet killed.

Dressed and frozen- The dressed poultry is already been killed and plucked. This type is usually stored in the freezer and maintained in frozen condition.

 

EVALUATION

1. State three factors to consider when choosing poultry.

2. List two ways in which poultry can be stored.

 

GAME

Game is collective name given to certain wild birds and animals that are eaten for food. It refers to any animal hunted for food.

Game is classified into three types:

1. Those with feathers, which is those that can fly e.g. wild duck, eagles, ostrich, etc.

2. Those with furs on their bodies e.g. rabbit, antelope, grass cutter, etc.

3. The non-furred like alligator, etc.

 

Food Value: They are less fatty than poultry or meat, and is more easily digested with the exception of water fowl which has oily flesh. Game is useful for building and repairing body tissues and for energy.

 

Storage

Hanging: is essential for all game. It drains the flesh of blood and begins the process of disintegration that is vital to make the flesh soft and edible and also to develop flavor.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

1. Define food commodities with examples.

2. Define the following: a) Lean meat  b) White meat

3. Discuss preparation of poultry for cooking.

4. Differentiate between poultry and game.

5. State three to prevent electric shock in the kitchen.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Meat and Poultry: Catering Craft Practice for SSS 1-3 by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages 27-35.

Basic Catering for SSS 1-3 by Omotayo and Olorunda. Pages 51-55.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Poultry meat refers to meat derived from _____ A. bush animals B. land animals

    C. domesticated birds D. flying birds

  2. Which of these best
    describes game? A. Wild bush animal  B. Domesticated birds C. Sea animals D. Poultry
  3. The dark meat in poultry is obtained from the ____ A. head of the bird B. legs of the bird

    C. intestine of the bird D. breast of the bird

  4. Meat from young cow is called ____ A. mutton  B. pork C. veal D. lamb.
  5. Which of these is a game? A. Cow B. Fish C. Turkey D. Antelope.

 

THEORY

  1. List and explain three factors to consider when purchasing meat.
  2. Mention and explain two types of chicken.

 

 

WEEK TWO

TOPIC: FOOD COMMODITIES

CONTENT

  • Eggs and Fish


EGG

The terms egg applies not only to those of the hen but also to the edible eggs of other birds such as turkeys, geese, ducks, guinea fowl, quails, etc.

Egg generally has a structure which is spherical; one end is pointed more than the other end, which is blunt. The egg has a fairly strong protective covering called shell. The shell colour depends on the fowl that laid them. The yolk also differs; some are yellowish while some are creamy white.

 

FOOD VALUE OF EGG

  1. Protein: Eggs are rich in protein of high value, therefore can be used to replace meat, poultry and fish in the diet.
  2. Minerals and Vitamins: Eggs contain vitamin A, B- complex and D. They contain mineral salts such as iron, sulphur, phosphorus and calcium.
  3. Fat: The yolk of an egg contains appreciable amount of fat.
  4. Water: 51% of the yolk is water while the white part contains 87% water. This shows that eggs contain a reasonable amount of water.

However, eggs do not contain carbohydrate or starch.

GRADING OF HENS EGG

Small: 53g or under

Medium:  53 – 63g

Large:  63 – 73g

Very large:  73g

 

EVALUATION

1. Draw and label an egg.

2. List three nutrients that egg contains.

 

USES OF EGGS

  1. Eggs are used to increase food value and improve the flavour of foods e.g. pancake, doughnut, etc.
  2. As a binding agent e.g. in yam balls, fish cake, etc.
  3. For coating foods before frying e.g. fish, yam ball, etc.
  4. As a thickening agent e.g. egg custard, sauces, etc.
  5. As a raising agent e.g. sponge cake, pancake, etc.
  6. For glazing e.g. pastry, bread, biscuits, etc. before baking.
  7. For garnishing e.g. salad.
  8. Eggs are valuable in the diet especially for children, invalids and convalescents.

 

FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN CHOOSING EGGS

1. The shell of fresh eggs should be slightly rough.

2. When broken, the yolk should be intact and surrounded by the egg white.

3. When held towards a source of light, it should be clear and bright, not opaque.

4. There should be no offensive odour when the egg is broken.

5. If shaken, no sound should be produced.

6. When immersed in salted water, it should sink and not float.

7. The shell should be intact and not broken.

 

METHOD OF COOKING EGGS

  • Boiling
  • Poaching
  • Frying

 

Egg Dishes include:

  • Omelettes
  • Scotch egg
  • Scrambled egg
  • Fried egg
  • Egg custard
  • Egg sauce, etc.

 

EVALUATION

1. State three uses of eggs.

2. Mention four ways of checking the freshness of an egg.

 

Fish

Fish are sea foods or creatures which live in water (both fresh and hard/salt water). Fish is more easily digestible than meat.

CLASSIFICATION OF FISH

Fish is classified into two groups, which are:

1. FIN FISH

These are those ones that have fins on their bodies. They are of two types:

a) White/Lean Fish: They are those that have oil stored in their livers but not between their muscle fibres. White fish are easily digestible and suitable for invalid. Examples are:

 – Cod

 – Tilapia

 – Halibut

 – Skate

 – Sole

 – Brill, etc.

b) Oily/Fat Fish: These have their fat distributed all over their body especially among the fibres. The have dark looking flesh due to the presence of oil in the body. Examples of oily fish are:

 – Mackerel

 – Salmon

 – Herrings

 – Tuna

 – Kingfish

 – Sardine, etc.

2. SHELL FISH

Shell fish have protective shell covering their flesh. They are divided into two:

a) Molluscs: These have soft body protected by a single hard inedible shell. Examples are:

 – Clams

 – Periwinkle

 – Scallops

 – Oysters, etc.

b) Crustaceans: These have their body divided into different segment with each segment covered with a crust like shell. Examples are:

 – Crabs

 – Crayfish

 – Prawns

 – Shrimps

 – Lobster, etc.

 

EVALUATION

1. Define the word ‘Fish’.

2. Write the classification of fish with examples.

 

FOOD VALUE OF FISH

1. Protein: Fish contains a large proportion of protein. Dried fish has a high food value because it weighs more protein than fresh fish.

2. Fat: Oily fish have more fat than white fish.

3. Vitamin: Oily fish is rich in vitamin A and D.

4. Mineral salts: Fish contain calcium which is present in the bone. Sea fish contain iodine as well.

5. Water: All fish contain water but white fish contain more water than oily fish.

 

FISH CUTS

These refer to different ways to which whole fish is cut before preparation for cooking. They are:

1. Whole or Round fish: Just taken from the water and marketed, nothing has been removed from it.

2. Drawn fish: The entrails (intestines and gills) have been removed.

3. Dressed fish; This has the head, fin, tail and scales removed.

4. Steaks: Cross-section cuts/slices from a large dressed fish. Each slice is cut with the back bone. It is the common way of cutting fish before cooking in most homes.

5. Fillets: The sides of the fish is cut length-wise away from the backbone. It is practically boneless.

 

EVALUATION

1. List and explain three types of fish cut.

2. Briefly describe the nutritive value of fish.

 

FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN BUYING FISH

  1. Select fish with bright eyes.
  2. The flesh must be firm and stiff, not flabby.
  3. The fish must not have unpleasant odour.
  4. The gills should be bright and red in colour.
  5. The scales should be bright, shinning and plentiful.
  6. Frozen fish should be solidly frozen when purchased. There should be no discolouration and offensive odour.

