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SECOND TERM E-LEARNING NOTE

 

SUBJECT: PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION   CLASS: JSS3

 

SCHEME OF WORK

 

WEEK TOPIC

  1. Group / Combined Events
  2. puberty and teenage pregnancy
  3. Career in physical and health education
  4. Swimming
  5. Gymnastics
  6. Family health
  7. STI, HIV / AIDS
  8. Taekwando
  9. Boxing
  10. Drug use, misuse and abuse

 

REFERENCE

Essentials of Physical and Health Education for Junior Secondary School 3.

 

 

WEEK ONE

TOPIC: GROUP / COMBINED EVENTS

Combined events are combination of track and field events. It started during the ancient Olympic games to test the all-round ability of the competitors.

 

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TYPES OF COMBINED EVENTS

  1. Pentathlon :this consists of five events which are held in a day by men in the following order:
  • long jump
  • javelin
  • 200m race
  • Discus throw
  • 1500m race
  1. Decathlon : this consists of ten events which are held on two consecutive days by men in the following order:

    Day one Day two

  • 100m race 110m hurdles
  • Long jump discus throw  
  • Shot put pole vault
  • High jump javelin throw  
  • 400m race 1500m race.
  1. Heptathlon :this consists of seven events which are held on two consecutive days by women in the following order:

    Day one Day two

    100m hurdles long jump

High jump javelin throw

Shot put 800m race.

200m race

 

Officials in athletics meeting

  • The referee The lap recorder
  • The chief track judge  The marksman /assistant starter  
  • The track judge  The announcer
  • The chief field judge  The umpires
  • The field judge  The recorders
  • The starter The time keepers
  • The recall starter  The press
  • The security officers  The first aiders

    The stewards The clerk of the course.

     

Duties of the officials

The referee

  1. He presides over the sports meeting.
  2. He allocates duties to other officials.
  3. He ratifies and sign all results.
  4. He has the final say in all decisions.

     

The track judges

They shall decide the order in which the competitors finish.  

 

The field judges

They shall judge, measure and record each valid trial of the competitors in all jumping and throwing events.

 

The starter

He shall start all races, using the whistle or gun.

He has the right to disqualify any competitor that beats the gun twice.

 

The recall starter

He shall recall the competitors when there is a false start.

 

The marksman / assistant starter

He shall assist the starter.

He shall draw lanes for the competitors.

He shall make sure that the starting rules are followed.

The lap recorders

They shall keep the record of laps covered by the competitors in races from1500m upward.

They shall ring the bell to signify the final lap.

 

The announcer

He shall read the names and numbers of the competitors taking part in each event.

He shallannounce the result of each event.

 

The umpires

They shall watch the competitors closely and report any violation of the rules to the referee.

They shall help to supervise in the relay at the takeover points.

 

The recorders

They shall keep official records of all the events for the organizers.

They shall also record the result of all the events.

 

The time keepers

They shall take the time of the competitors.

They shall record them and hand – over to the chief time keeper for ratification of the referee.

 

The clerk of the course

He is the school sports’ director.

He is the secretary of all the committees.

He is the organizer of the meeting.

He shall supply all the material needed.

He is the host of all the officials.

 

Scoring in combined competitions

The scoring is done by calculating the number of medals acquired by a competitor in terms of gold, silver and bronze.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. One of the following is not a type of group/ combined events A. Decathlon B. Heptathlon C. Octathlon D. Pentathlon
  2. Which of the three types of group/combined events is for women? A. Decathlon

    B. Heptathlon C. Octathlon D. Pentathlon

  3. The following events are common to the three types of group/combined events except _____ A. 200m race B. javelin C. long jump D. 1,500m
  4. Which of these group/combined events is carried out in a day? A. Decathlon

    B. Heptathlon C. Octathlon D. Pentathlon

  5. Under which event would you classify hurdles? A. Field only B. Throw and jumping events C. Track only D. Track and field events

 

THEORY

  1. Differentiate between Decathlon and Pentathlon
  2. List five events each for Decathlon and Pentathlon

 

 

WEEK TWO

TOPIC: PUBERTY AND TEENAGE PREGNANCY

DEFINITION OF PUBERTY

Puberty is the stage in human physiological development when somebody becomes capable of sexual reproduction.