 

METHODS OF COOKING FISH

  • Frying
  • Boiling
  • Stewing
  • Grilling and roasting
  • Poaching

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

1. State five uses of eggs

2. List the classification of fish.

3. List and explain types of game.

4. What are fire fighting equipment?

5. Mention five ways of preventing accident in the kitchen.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Food Commodities; Eggs and Fish

Basic catering for SSS 1-3 by Omotayo and Olorunda. Pages 56-61.

Catering Craft Practice for SSS 1-3by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages 45-49.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Which of these is an oily fish? A. Herring  B. Halibut  C. Crab  D. Skate
  2. Crayfish is an example of ____ A. fin fish  B. shell fish  C. oily fish  D. general fish
  3. The following nutrients are present in eggs except ____ A. protein B. water C. carbohydrate D. fat
  4. The inner yellowish part of an egg is called the ____ A. albumen B. airspace  C. chalaza

    D. yoke  

  5. Which of these is an offal? A. Brain B. Sirloin C. leg beef D. Rump steak

 

THEORY

1. State three uses of eggs in cookery.

2. State two ways of checking for the freshness of fish.

 

 

WEEK THREE

TOPIC: FOOD COMMODITIES

CONTENT

  • Milk, Vegetables and Fruits

 

MILK

Milk is a creamy, nutritious liquid produced by female mammals for feeding their young. The commonest in use is cow milk. Milk is nature’s perfect food for children since it contains almost all the food nutrients, although not enough for adults. It is also valuable in the diet of invalids and convalescents because it is readily digested and highly nutritive.

 

FOOD VALUE OF MILK

a) Protein: Milk has 3.5% protein. The major protein is casein, while others are albumen and globulin.

b) Carbohydrate: It contains carbohydrate in form of lactose (disaccharide).

c) Fat: Milk also contains fat in form of very fine emulsion which is easily digestible.

d) Minerals: It contains mineral salts such as calcium, phosphorus and iron in small quantities.

e) Vitamins: Fat-soluble vitamins are present (A&D) in milk. It also contains vitamin b-complex such as B1, B2 and B12.

f) Water: Milk contains approximately 87.2% water.

 

TYPES OF MILK

1. Fresh Whole milk: This is the milk obtained directly from the cow in which nothing has been removed. The entire nutrients are intact.

2.
Skimmed milk: The fat content has been removed so it solely contains protein, carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals.

3. Semi – Skimmed milk: comes homogenized and pasteurized and has a fat content of between 1.5% and 1.8%

4. Dried or powdered milk: Over 90% of the water content is removed, then it is milled to powder form.

5. Evaporated milk: This is whole milk from which 60% of the water content had been removed.

6. Condensed Milk: This is evaporated milk to which a safe and suitable sweetener has been added. It is sweeter and thicker than evaporated milk.

7. Soya milk: It is obtained from vegetable source (soya beans) can be offered as an alternative to vegans and people with intolerance to cow milk.

8. Rice milk: It is obtained from white rice. It is an alternative to dairy milk for vegans and those with an intolerance to lactose.

9. Coconut milk: It is high in saturated fats. It can be served as a drink, but it is more often used as an ingredient and a base for sauces.

 

EVALUATION

1. Mention the food values of milk.

2. List and explain three types of milk.

 

DIGESTIBILITY OF MILK

When milk enters the stomach, it separates into solids (clots). Digestibility depends on the size of the clots formed. Large clots make digestion difficult. The density of the clots depend on:

  • The amount of calcium and casein the milk contains.
  • The degree of acidity of the gastric juice.

 

Ways of making milk more digestible

1. Dilution with: a) water  b) lime juice

2. Aeration e.g. soda water

3. By eating with solid or thick food e.g. porridge. This will prevent the milk from forming large clots.

4. By boiling/heating. Boiled milk clots more slowly and gives a less dense clot than raw milk.

 

STORAGE OF MILK

Milk is a perishable product and therefore must be stored with care. It will keep for four to five days in refrigerated conditions. Milk can easily be contaminated and therefore stringent precautions are taken to ensure a safe and good quality product for the consumer.

 

Storage points

1. Fresh milk should be kept in the container in which it is delivered.

2. Milk must be stored in the refrigerator.

3. Milk should be kept covered as it absorbs strong smells such as onion or fish.

4. Fresh milk and cream should be purchased daily.

5. Tinned milk stored in a cool, dry ventilated room.

6. Dried milk is stored in air tight tins and kept in a dry store.

 

PRESERVATION OF MILK/HEAT TREATMENT

The common methods of preserving milk are:

1. EVAPORATION: This is removing a large proportion of water from milk.

2.
DEHYDRATION: This is removal of virtually all the water content from milk and then milled to powder. It is done at a very high temperature.

3. PASTEURIZATION: Milk is heated to a temperature of 65ºC for 30 minutes and then cooled quickly. This is done to destroy the pathogenic microorganisms.

4. STERILIZATION: The milk is heated up to 120ºC for up to an hour and then cooled rapidly. It is meant to destroy all the viable microorganisms.

5. U.H.T (ULTRA-HIGH-TEMPERATURE): Milk is homogenized and then heated to temperature of at least 135ºC for 1 second the milk is then packaged under sterile conditions.

6. HOMOGENIZATION: Milk is forced through a fine aperture that breaks up the fat globules to an even size so that they stay evenly distributed throughout and therefore do not form a cream line.

 

EVALUATION

1. List and explain three methods of preserving milk.

2. State two ways of making milk more digestible.

 

USES OF MILK

Milk is used in:

  • Soups and sauces.
  • The making of puddings, cakes and sweet dishes.
  • The cooking of fish and vegetables.
  • Hot and cold drinks.

     

MILK/DIARY PRODUCTS

1. CHEESE: It is made from milk. It takes approximately 5 litres of milk to produce ½ kg of cheese.

Cheese is made from milk coagulated by an enzyme such as rennet (an animal product). For vegetarian cheese, a non-animal enzyme is used.

 

Types of cheese

1. Hard cheese e.g. cheddar, Cheshire, parmesan.

2. Semi hard cheese e.g. Caerphilly

3. Soft/ Cream Cheese e.g. Camembert

4. Blue-vein cheese e.g. Irish blue, Danish blue

5. Cheese spread e.g. samsoe and gourds

 

Uses of cheese

– Soups, pasta, egg, fish and vegetable dishes, savouries

– Can be consumed as snacks.

– Acts as an additional flavouring.

– Can be used to supplement carbohydrate foods

– As a main ingredient in dishes e. g. it can be served as a substitute for meat in vegetarian dishes.

 

2. YOGHURT: It is produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yoghurt are known as “yoghurt culture”. The bacteria act on lactose to produce lactic acid, which also acts on milk protein to give yoghurt its texture and characteristic ‘tart flavour’.

 

Uses of yoghurt

It can be consumed in hot climates as refreshing meal.