 

It is noticed in teenagers / adolescents between the ages of ten to nineteen through growth and development of secondary sexual characteristics. There is swift increase in body size, a change in shape and composition of the body and a rapid development of the reproductive organs other characteristics markingsexual maturity.

 

Physical changes that place in teenagers.

In boys:

  1. Their voice gets deeper
  2. Their muscle develops
  3. Their chests get broader.
  4. Hair starts to grow under their arms, on legs and face.
  5. The penis and testicles willalso grow bigger and longer.
  6. Pubic hair appearedstart to grow.

 

In girls:

  1. Their voice become thinner.
  2. Their body become rounded
  3. Their breast become larger
  4. Their hip bulge outward
  5. Hair grow under their arms and on the genital area.
  6. They start menstruating and ovulating

 

Pubertal terminologies

Menstruation: this is the monthly discharge of the lining of the womb due to lack of fertilization of an egg.

 

Menarche: this is the first menstrual cycle of a female. It starts between 9 -16 years.

 

Menopause: this is the stoppage of menstrual cycle in a woman. It stops between 45 – 55 years.

 

Ovulation: this is the monthly release of an egg by the ovary.

 

Erection: this is the straighten and lengthen of a male’s penis.

 

Wetdream: this is when some semen comes out from a boy’s penis while he is asleep.

 

Teenage pregnancy

Teenage pregnancy is a pregnancy that occurs in a female who has reached puberty but has not reached her twentieth birthday when the pregnancy ends. In other words, Teenage pregnancy is the pregnancy that occurs in a female between the ages of 13 – 19 years.

 

 

Causes of teenage pregnancy

  1. Curiosity or experimentation.
  2. Customs and traditions that lead to early marriage / child marriage
  3. Lack of sexual and reproductive health education
  4. Youthful exuberance
  5. Peer pressure
  6. Poverty
  7. Poor nutrition
  8. Exposure to abuse, violence and family strife at home
  9. Low self esteem
  10. Low educational ambitions and goals.

 

Consequences of teenage pregnancy

  1. Drop out of school
  2. Maternal mortality
  3. Premature birth
  4. Still birth
  5. Medical complications
  6. Increase rates of alcohol and substance abuse
  7. Neglect of baby
  8. Trouble with finances
  9. Depression

 

Preventionof Teenage Pregnancy

  1. Abstinence
  2. Contraceptives
  3. Communication
  4. Teaching comprehensive sex education

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Which of the following is a physical change experienced by both boys and girls?

    A. Development of muscles B. Development of round hips C. Growth of hair on the body D. Development of deep voice.

  2. Which of the following is not a health consequence of premarital sex? A. May lead to unwanted pregnancy B. May lead to emotional guilt of making a child at of wedlock

    C. May lead to fulfillment of one’s life D. Possibility of contracting STDs.

  3. At puberty in girls, the following changes take place except ______ A. the voice cracks and becomes deeper B. hair grown under the armpit and private part C. the hip becomes more pronounced D. the ova are released one at a time.
  4. Teenage pregnancy can be defined as pregnancy of a female between the age of _____ A. 10 – 13 years B. 10 – 19 years C. 13 – 19 years D. 10 – 20 years
  5. The effects of teenage pregnancy may either be ______ A. social B. physical C. social and emotional D. physical, social and emotional

 

THEORY

  1. Define the following terms:
    1. Puberty (b) Teenage pregnancy
  2. State three distinguishing changes each in boys and in girls.

 

WEEK THREE

TOPIC: CAREER IN PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION

Career is the particular occupation for which you are trained. It is the progress and actions taken by a person throughout a life time. A career is often composed of the jobs held, titles earned and work accomplished over a long period of time rather than just referring to one position.

 

For one to qualify as a physical and health education specialist, you must have obtained any of the following degrees:

Diploma in Physical and Health Education

NCE in Physical and Health Education

B.ED/B.A/ B.sc in Physical Education and Human kinetics

M.ED/M.A/M.sc in Physical and Health Education

PhD in Physical and Health Education

 

BRANCHES OF PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION

  1. Health education
  2. Physical education
  3. Sports psychology
  4. Sports management / administration
  5. Sports medicine
  6. Sports science
  7. Sports marketing
  8. Recreational management
  9. Sports sociology
  10. Safety education.

     

REASONS FOR CHOOSING A CAREER IN PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION

  1. Aptitude
  2. Skills
  3. Interests
  4. Personal
  5. VALUES
  6. Family and personal needs
  7. Physical needs
  8. Goals
  9. Financial needs.

 

HOW TO CHOOSE A CAREER

Before choosing a particular career the individual should consider the following:

  1. What are my value?
  2. Where my interest lies?
  3. What is really important to me?
  4. What do I do well and enjoy?
  5. What kind of personality do I have?
  6. What are my natural talent?

 

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION

  1. Coaching
  2. Physical trainer
  3. Sports psychologist
  4. Sports marketer
  5. Exercise therapist
  1. Sports journalist
    1. Sports administrators
    2. Community development workers
    3. Health journalist
    4. Teaching
    5. Consultant
    6. Safety personnel
    7. Grounds men.

       

PAST AND PRESENT SPORT HEROES AND CONTRIBUTIONS IN NIGERIA

  1. FalilatOgunkoya
  2. Mary Onyali
  3. SegunOdegbami
  4. Dick Tiger
  5. Thunder Balogun
  6. Christian Chukwu

     

THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS

SIR JERRY AMADI ENYEAZU

He founded Enyimba football club in 1976.He was the first Director of Sports in the then Imo State, in South-Eastern part of Nigeria.

 

MARY ONYALI-OMAGBEMI

She was born February 3,1968.She was a Nigeria sprinter who won the bronze medal in 4 by 100 meters’ relay race at the 1992summer Olympics. And in 200 meters at the 1996 summer Olympics. She also won the 1996 commonwealth games.

 

PATRICK OLUWASEGUN ODEGBAMI

He was born August 2,1952 in Lagos. He won 46 caps and scored 23 goals for his country and guided Nigeria to its Africans Nations Cup title at the 1980 African Nations Cup.

 

DICK TIGER

He was born August 14,1929 and died December 14, 1971.His boxing career records was; fought 81 times; won 60, lost 18, drew 3, Dick Tiger was one of the greatest fighters to come out of African continent. Dick became a two- time undisputed World Middle Weight Champion.

 

CHRISTIAN CHUKWU

He was the first Nigeria captain to lift the African nation’s cup trophy.

 

TESLIM THUNDER BALOGUN

The firstNigeria to play professional football in England at Peterborough United, Holbeach United and Queens Park Rangers and also the Nigeria coach to lead the National team to the Olympic Games in 1968.

 

PROFESSIONALS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

  1. H.J. EKPERIGIN (FATHER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA)
  2. ISAAC AKIOYE
  3. DR AWOTURE ELEYAE
  4. M.T. ADIUKU
  5. J.A ADEDEJI
  6. EZE ACHIUGU
  7. PROFESSOR M.O. AJISAFE

 

HARDING JAMES EKPERIGIN

He is father of physical education. He was born in Ugbori in Warri local Government Area of Delta State. He attended Government College, Ibadan, where his athletic exploits started. He participated in the Grier Cup Competition in 1937 and recorded outstanding performance in the Long jump. His achievements include the followings;

  1. He graduated as the Nigerian professionally trained Physical and Health Education expert at the famous Loughborough Training College in 1952 thereby opening the flood gate for others Nigerians.
  2. He revolutionized Physical and Education in both Western and Mid-western regions.
  3. He helped to firm up Physical and health education in both grade two and grade three Teachers’ College

     

ISAAC AKIOYE

He was trained in famous Loughborough Training College like EKPERIGIN.He was a member of Nigeria football club that played barefooted to the amazement of British spectators in 1949. On his return to Nigeria from Britain, he joined the Western Region Ministry of Education Officer.