– It can be added to dishes to improves their flavour e.g. in gravies sauces.

– It adds variety and flavour to curries, stew and rice dishes.

– It can be added to salad dressing.

 

EVALUATION

1. Mention three types of cheese.

2. State two uses of yoghurt.

 

VEGETABLES

Vegetables are plants or parts of plants cultivated for food. They are highly perishable, but very essential.

 

CLASSIFICATION OF VEGETABLES

1. Root e.g. Swedes, turnips, radishes, carrots, parsnip, breet roots.

2. Tubers e.g. potatoes, yam, cassava, cocoyam, etc.

3. Bulbs or swollen leaves e.g. onions, shallot, leeks, garlic, etc.

4. Green leaves e.g. cabbage, lettuce, sprout, spinach, water leaves, etc.

5. Brassicas or Flowers e.g. cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprout, etc.

6. Fruits e.g. tomatoes, marrow, cucumber, pepper, pumpkin, etc.

7. Pods and seeds e.g. pea, soya beans, runner beans, okra, groundnuts, etc.

8. Stems and shoots e.g. asparagus, celery, sapphire, etc.

9. Miscellaneous e.g. mushroom, garden eggs, fungi, etc.

 

FOOD VALUES OF VEGETABLES

1. Protein: The proteins in vegetables are second class protein and are found in pods and seeds. Recent discovery shows that soya beans and moringa contain first class protein and can compete with animal proteins.

2. Carbohydrate: They are present in form of starch, sugar and cellulose.

3. Mineral salts: Minerals such as phosphorus and calcium are present in some leafy and root vegetables.

4. Vitamins: Vitamins A, B and C are present in vary quantities in vegetables.

5. Water: All vegetables contain water in vary degrees.

 

EVALUATION

1. Mention three nutrients that can be obtained from vegetables.

2. List five classes of vegetables with examples.

 

QUALITY AND PURCHASING POINTS

Root Vegetables

  • Must be clean and free from soil.
  • They must be firm, sound and free from spade marks.

 

Green Vegetables

  • They must be absolutely fresh.
  • The leaves must be bright in colour, crisp and not withered.
  • Cabbage and Brussels sprouts should have tightly growing leaves and be compact.
  • Pea and beans should be crisp and of medium size. Pea-pods should be full.
  • Blanched stems must be firm, white, crisp and free from soil.

 

STORAGE OF VEGETABLES

1. Store all vegetables in a cool and dry ventilated room.

2. Check vegetables daily and discard any that is unsound.

3. Root vegetables should be emptied from sacks and stored in bins or racks.

4. Green vegetables should be stored on well ventilated racks.

5. Storage should be for short time as vegetables loose value especially vitamin C when stored for long period.

 

PRESERVATION OF VEGETABLES

1. Canning: Vegetables are preserved in tins e.g. carrots, mushroom, peas, etc.

2. Dehydration/Drying: The water content is removed by sun-drying or other means e.g. leaf vegetables, tomatoes, pepper, etc.

3. Pickling: Vegetables are preserved in spiced vinegar e.g. onions, red cabbage, etc.

4. Salting: Vegetables such as runner beans are spiced and preserved in dry salt or brine.

5. Freezing: Deep freezing can be used to preserved vegetables such as peas, cauliflower, etc.

 

EVALUATION

1. State three ways of storing vegetables.

2. List and explain two methods of preserving vegetables.

 

FRUITS

Fruits are the fleshy seed-bearing part of plants. It is the complete structure formed by the

ripened ovary of a flowering plant. Fruits are classified into two broad groups, which are;

 

1. FRESH FRUITS

a) Soft fruits: These include different types of berries such as raspberries, strawberries, loganberries, goose berries, black berries, red and black currants, banana, guava, etc.

b) Hard fruits e.g. apples, pears, mangoes, melon, etc.

c) Stone fruits e.g. cherries, damsons, plums, apricots, greengage, peaches, nectarines

c) Citrus fruits e.g. oranges, lemons, grape, mandarins, lime, tangerines, Satsuma

d) Tropical and other fruits e.g. pineapples, pawpaw, melon rhubarbs, sour- sop, etc.

 

2. DRIED FRUITS: These include figs, dates, apricots, etc.

 

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FRUITS

1. Vitamins: Fruits major content is vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Some may contain B-group of vitamins and carotene.

2. Carbohydrates: Fruits contain carbohydrates in form of fructose and glucose. They also contain starch and cellulose which add bulk to the stools.

3. Minerals: Fruits contain some organic acids such as citric, malic, tartaric, etc. which are responsible for the sour taste of unripe fruits.

 

EVALUATION

1. Mention the classification of fruits with examples.

2. What are the nutrients present in fruits.

 

WAYS OF SERVING FRUITS

1. Fresh fruits can be served whole, fresh, ripe and raw.

2. The juice can be squeezed out and served as fruit juices.

3. The squeezed juice can be diluted with syrup to make fruit drinks.

4. Fruits can also be served in form of fruit salads.

5. Some fruits can be used to make preserves such as jams, jellies and marmalades.

 

POINTS TO CONSIDER WHEN PUCHASING FRUITS

1. The fruits must be fresh.

2. They must be free from insect infestation.

3. They must not be over-ripe.

4. The fruit must also be firm to touch.

5. Always make use of fruits in-season.

 

Methods of Preservation of fruits

1. Drying: Fruits such as figs, dates, apricots, etc. can be preserved by drying.

2. Canning: Almost all fruits can be canned.

3. Bottling: Fruits are commercially preserved in this way e.g. cherries.

4. Quick freezing: Strawberries, raspberries, apples, etc. are frozen below -18ºC.

5. Cold storage: Apples are stored at temperature between 1-4ºC depending on the variety of the apples.

6. Gas storage: Fruits are kept in a sealed storeroom where the atmosphere is controlled.

 

EVALUATION

1. State three ways of serving fruits.

2. State four methods of preserving fruits.

GENERAL EVALUATION

1. List and explain four types of milk.

2. List the classification of vegetables.

3. State ways of serving fruits.

4. State three uses of eggs.

5. State three safety precautions in catering establishments.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Milk, vegetables and Fruits:  

Catering Craft Practice for SSS 1-3 by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages 50-62.

Basic Catering for SSS 1-3 by Olorunda and Omotayo. Pages 68-73.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. A white creamy fluid extracted from the breast of a female mammals is called ____. A. water B. syrup C. milk   D. juice
  2. A type of milk that the fat content is 0.1% is ___. A. organic milk B. skimmed milk

    C. condensed milk D. powdered milk

  3. Which of these is a major nutrient found in vegetables? A. Protein B. Ascorbic acid

    C. Calcium D. Vitamin D

  4. Citrus fruits include all of these except ____ A. oranges B. grapes C. lime D. pineaaple
  5. Milk is a major source of high quality protein; the major protein in milk is ___ A. casein

    B. albumen C. glucose D. amino acid

 

THEORY

  1. Write short notes on any five types of milk.
  2. List the classification of fruits.

 

 

WEEK FOUR

TOPIC: FOOD COMMODITIES

CONTENT

  • Cereal, Pulses, Herbs and Spices

 

CEREALS AND GRAINS

Cereal is a broad term or collective name for those plants belonging to the grass family. The seeds they produce are known as grains. Some of the common cereals are rice, corn, millet, barley, oats, wheat, etc. Cereals are the staple foods in most parts of the world.