 

ACHIEVEMENTS

  1. He was the first professional to be appointed as Director of Sports at the National Sports Commission.
  2. During his tenure, the Nigeria Polytechnic Games Association (NIPOGA) and the Nigeria School Sports Federation (NSSF) were founded.
  3. He abolished the playing of Netball preference to Basketball in Nigeria Schools.

     

PROFESSOR M.O. AJISAFE

He was one of the professionals of Physical Education in Nigeria. He Is a professor of curriculum and instructions in Physical Education in Nigeria noteworthy.

 

ACHIEVEMENTS

  1. In 1969, he with others successfully canvassed for the adoption of a syllabus that will reflect the geo-cultural background of Nigeria to replace the 1933 syllabus imported to the country by the British Government. He was part of those that gave birth to the current 6-3-3-4 system of education.
  2. In July 1974, he was the Secretary to the group that was called by the Federal Government to formulate the physical Education syllabus of the Universal Primary Education (U.P.E.).
  3. He published a book TEACHING PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION which contained the outcome of his Federal Government sponsored research into indigenous activities suitable for the Physical Education programs of Nigeria Primary Schools.

     

SPORT PROMOTION AGENCIES AND BODIES IN NIGERIA

  1. Nigeria Sports Association.
  2. Nigeria Association of Physical Health and Recreation (NAPHER)
  3. Nigeria Institute of Nigeria.

     

ASSERTIVENESS AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Assertiveness enables one to communicate one’s views, thoughts and opinions in a confident way. Assertiveness is a valuable personal and interpersonal skill. It can be important in situations where you are being pressurized to do something you don’t want to do; such as take drugs or have sex. If you assertive, you will be able to refuse these pressure and make better choices for yourself and your life.

 

Hence, assertiveness means;

  1. Communicating your wishes, thoughts and feelings openly and honestly, and encouraging others to do the same.
  2. Listening to the views of others in an open and non-judgmental way.
  3. Accepting responsibilities and being able to give others responsibilities when necessary.
  4. Thanking people for what they have done.
  5. Accepting that you are not always and that sometimes make mistakes.
  6. Being able to make apologies.
  7. Maintaining self-control, even if you don’t agree with someone’s views or actions.

     

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. Define career
  2. List ten (10) branches of P.H.E.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Read pages 120—121 of Essentials of Physical and Health Education for junior secondary school 2.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Which of the following is not a function of Physical Education specialist? A. Coaching

    B. Health journalism C. Sport psychology D. Teaching and Physical Education

  2. ___________ was regarded as the father of Physical Education in Nigeria. A. Mr. H.J Ekperigin B. Prof. M.O Ajisafe C. Prof. J.A Adedeji D. Frederick john
  3. Which of the following qualifications is the apex/highest level one can attain in Physical Health Education? A. PhD B. Masters C. Bachelor/B.ED D. N.C.E
  4. Health Education specialists’ function include the following except ______ A. safety educationists B. recreation management C. community development workers

    D. exercise therapists.

  5. Who among these sport heroes won gold medal in 400m race for Nigeria? A. Christian Chukwu B. Dick Tiger C. FalilatOgunkoya D. TeslimBalogun

 

THEORY

  1. What is career guidance?
  2. Write short notes on any two sports’ heroines in Nigeria.

 

REFERENCE TEXT

Essentials of Physical and Health Education for junior secondary school 2.

 

 

WEEK FOUR

TOPIC:SWIMMING

HISTORY OF SWIMMING

Swimming is an aquatic sport engaged in by all ages like diving, scuba, water polo, sailing, canoeing, fishing, boat regatta etc., for recreation, physical fitness and survival.Carvings of Swimmers were found on rock walls in Libyan Desert dated far back as 9,000 B.C.It was among the sports the Greeks competed for during the ancient and modern Olympic games. It became an Olympic event for men in 1896 and for women in1912. Today, it is the second largest sport in the Olympic programme. The world controlling body is Federation Internationale de Natation Amateur (F.I.N.A) in 1908 in London but its headquarters in USA. In Nigeria,people in the riverine areas start swimming from the birth i. e The Ijaws, the Ilajes and other riverine tribes. The Swimming Federation of Nigeria (S.F.N) was formed in 1958.

 

BASIC SKILLS IN SWIMMING

  1. Front crawl
  2. Breast stroke
  3. Back stroke
  4. Butterfly stroke

 

FACILITIES OF SWIMMING

  1. Stream / swimming pool/ river/ lake e.t.c.
  2. The toilet
  3. The shower rooms
  4. The diving board
  5. The changing rooms
  6. The chlorinating machine

     

    EQUIPMENT OF SWIMMING

  7. Swimming trunk
  8. Head gear
  9. Floater
  10. Light bamboo poles
  11. Whistles
  12. The rubber tubes
  13. The protective devices

     

    SAFETY RULES AT SWIMMING POOL

  14. Do not go to the pool alone.
  15. Call for help when necessary.
  16. Always shower before entering the water
  17. Never spit, urinate or throw any type of rubbish in the water.
  18. There should be no running around to avoid slip and fall.
  19. All learners must not go to the pool without tube / life guard for safety.
  20. Safety officers must always be on guard before learning.
  21. Beginner should start from the shallow end of the pool.
  22. Learner should obey and follow instructions.
  23. Avoid the use of ornaments such as necklace.

     

    THE OFFICIALS OF SWIMMING THEIR DUTIES

    The referee

    1. He has full control and enforces the rules.
    2. He assigns duties to other officials.
    3. He ratifies all results.
    4. He has the right to disqualify any competitor.

     

    The starter:

    1. He starts all races.
    2. He decides if, a start is fair.

     

    The time keepers:

    They take the time of the competitors in the lanes assigned to them.

     

    The inspectors of turns:

    They record the laps completed and ensure that the rules of turning are followed.

     

    The finishing judges:

    They place the competitors in order of finishing.

     

    The stroke judges:

    They ensure that the stroke laws are obeyed.

     

    The life guard:

    1. They are expert swimmers that help competitors that are in trouble
    2. They save lives and prevent people from drowning.  

     

    The announcer

     

    The recorder

     

    EVALUATION QUESTION

    1. Narrate the history of swimming.
    2. List seven (7) safety rules in swimming.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

    Read pages 107—112 of Essentials of Physical and Health Education for junior secondary school 2.

     

    WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

    1. Surfing, canoeing, rafting, diving and water polo are ——–sports? (a) games (b) aquatics (c) gymnastics (d) outdoor
    2. Who presides over athletic meeting? (a) straddle (b) referee (b) marks men (c) judge (d) umpire
    3. What is the dimension of the landing area in long jump? (a) 8m/2.75m (b) 9m/2.75m (c) 9m/2.95m (d) 9m/3.95m.
    4. A standard swimming pool measures? (a) 25m/30m (b) 25m/40m (c) 25m/50m (d) 25m/60m.
    5. Physical education can be defined as the development of the body? (a) Physically (b) mentally (c) socially (d) all of the above.

     

    THEORY

    1. List five safety measures and precautions in swimming.
    2. Mention five equipment used in swimming.

     

     

    WEEK FIVE

    TOPIC:GYMNASTICS

    HISTORY OF GYMNASTICS

    Gymnastics means naked art and it originated in ancient Greece. It is believed that the Chinese were the first people to develop activities that resembled gymnastics. The people that perform it are called ‘The Gymnasts’ and the place where the activities are carried out is known as ‘the gymnasium’. It is an exercise intended to develop strength, power, flexibility and agility. It became an Olympic sport in 1896; the controlling body is Federation Internationale De Gymnastique (F.I.G) with its headquarters in Switzerland Gymnastics Federation of Nigeria (G.F.N) was established in 1975.

     

    John Basedow( 1723 – 1790 ) was the first European to teach organized gymnastics. Johann Guts Muth published the first book on gymnastics titled Gymnastics for youths. He is referred to as great – grand father of gymnastics. Fredrick Ludwig John established the first gymnastics club called ‘Turnverein’ and invented the parallelbars, still rings, horizontal bars. So, he is known as the father of modern gymnastics.