 

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CEREALS

1. Carbohydrates: Cereals are energy-giving foods and carbohydrate is present in them in form of starch.

2. Protein: Whole cereal grains supply a significant amount of second-class protein.

3. Fat: Cereals have very low fat content which is present in the germ. The fat content is between 1-3% unlike refined cereals which have none.

4. Vitamins and Minerals: Vitamins and minerals are very low and can be found in the aleurone, germ and scutellum layers. The yellow maize is rich in carotene (Vit. A).

 

EVALUATION

1. Mention six different cereals known to you.

2. List and discuss the food value of cereals.

PULSES AND LEGUMES

Legumes refer to the edible seeds of leguminous plants. They are type of plants whose seeds grow in pods.

Legumes used for food can be divided into:

1. PULSES: These are dried edible seeds of cultivated legumes e.g. beans, peas, lentils, etc.

2. OIL SEEDS: They are legumes grown and used for their oil content e.g. groundnuts, soyabeans, cotton seeds, melon seeds, etc.

 

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF LEGUMES

1. Protein: Legumes are very good source of protein, although they are second-class proteins. Soya beans however have a complete protein and are very good for vegetarians.

2. Carbohydrates: They contain little quantities of carbohydrate.

3. Vitamins and Minerals: They contain vitamins B-complex and vitamin C. Minerals such as iron and calcium are also present.

4. Fats and oil: The oil-seeds contain a good amount of oil.

 

EVALUATION

1. List the two groups of legumes with examples.

2. Discuss the nutritive value of legumes.

 

NUTS

Nuts are the reproductive kernel (seeds) of the plant or tree from which they come. They are in the family of legumes known as oil seeds. Nuts are perishable and may easily become rancid or infested with insects.

 

FOOD VALUE
OF NUTS

Nuts are highly nutritious because of their protein, fat and mineral salts. They are of considerable importance to vegetarians who use nuts in place of meat, it is therefore a food which builds, repairs and provides energy. Nuts are difficult to digest.

 

Storage

  • Nuts should be kept in a dry, well ventilated store.
  • Nuts without shells whether ground, nibbled flaked or whole, are kept in air tight container.
  • There should be no sign of mildew before storage.

 

Quality and purchasing points

  • Nuts should be of good size.
  • They should be heavy for their size
  • There must be no sign of mildew.

     

USES

1. Nuts are used as a dessert, as a main ingredient to vegetarian dishes, also for decorating and flavouring.

2. Brazil nuts: are served with fresh fruits as dessert and are also used in confectionary.

3. Chestnuts: Stuffing for turkey, chestnuts flour for soup

4. Coconut: is used in desiccated form for curry preparations in cakes and for decorating cakes, such as Madeleine.

5. Walnuts: are used as dessert in salads and for decorating cakes and sweet dishes. They are also pickled.

6. Peanuts and Cashew: These are salted and used in cocktail bars.

EVALUATION

1. List four types of nuts.

2. Mention the uses of any three.

 

HERBS AND SPICES

Herbs are the leaves of plants while spices are derived from the roots, seeds, bud or bark of plants. They contain volatile essential oils which give them their characteristics flavour and aroma. If kept too long or exposed to air, they become stale, loosing their flavour and aroma.

 

CLASSIFICATION OF HERBS AND SPICES

1. Natural: They are those used directly as derived from the plants without subjecting them to industrial processing. Examples are:

NAMES(English) 

Yoruba 

Hausa 

Igbo 

African lemon tea 

Ewe tea 

– 

Achara oyinbo 

Bitter leaf 

Ewuro 

Shiwaka 

Onugbu 

Tea bush 

Efirin 

– 

Nchaawu 

African nutmeg 

Ariwo 

Gujiyamiya 

Ehuru 

African black pepper

Iyere

Uziza

Locust beans

Iru

Dawadawa

Ogiri

Ginger and garlic

Ayu

Mustard seeds 

– 

Basil 

– 

Bay leaves

– 

Parsley 

– 

Rosemary 

– 

Moringa leaves 

Lovage

 

2. Artificial: They are produced industrially after some processing. Examples are:

 – Thyme

 – Nutmeg

 – Curry

 – Cinnamon, etc.

 

 

EVALUATION

1. Differentiate between herbs and spices.

2. List and explain the classification of herbs and spices.

 

FLAVOURINGS AND COLOURINGS

They are food additives added to food to improve flavour, aroma, colour, etc. Some of the herbs and spices also serve as either flavouring or colouring. They are also classified into two; natural and artificial.

 

FLAVOURINGS

Natural 

Artificial 

Ginger

Cinnamon

Nutmeg

Pepper

Rosemary

Sesame

Onions

Dried okra

Orange peel

Dry crayfish

Iru (fermented locust beans)

Ogiri (fermented melon), etc 

Curry powder

Thyme

Vinegar

Monosodium glutamate e.g. maggi, knorr, etc. 

 

COLOURINGS

Natural

Artificial

Carotene

Chlorophyll

Carotenoids

Turmeric

Jellies

Anthocyanin 

Coal tars

Dyes of different colours e.g. those used in ice cream

Caramel (from burnt sugar)

Colour enhancer 

 

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

1. Draw a cereal and label the parts.

2. List and discuss the classification of legumes.

3. Differentiate between herbs and spices.

4. Write five culinary words and their meanings.

5. State three functions of Catering establishment.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Cereals, Legumes, Herbs and Spices:  

Catering Craft Practice for SSS 1-3 by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages 63-72.

Basic Catering for SSS 1-3 by Olorunda and Omotayo. Pages 81-83.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Which of these is an oil seed? A. Brown bean B. Kidney bear C. Groundnut D. Lentil
  2. Herbs are usually obtained from ____. A. seeds of plant B. leaves of plant C. bark of plant D. root of plant
  3. Which of these is a natural flavouring? A. Ginger B. Vanilla C. Turmeric D. Curry
  4. Cereals are very rich ____. A. protein B. phosphorus C. water D. carbohydrate
  5. Which of these vitamins is readily available in yellow maize? A. Vit. A B. Vit. B C. Vit. C D. Vit. D

 

THEORY

1. Mention three uses of nuts.

2. List four natural herbs/spices.

 

WEEK FIVE

TOPIC: FLOUR COOKERY

CONTENT

  • Types of flour
  • Raising Agents
  • Flour mixtures


FLOUR

Flour is the powder obtained when whole wheat (or any other cereal) is ground (milled).

Milling is the process of crushing and grinding grains into powder by passing them through a machine. All cereal flours could either be of low extraction rate or high extraction rate. The most commonly used cereal for flour is wheat.

 

1. Low Extraction rate flours: They are produced from cereals after all the outer layers have been removed. The remaining central endosperm is ground into flour, which is very white and low in nutritive content.

 

2. High Extraction rate flours: These are produced from partially milled cereals that still retain some of the outer layers. They are not very white like the low extraction flours but are better in nutritive value.

 

COMPOSITION OF FLOUR

  • Starch is the main component of any flour.
  • Gluten: This is the protein in flour. It is elastic and impermeable. It is gluten that makes wheat flour the most common flour in bread making.
  • Water: It contains up to 16% water.
  • Sugar: The quantity of sugar is very small, but it plays a very important role in fermentation.

     

EVALUATION

1. Define the term ‘flour’.

2. Differentiate between high extraction and low extraction flours.

 

TYPES OF FLOUR

1. Whole wheat flour: This contains all the natural constituents of wheat in an unaltered proportion. It is rich and natural but cannot be kept for long.

2. Instant blending flour (Agglomerated flour): This has the texture of uniform sized particles. It does not need to be sifted since it flows freely and disperses easily in cold water.

3. All- purpose flour: It is used for all kinds of cooking since the protein content is average.

4. Soft wheat flour: This is very soft, smooth and powder-like without granules. It is low in protein and is used for cakes, cookies, pastries and crackers.

5. Hard wheat flour: This contains high protein. It is heavier in texture and good for bread making.

6. Cake flour: It is made from soft wheat. It contains low protein and retains its shape when pressed lightly.

7. Self-raising flour: This contains salt, baking powder and other ingredients, so can rise on its own without raising agents. It is good for plain cakes and scones.

8. Pastry flour: It is soft and smooth. It is used for making pastries, cookies, etc.

9. Composite flour: This is a mixture of two or more types of flour in a specific ratio or proportion.

RAISING AGENTS

These are items which make flour mixtures rise and double in size. The commonly used raising agents are:

1. Air: Air is a natural raising agent. Air is incorporated into flour mixture during creaming or beating which gets expanded when heat is applied. This principle works for dishes like sponge cake, pan cake, omelette, etc.

2. Baking powder: This is composed of a mixture of an acid, tartaric acid or cream of tartar and an alkali called bicarbonate of soda. Rice flour is added to keep baking powder dry instead of damp and lumpy. Baking powder is used in cakes, pastries, etc.

3. Yeast: Yeasts are living cells which become active and grow when placed in a warm damp place and mixed with little sugar. Yeast is used in bread and doughnut making.

4. Palm wine: This contains yeasts and is used in commercial production of bread in bakeries.

5. Cream of tartar and bicarbonate of soda: When used separately, they act more quickly than baking powder.

6. Steam: Steam aids the expansion of flour products such as cream puffs.

 

EVALUATION

1. Mention and explain three types of flour.

2. What are raising agents?

 

FLOUR MIXTURES

These refer to products obtained from flour and other ingredients. Flour serves as the main ingredient. Flour mixtures are grouped according to the ingredients and the raising agents used. They are as follows:

a) Pastry: This is a mixture of flour, fat, salt and liquid. It is used to prepare meat pie, sausage rolls, cream puff, etc. Baking powder is the raising agent used.

b) Dough: This is a mixture with very little butter. Yeast is the raising agent used. Such mixture is used for bread dough, doughnuts, dinner rolls, etc.

c) Batter: This is a flour mixture with enough liquid, salt, egg and flour to make it a bit watery with a pouring consistency. Air is the raising agent used and this mixture is used for pancakes, Swiss rolls, spring rolls, etc. It is also used for coating of foods to be fried.

d) Cakes: These are rich flour mixtures with equal quantity of butter and sugar. Eggs are added to make it rich. Baking powder is the raising agent used. This mixture is used for all types of cakes, buns, chin-chin, etc.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

1. List and explain five types of flour.

2. Define the term ‘raising agents’ and give examples.

3. What are flour mixtures?

4. What is milling as applied to cereals?

5. Differentiate between low extraction and high extraction rate flours.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Flour Cookery: Basic Catering for SSS 1-3 by Olorunda and Omotayo. Pages 199-203.

Catering Craft Practice for SSS 1-3 by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages 73-84.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The following are flour products except ____. A. barbeque B. sausage roll C. biscuits

    D. chin-chin

  2. The mixture of two or more types of flour is called ____. A. mixing flour B. composite flour C. ratio flour D. general flour
  3. ____ is the raising agent used in bread and doughnut. A. Air B. Steam  C. Yeast D. Baking powder
  4. What type of flour can be used for all kinds of flour products? A. Pastry flour  B. Self-raising flour C. Instant blending flour D. All-purpose flour
  5. The following are ingredients for making cake except ____. A. eggs B. fat C. palm wine

    D. flour  

 

THEORY

1. Explain the following: a) Low extraction rate flour  b) High extraction rate flour

2. List four flour mixture.

 

 

WEEK SIX

TOPIC: COOKING OF FOODS

CONTENT

  • Principles of cooking- Heat Transfer
  • Reasons for cooking of foods
  • Factors to consider when selecting cooking methods
  • Why people eat out

 

COOKING OF FOOD

Cooking can be defined as the application of heat on foods. It is the preparation of food in readiness for eating, using heat to render foods palatable, digestible, attractive and safe for consumption. Cooking food simply means transfer of energy from a heat source to food.

It can also be defined as the preparation of food to bring about a physical and chemical change.

 

PRINCIPLES OF COOKING- HEAT TRANSFER

Heat transfer is the movement of heat from the source to another place that is, from place to another. All cooking methods depend on one or more of these principles:

1. CONDUCTION: This is movement of heat from one place to another through solid materials/objects. Metal objects such as copper, aluminium, iron, etc. transfer heat more quickly than non-metal such as wood, plastics, cork, etc. Good conductors are used wherever it is necessary to conduct heat quickly. Thus, cooking pots and pans are usually made of metals such as aluminium which is a good conductor.

2. CONVECTION: This is the transfer of heat particles from one place to another through liquid or gas by the actual movement of the heated fluid from the hotter to the colder parts. The hotter particles become lighter and less dense; rising to the top while the colder particles take their place at the bottom thus causing convection current which distributes heat. Most methods of cooking that involve the use of liquid makes use of this principle.

3. RADIATION: This is the process by which heat is transferred from a hotter to a cooler place without heating of the intervening medium. It refers to the movement of heat from the source to another place in direct rays falling on any object on its part. There is no object needed for the transfer of the heat.