     

    Nature of Gymnastics

    The performance commences when the Gymnast raises his hand to indicate ‘readiness’ and comes to an end when he raises the two hands to signal end of the performance. The grading is done according to how complex the events are.

     

    Skills used in Gymnastics

    Gymnastics are grouped into three areas namely— the STUNTS, TUMBLING and APPARATUS WORK. The stunts and tumbling activities are grouped as floor exercises or ground work. Apparatus activities are the gymnastic activities done with equipment. Jump support (side horse), dips (parallel bar) pull-up (horizontal bars), and skin the cat (horizontal bars). A SPOTTER is an individual that assist another in performing physical activities.

     

    THE EQUIPMENTUSED IN GYMNASTICS

  24. The pommel horse
  25. The vaulting horse
  26. The long horse
  27. The spring board
  28. The parallel bars
  29. The uneven parallel bars
  30. The horizontal bars
  31. The still rings
  32. The mats / Trampoline
  33. The beam
  34. The buck
  35. The medicine ball

     

    THE SAFETY MEASURES IN GYMNASTICS

  36. Gymnast should have am proper warm – up before activities.
  37. Wear the correct costumes.
  38. Never manage any apparatus.
  39. Check the areas and be sure they are free from hazards.
  40. Master the fundamental skills before performing.
  41. Proceed from simple to complex.
  42. Ask questions when in doubts.
  43. Always follow instructions.
  44. Be sure of a spotter before performing a difficult activity.
  45. Avoid distractions.

     

    THE OFFICIALS OF GYMNASTICS

  46. The referee
  47. The judges (about four)
  48. The scorers
  49. The announcers
  50. The doctors
  51. The clerks
  52. The mat chairman
  53. Thetime keepers.

     

    EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  54. State any five safety measures in gymnastics.
  55. List any five officials regulating gymnastics.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

    Read pages 82 – 89 of Essentials of Physical and Health Education For Junior Secondary School 3.

     

    REFERENCES

    Essentials of Physical and Health Education JSS3

    Physical and Health Education Workbook for JSS3

     

    WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

    1. The following are tumbling exercises except_______ A. hand spring B. neck springC. pyramid D. sideward roll.
    2. Physical fitness exercise that gives abdominal strength and endurance is ______ A. cartwheel B. headspring C. headstand D. sit-up.
    3. Gymnastics equipment includes all of the following except ______ A. stick B. rope C. parallel bar D. mat.
    4. When performing gymnastics activity, the following safety precautions are to be observed except _______ A. activity should be demonstrated first before the students practice it B. complex activities should be broken into stages C. related warm up exercises should precede the main activity D. students should be left alone in the gymnasium during lesson.
    5. Stunts and tumbling activities are carried out ______ A. in a hall B. in an open space C. in the gymnasium D. on the field.

     

    THEORY

    1. State five values of gymnastics.
    2. Mention five requirement of a gymnast.

       

     

    WEEK SIX

    TOPIC: FAMILY HEALTH

    MEANING OF A FAMILY

    A family is a basic unit of a society that is responsible for supporting, caring for and preparing children for adulthood. It comprises people related by blood, marriage or law. It is the first environment of every child which influences his / her personal development. However, health is a state of well-being and freedom from diseases; it is the general condition of the body and mind. Health is the state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (W.H.O).

     

    The following are the determinants of health:

  56. heredity
  57. environment
  58. life style

     

    HEREDITY: This is the biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next. It is the total inherited attributes. Heredity plays an important role in determining the health of an individual.

     

    ENVIRONMENT: This is the totality of surrounding conditions. It is the area in which something exists or lives. Human beings and their environment constantly interact and both are changed by the interaction. Environment affects the following, dressing, food, culture, religion etc.

     

    LIFE STYLE: This is the way a person lives, behaves and practices. Lifestyles are a mixture of habits, conventional way of doing things and reasoned actions. A lifestyle typically reflects an individual’s attitudes and values.

     

    CHARACTERISTICS OF A HEALTHY PERSON

  59. Ability to work without being easily fatigued
  60. Ability to comprehend mental task
  61. Resistance to infection
  62. Freedom from diseases
  63. Proper body functioning
  64. Freedom from physical defect.

     

    Types of family

    Nuclear family

    Extended family

    Foster family

    Adopted family

     

    Duties of members of the family

    The father

    He provides shelter for the family.

    He provides money for food

    He provides clothing

    He provides education for the children

    He provides discipline in the family

    He provides advice and assistance for members of the family

    He provides security and protection for the family

    He provides moral and religious training for the family

    He provides settlement of disputes among family members.

    Show a good example for the family to follow.

     

    The mother

    She provides home training for the children.

    She provides assistance for the father in raising the children.

    She provides assistance for the father inmaintaining discipline.

    She prepares food for the family at the right time.

    She keeps and maintains the home.

    She sees to the welfare of the children.

    She assists in the economic survival of the family.

    Show a good example for the children to follow.

     

    The children

    They greet their parents when necessary.

    Assist in the maintenance of the family.

    Run errand for their parents.

    Obey instructions of their parents.

    Keep the family tradition all the time.

    Perform household chores.

    Living up to the family’s expectations.

    Performing well in school.

     

    DISEASES

    DISEASE VECTORS

    Disease vectors are living organisms that can transmit infectious diseases between or from animals to humans.

     

    Types of Disease Vector

    1. 1.Mosquito
    2. Ticks
    3. Fleas
    4. Tsetse fly
    5. Black flies
    6. House flies
    7. Body lice
    8. Mites
    9. Triatomine bugs
    10. Freshwater snail

     

    EVALUATION QUESTIONS

    1. Define health
    2. List the determinants of health

     

    REFERENCE TEXT

    Essentials of Physical and Health Education for Junior Secondary School book 1.

     

    WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

    1. All the following are determinants of health except? (a) heredity (b) life style (c) longevity (d) environment.
    2. Diseases can be prevented by ______ A. consulting a native doctor B. being fashionable C. overtreatment D. good sanitation.
    3. In order to avoid water – borne diseases, we should ______ A. boil and filter drink B. drink water taken from the stream C. drink water from its sources D. take water from bore holes regularly.
    4. The vector for disease known as trypanosomiasis or nagana is the ______ A. blackfly B. housefly C. tsetsefly D. mosquito.
    5. If our food is deficient in protein, which of the following disease is likely to occur _____ A. night blindness B. ricket C. anaemia D. kwashiorkor.

     

    THEORY

  65. What is a disease – vector?
  66. Mention three pathogens that cause disease.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

    Read pages 85—86 of Essentials of Physical and Health Education for Junior Secondary School book 1.

     

     

    WEEK SEVEN

    TOPIC: STI,HIV /AIDS

    MEANING OF STI

    Sexually Transmitted infection is infection that can be spread from one person to another through sexual intercourse. It occurs when person infected with a STI / STD has sexual intercourse with a person without STIs then, the person without it get infected.

    STDs are diseases that shown on people after being infected through signs and symptoms i.e the secondary stages of STIs.

     

    CAUSES OF STIS / STDS

    1. Bacteria
    2. Fungi
    3. Protozoa
    4. Viruses

     

    EXAMPLES OF STIs

    1. Chlamydia
    2. Gonorrhea
    3. Syphilis
    4. Pubic lice
    5. Candidiasis / thrush
    6. Trichomoniasis

     

    Signs of STDS for girls

    1. Unusual discharge from vagina, changes colour, unpleasant smell; becomes thicker and excessive that makes you uncomfortable.
    2. Sores near the vagina or the anus.
    3. Rash round the vagina.
    4. Pain in the lower belly
    5. Bleeding when not doing menses.
    6. Pain when you pass urine.
    7. Pain when you have sex.
    8. Itching in or around them vagina.

     

    Signs of STDS for boys

    1. Swelling on the testes.
    2. Pain when you pass urine.
    3. Pain when you have sex.
    4. Discharge from the penis.
    5. Sores near the penis or anus.
    6. Rash near the penis or anus.
    7. Itching on the penis.