 

EVALUATION

1. What is cooking?

2. List and discuss the three principles of heat transfer.

REASONS FOR COOOKING FOOD

1. To make the food soft.

2. Cooking food makes it easier to digest.

3. To make it more attractive.

4. To develop new flavour.

5. To stimulate appetite.

6. To make it more palatable.

7. The heat helps to destroy the germs present in food.

8. Cooking also serves as a means of preserving foods. Some foods keep longer when cooked.

 

FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN CHOOSING COOKING METHOD

1. The types of food and the desired product.

2. The people who will eat the food.

3. Cooking equipment and facilities.

4. Skill of the cook.

 

EVALUATION

1. State three points to consider when choosing cooking method.

2. State two reasons for cooking food.

 

WHY PEOPLE EAT OUT

1. For convenience- at work or near home.

2. For variety- to make life more interesting.

3. To avoid preparing food at home.

4. Captive market- where there e.g. hospital patient, prisoners, school children, etc.

5. Impulse- spur of the moment decision.

 

METHODS OF COOKING

Methods of cooking are classified under the following:

1. Moist-heat method– cooking with liquid. Examples are:

– Boiling

– Poaching

– Steaming

– Stewing

– Frying

2. Dry-heat method– cooking with dry heat. Examplesare:

– Baking

– Roasting

– Grilling

 

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

1. State three points to consider when choosing cooking method.

2. Explain the meaning of cooking food.

3. List the methods of cooking using moist heat.

4. Mention the methods of cooking by dry heat.

5. State five reasons why you cook food.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Cooking of foods: Basic Catering for SSS 1-3 by Olorunda and Omotayo. Pages

Catering Craft Practice by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages 117 and 118.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Transference of energy from a heat source to a food is called ____. A. fuel B. cook

    C. cooking D. change.

  2. One of the points to consider in choosing method is ____. A. area B. electricity C. skill of the cook D. home
  3. One of the reasons for cooking food is____. A. to cook it B. to grow C. to store D. to make it soft.
  4. Which of the following is an example of moist methods of cooking? A. Roasting B. Grilling C. Toasting D. Boiling
  5. Transfer of heat energy through a solid stationary material is called ____. A. radiation

    B. conduction  C. composition D. convection

 

THEORY

1. State three reasons for cooking food.

2. State two reasons why people eat out.

 

 

WEEK SEVEN

TOPIC: METHODS OF COOKING

CONTENT

  • Boiling
  • Poaching
  • Steaming

 

BOILING

This is the method of cooking food in boiling water. Sufficient water is used just
to cover the food and the water is heated to boiling point. It is a common method for cooking nearly all types of foods. Such foods include root vegetables, meat, fish, eggs, legumes, pulses and cereals.

 

REASONS FOR BOILING

1. To soften food.

2. To extract nutrients from food.

3. To preserve the nutrient in food.

 

RULES FOR BOILING

1. Select pans which are neither too small nor too big.

2. When cooking in boiling liquid, ensure there is sufficient liquid and that is at boiling point before adding food.

3. Place the food in boiling water and continue to boil gently for a short time so that it will not break.

4. When cooking food to extract nutrient, cut it into small pieces to expose as much of the inside as possible. Put food in cold water, heat slowly to boiling point and cook for a long time.

5. If nourishment is to be preserved, place the food directly in boiling water. The heat of the boiling water seals the surface and coagulates the outside proteins of the food e.g. meat and keeps the nourishment and flavour in the food.

6. When cooking old root vegetables and tuber, place in cold water and bring to the boiling as these take a longer time to soften.

 

 

EVALUATION

1. What is boiling?

2. State three rules as regards boiling.

 

THE VARIOUS METHODS USED IN BOILING FOODS ARE:

  • Allow the food to absorb the water used in cooking e.g. boiling of rice and beans.
  • Add water to the food and boil so that the stock is strained from the food e.g. boiling of yam and plantains
  • Mix the food in water before cooking examples in the preparation of porridges, corn-food and yam flour.

 

ADVANTAGES OF BOILING

1. It is a quick and easy method of cooking.

2. It makes food easy to digest.

3. It does not need constant attention.

4. It is a cheap method of cooking.

5. It is suitable for all health condition.

6. Two or more foods can be boiled at the same time.

7. Liquids obtained after boiling (stock) can be used for soups and sauces

 

DISADVANTAGES OF BOILING

1. Some food nutrients such as water-soluble vitamins and some minerals can be lost in the boiling water.

2. Boiling does not develop the colour and flavour of food.

3. Food often look unattractive.

4. It is rather long and slow method of cooking when compare with frying and frilling.

5. It may lead to breakage of food.

 

EVALUATION

1. State three advantages of boiling.

2. State two disadvantages of boiling.

 

POACHING

Poaching is a gentle method of cooking delicate foods like egg and fish to retain the
maximum food value. The food should be cooked in a pan, half-filled with water. Then gentle heat to just simmering point, baste the food with the hot liquid from time to time until food is cooked.

In preparing poached eggs, enough water to cover the eggs is brought to the boil in a shallow pan. Salt, lemon juice or vinegar is sometimes added to the water to hasten coagulation and thus improve the shape of the poached eggs. The eggs are broken into a cup and dropped gently into the water. The water is reduced to simmering point until the eggs are firm but not hard.

Alternatively, eggs can be poached in a specially designed pan for poaching.

 

ADVANTAGES OF POACHING  

1. Poached foods are easy to digest and therefore suitable for infants and people with a weak digestive system.

2. Poaching maintains the maximum food value.

 

DISADVANTAGES OF POACHING

1. It needs constant attention and skill.

2. Suitable for few types of food.

EVALUATION

1. Explain poaching method of cooking.

2. State two advantages of poaching.

 

STEAMING

Steaming is a method of cooking in steam from boiling water. In steaming, there is no direct contact between the food and the water. Foods suitable for steaming
include:  

  • Small pieces of meat e.g. chop
  • Puddings e.g. milk pudding, chocolate pudding, moi-moi, etc.
  • Suet pastry, egg custard
  • Fresh dried fruits
  • Root vegetables and potatoes
  • Small fish or fillet

 

RULES FOR STEAMING

1. The water should be boiling before the food is placed inside.

2. The water should be kept boiling until the food is cooked.

3. Choose a pan with a tightly fitting lid to keep in the steam.

4. If necessary always add hot water and not cool water when cooking is in progress.

 

EVALUATION

1. State the four rules to observe when using steaming method of cooking.

2. Mention five suitable foods for steaming.

 

ADVANTAGES OF STEAMING

1. Steamed food is light and easily digestible.

2. There is no loss of food nutrients in to the water during steaming.

3. It is a conservative method of cooking.

4. There is little risk of over-cooking.

5. It is an economical and labour- saving method cooking.

 

DISADVANTAGES OF STEAMING

1. It is a slow method of cooking.

2. It is only suitable for soft and small pieces of food.

3. Not many types of food can be cooked by steaming.

4. Steamed foods are not as palatable as food cooked using other methods.

5. Steamed foods are not as attractive as some methods of cooking.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTION

1. Explain the meaning of steaming method.

2. State the rules to be observed in using steaming method of cooking.

3. State three advantages of steaming method.

4. State three reasons why we boil food.

5. State two disadvantages of boiling method.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Methods of cooking: Catering Craft Practice for SSS 1-3 by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages 117-120

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Cooking with steam is called ____ A. boiling  B. steaming  C. frying  D. stewing.
  2. A ____ food is more digestible than food cooked using other methods A. steamed B. boiled C. fried D. roasted.
  3. Cooking food with sufficient water is called ____. A. boiling B. cooking C. simmering

    D. all of the above.

  4. Cooking and straining the stock from food is best with____. A. corn-food B. beans

    C. plantain D. yam flour

  5. The gentle method of cooking egg or fish is called ____. A. frying B. stewing C. roasting D. poaching.

 

THEORY

1. State three advantages of boiling method.

2. State two disadvantages of poaching.

 

 

WEEK EIGHT

TOPIC: METHODS OF COOKING

CONTENT

  • Stewing
  • Frying

 

STEWING

This is a method of cooking food slowly in a well-covered pan containing little liquid for a long time. The food is served with the water. It is the method commonly used in making different types of soups. In stewing, a simmering temperature of about 90-96ºC is maintained but in boiling the temperature is 100ºC.

 

Foods suitable for stewing are:

  • Fresh and dried fruits
  • All vegetables except green vegetables.
  • Tough cuts of meat.
  • Poultry.

 

Reasons for stewing

1. To keep the food tender.

2. Stewing helps the connecting tissues of meat becomes gelatinized and fall apart.

3. During stewing, protein coagulates without over-hardening.

4. Stewing makes the soluble nutrient and flavour come into the liquid that is served with it.

 

Rules for stewing

1. Cut food in small pieces.

2. Use a saucepan with a cover.

3. Bring to boiling point before reducing the heat.

4. Use just enough liquid.

5. Avoid opening the saucepan too frequently.

6. Season well.

 

EVALUATION

1. Define stewing method.

2. State five rules for stewing.

 

ADVANTAGES OF STEWING

  1. Stewing is the most economical method of cooking.
  2. It makes tough food tender and digestible.
  3. It needs very little attention.
  4. It is a conservative method of cooking because the juices which escape goes into the liquid served with the food, therefore nothing is wasted.
  5. Very little fuel is required during cooking.

 

DISADVANTAGES OF STEWING

1. It is a long and slow method of cooking.

2. The long cooking destroys some of the valuable nutrients in the food.

3. It requires more attention than boiling to ensure the food does not burn.

 

EVALUATION

1. State two advantages of stewing.

2. State three disadvantages of stewing.

 

FRYING

This is the process of cooking food in hot oil or fat. Some foods need to be coated before frying.

 

Reasons for coating foods before frying

1. To seal in the nutrients.

2. To prevent breakage.

3. To maintain the shape of the food.

4. Coating also makes foods crispy and appetizing after frying.

 

TYPES OF FRYING

1. SHALLOW FRYING: This is frying with just little amount of oil to cover the surface of the frying pan and to prevent burning. Suitable for frying are pan cakes, omelettes, fish, etc.

 

Types of Shallow Frying

a) Sautéing: This is a method of frying foods quickly in a shallow pan of hot fat/oil, turning it until it is evenly browned. It is used for preparing only tender foods such as small cuts of meat, fish, vegetables, etc. It can also be used for flavouring foods (especially vegetables) used for garnishing e.g. tomatoes, onions, green pepper, etc.

b) Griddle frying: Foods can be cooked on lightly oiled griddle pan or metal plate and turned frequently during cooking e.g. sliced onions, sausages, hamburgers, etc.

c) Stir frying: This is fast frying in little oil using flat pan. Usually vegetables, meat or chicken cuts into stripes are cooked this way.

 

2. DEEP OR FRENCH FRYING: This is when a lot of oil or fat is used in cooking foods. The oil is usually poured in a deep pan and is heated to boiling point; then the food is put inside the oil. The oil used must cover the food. Suitable foods for deep frying are chin-chin, doughnut, puff-puff, bean cakes, etc.

 

3. DRY/SELF FRYING: This is a method used for foods which already contain fat. The fat melts and runs out of the food. It requires less heat. Bacon, herrings, sausages, etc. can be cooked this way.

 

 

EVALUATION

1. State three reasons for coating foods before frying.

2. List and explain methods of frying.

 

STAGES IN HEATING OIL FOR DEEP FRYING

1. Melting stage – Fat melts from solid to liquid form.

2. Bubbling stage – When oil is being heated. The water in the oil boils out giving a bubbling sound.

3. Frying stage – Here the bubbling sound ceases and blue haze smoke is produced.

4. Decomposition – When the oil is over heated, it charred and brings about irritation of the throats.

 

RULES FOR FRYING

1. Use clean oil or fat for frying.

2. Heat the oil to the correct temperature before putting in the food to be fried.

3. Fry only a small quantity at a time.

4. Do not fry food with water.

5. Avoid frequent turning of foods.

6. Re-heat oil and bring back to the correct temperature before the next frying.

7. Do not cover fried food while it is still hot.

8. When frying, lower the food gently into the hot oil.

9. When frying is over, turn off the heat and allow oil to cool before straining it.

 

Fats and oil suitable for frying

  • Vegetable oils-ground nut oil, coconut oil
  • Lard, Butter, Margarine,
  • Fuller-butter from cow milk.

 

EVALUATION

1. List and explain the stages for deep frying.

2. Explain three rules in frying.

 

ADVANTAGES OF FRYING

1. It is a fast and quick method of cooking.

2. Fried foods are attractive and tasty.

3. If the food is coated, there is no loss of soluble nutrient.

 

DISADVANTAGES OF FRYING

1. It needs constant attention.

2. Fried foods are not easily digested. So it not a suitable method for preparing foods for infants and children, invalids and convalescent, aged and people with weak digestive systems.

3. Fried foods are not appetizing when cold.

4. If the fat is too hot, the food may be burnt and not cooked.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

1. State two advantages of frying.

2. State three disadvantages of frying.

3. Explain the following:

– Dry frying

– Deep frying

– Shallow frying.

4. State three rules for stewing.

5. List and explain the principles of heat transfer.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Method of cooking: Catering Craft Practice for SSS 1-3 by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages 120-122.

Basic Catering for SSS 1-3 by Olorunda and Omotayo. Pages 90-96.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Food fried with little oil is called ____. A. shallow frying B. deep frying C. dry frying

    D. frying

  2. ____ is the best frying method for doughnuts A. Sautéing B. Braising C. Deep frying

    D. Shallow frying.

  3. Using frying method for flavouring food used for garnishing is called ____. A. sautéing

    B. braising C. dry frying   D. shallow frying.

  4. To tenderize tough food, it is better with ____. A. frying B. steaming C. stewing D. slow method
  5. Simmering is associated with which of the following cooking methods? A. Boiling B. Stewing C. Steaming D. Frying

 

THEORY

1. Explain two advantages of frying.

2. State three disadvantages of stewing.

 

 

WEEK NINE

TOPIC: METHODS OF COOKING – DRY HEAT

CONTENT

  • Baking
  • Roasting
  • Grilling

 

BAKING

Baking is cooking foods by dry heat in an enclosed pre-heated space by direct radiation. Baking usually takes place in the oven. Dry heat is applied and the food is surrounded by a current of hot air. The hot air then cooks the foods. It is the method suitable for cakes, pastries, bread, biscuits, etc.

 

Rules for Baking

1. Always pre-heat oven before putting the food.

2. Use oven gloves to bring out food from the oven.

3. Oven trays should not be overloaded.

4. Avoid frequent opening of the oven door.

5. Do not bang the oven door, but close it gently.

6. Do not bake foods that give out moisture with crispy and dry foods.

 

EVALUATION

1. What is baking?

2. State three rules for baking.

ADVANTAGES OF BAKING

1. Baked foods are attractive and appetizing.

2. There is no loss of soluble nutrients.

3. It is economical on fuel as more than one dish can be baked at a time.

 

DISADVANTAGES OF BAKING

1. It requires constant attention, otherwise foods may be burnt.

2. It wastes fuel when baking only one dish.

3. It requires a careful temperature control and skills.

 

EVALUATION

1. State three advantages of baking.

2. State two advantages of baking.

 

ROASTING

This is cooking on glowing heat. Roasting can be carried out in the following ways:

a) In hot ash or sand e.g. groundnuts, yam, etc.

b) On a grid over an open fire or heated charcoal e.g. plantain, yam, maize, meat, etc.

c) Roasting a whole carcass on a skewer by direct heat (e.g. radiant heat) with melted fat or vegetable oil used for basting. This is known as spit roasting.

d) Oven can also be used for roasting e.g. chicken, fish, etc.

 

ADVANTAGES OF ROASTING

1. Roasted foods are attractive.

2. They are usually taste and appetizing.

3. Roasting retains the full flavour and nutrients of foods.

4. Foods cooked by roasting are less fatty than frying.

 

DISADVANTAGES OF ROASTING

1. Roasting requires constant attention.

2. It takes longer time.

3. It consumes fuel and energy for heating.

 

EVALUATION

1. State three ways in which roasting can be carried out.

2. Mention two advantages of roasting.

 

GRILLING

This is a fast method of cooking by radiant heat directly above or below the food. It is also known as broiling. The heat source is a flat frame of metal gird or bars heated by a gas flame, an electric, charcoal or wood in barbecues. An equipment known as salamander grill can also be used for grilling. The food is brushed with fat or oil and grilled for a few minutes on both sides to seal in the nutrients. The major different between roasting and grilling is that roasting is usually used to cook large cuts of foods while grilling is usually used for tender and small cuts.

 

Foods that can be cooked by grilling include:

  • Small cuts of meat, steak, lamb
  • Sausages, kidneys, liver, bacon
  • Cutlets of large fish and small size of fish, etc.

 

ADVANTAGES OF GRILLING

1. Grilled foods are tasty and easily digested.

2. Grilling is a quick method of cooking.

3. There is no loss of soluble nutrients.

4. Grilled foods are less fatty than fried foods.

 

DISADVANTAGES OF GRILLING

1. It is only suitable for tender cuts of food.

2. It requires constant attention.

3. It also requires special skill to do it well.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

1. What is cooking?

2. State three reasons for cooking foods before eaten.

3. What do you understand by conservative methods of cooking?

4. State three reasons why people like to eat outside their homes.

5. List and discuss different flour products.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Baking, Roasting and Grilling:

Catering Craft Practice for SSS 1-3 by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages 122 – 124.

Basic Catering for SSS 1-3 by Omotayo and Olorunda. Pages 97-103.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. ____ is cooking in dry heat with the aid of fat or oil in an oven or on a spit. A. Baking

    B. Roasting C. Grilling D. Broiling

  2. Cooking of foods in an enclosed space is called ____. A. boiling B. frying C. baking  

    D. cutting

  3. Grilling as a method of cooking is suitable for the following types of foods except ____.

    A. beans B. sausages C. fish D. steak

  4. Which method of cooking is suitable for cakes? A. Steaming B. Roasting C. Poaching

    D. Baking

  5. Oven is a kitchen equipment which can be used for both ____ and ____. A. baking, stewing B. roasting, frying C. grilling, roasting  D. baking, roasting

 

THEORY

1. State three advantages of roasting.

2. State two advantages of baking.

 

 

WEEK TEN

TOPIC: STANDARD AND LOCAL MEASURING EQUIPMENT

CONTENT

  • Meaning of measuring Equipment
  • Measuring Equipment and their uses
  • Conversion methods

MEASURING EQUIPMENT/ TOOLS

Measuring equipment are those materials used in determining quantities of food items. They are essential in catering. The use of measuring equipment enable a caterer to ensure consistency, recipe balance, quality requirements, accurate seasoning and other required measurements on which catering is based.

 

STANDARD TOOLS 

LOCAL TOOLS 

Manual kitchen scale

Liquid measuring cups

Measuring spoons

Digital food scales

Electronic kitchen scales

Ladles, etc. 

Tins e.g. milk tins, tomato tins

Kongo

Plastic paint buckets

Palm

Soup plates

Soup spoons, etc 

 

MEASURING EQUIPMENT AND THEIR USES

1. TOOLS FOR WEIGHING: Scales are used to weigh dry or solid ingredients. There are two types of scales:

a) Balance scale: It comes with weights. The correct weight of the food item is obtained when the food on the scale pan balances the weight on the other side so that both sides are level.

b) Spring scale: The correct weight is obtained when an indicator needle is pointing to the required weight on the dial. The indicator needle must be on zero before one begins to weigh.

 

2. MEASURING CUPS: They are for measuring liquids or dry ingredients. To obtain a correct measurement of liquid, the cup must be placed on a flat surface and reading taking at eye level. For dry ingredients, level off the ingredients before taking the reading.

 

3. MEASURING SPOONS: They come in different sizes and are used for measuring liquids and dry ingredients.

 

EVALUATION

1. What are measuring equipment?

2. List types of measuring equipment and their uses.

 

CONVERSION METHODS

LOCAL

STANDARD (METRIC)

Liquid

½ teaspoon (tsp)

1 teaspoon (tsp)

½ tablespoon (tbsp)

1 tablespoon (tbsp.)

1 cup (milk tin)

½ cup

With measuring jug/cup:

1 litre

½ litre

4.5 litres

1 beer bottle 

 

2.5ml

5ml

7.5ml

15ml (60 drops)

150ml (16 tbsp)

75ml

 

1000ml

500ml

1 gallon

750ml 

Dry/Solid

1 heaped tablespoon of flour, cocoa or custard powder

1 level tablespoon of rice, sugar or salt

1 heaped tbsp. of rice, sugar or salt

2 heaped tbsp. of bread crumbs

½ derica cup

1 big derica cup

1 large egg

 

25g

25g

30g

25g

400g

850g

50g 

 

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

1. List five local measuring items and the equivalent standard conversion.

2. List and explain two types of weighing scales.

3. State three factors to consider when selecting cooking methods.

4. List and explain five types of milk.

5. State four uses of eggs in cookery.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Standard and Local measuring Equipment:

Catering Craft Practice for SSS 1-3 by Aminu S. N. Bariki. Pages 147 & 148.

Basic Catering for SSS 1-3 by Omotayo and Olorunda. Pages 105-107.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. By conversion, milk tin is equivalent to ____. A. 200ml B. 150ml C. 100ml  D. 50ml
  2. 1 tsp of water is equal to ____. A. 1ml B. 3ml C. 5ml D. 7ml
  3. The approximate weight of a large egg is ____. A. 50g  B. 25g   C. 60g D. 30g
  4. A measuring cup can be used to measure ____. A. solid ingredients only B. liquid ingredients only C. both solid and liquid ingredients D. None of the above
  5. Measuring equipment are used in the ____. A. kitchen  B. toilet C. party D. bedroom.

 

THEORY

1. Write three each of local and standard tools.

2. Differentiate between balance scale and spring scale.

 

 

WEEK ELEVEN

PRACTICAL & REVISION

 

 

WEEK TWELVE

EXAMINATION




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