     

    Problem encounteredif STD is not Properly Treated

    1. You will pass infection to anybody that has sex with you.
    2. You might not be able to have children in the future
    3. It will become easier for you to have AIDS.
    4. You might not be able to pass urine easily.

     

    MEANING OF HIV / AIDS

    HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that destroys the body’s immune system over time, lowering its ability to fight diseases. Once, the immune system is weakened, AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) develops. An AIDS patient has no immunity at all i e the body can no longer fight infection but prone to any disease it contacts. AIDS can occur within 3 – 10 years of diagnosing HIV.

     

    SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HIV / AIDS

    1. Coughing for more than one month.
    2. Sores all over the body.
    3. Infectious disease in the mouth or throat.
    4. Itching skin rashes.
    5. Swollen glands at two or more sites.
    6. Tiredness that has refused to go away.
    7. Rapid unexplained weight loss.
    8. Fever for longer than one month.
    9. Diarrhea forlonger than one month.

     

    HOW YOU CAN CONTACT HIV / AIDS

    1. Sexual intercourse via vagina, anus or oral.
    2. Sharing of sharp objects like needles, blades, syringe, clipper etc with an infected person.
    3. Mother to child.
    4. Infection in health care settings like tattoing / piercing.
    5. Blood transfusion.
    6. Deep kissing / sharing toothbrush in case of sore in the mouth.

     

    HOW CANNOT CONTACT HIV / AIDS

    1. Holding hands, hugging or embracing.
    2. Sneezing and coughing.
    3. Living together.
    4. Breathing the same air.
    5. Sharing food and drinks
    6. Sharing clothes,toilet seat and swimming pools.
    7. Being bitten by mosquitoes, bed bugs etc.

     

    CONTROL OR PREVENTION OF HIV / AIDS

    1. Abstinence
    2. Use of condoms
    3. Not sharing unsterilized objects like blades, needles, syringe etc.
    4. The practice of blood screening before transfusion or marriage.
    5. Invite health workers to talk to you about HIV / AIDS.
    6. Educate others about HIV / AIDS.
    7. Take active part in anti – AIDS campaign clubs.
    8. Show love and care to people living with HIV / AIDS (PLWHA).

     

    EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  67. What causes HIV?
  68. How can you control HIV/AIDS?

     

    WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

    1. AIDS means ______ A. All Infectious Disease Syndrome B. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome C. Acquired Immune Disease Syndrome D. Acquired Immune Deficiency Symptoms.
    2. Which of these is a virus that causes AIDS? A. HIS B. NIS C. HIVU D. HIV.
    3. AIDS can be contacted through the following except____ A. sex B. blood transfusion

      C. use of unsterilized infected needles D. good food.

    4. HIV stands for _____ A. Human Infectious Virus B. Human Immune Virus C. Human Immunodeficiency Virus D. Hormone Immunodeficiency Virus.
    5. In order to be AIDS free, one needs to do the following except one _____ A. do not use same toothbrush B. do not use a used razor blade C. have a regular intercourse without protection D. abstain from casual sex.

     

    THEORY

  69. State three effects of HIV/AIDS on humans.
  70. Mention three signs and symptoms of AIDS on humans.
  71. State two ways of preventing HIV/AIDS

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

    Read pages 85 – 86 Essentials of Physical and Health Education for Junior Secondary School book 3.

     

    REFERENCES

    Essentials of Physical and Health Education for Junior Secondary School book 3.

    Physical and Health Education Workbook for JSS 3.

     

     

    WEEK EIGHT

    TOPIC: TAEKWANDO

    HISTORY OF TAEKWANDO

    Taekwondo is a Korean national sport. In 1910 -1945, Koreans were exposed to Japanese versions of Chinese martial art such as karate, which was adopted and mixed with Korean martial artssuch as taekgon. The father of modern taekwondo, General Choi Hong Hi taughthis soldiers the combination of karate andtaekgon. He founded International TaekwondoFederation, Canada (ITF) in 1966 but died in 2002. However,the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) was founded in 1973 by South Korea to rival ITF.It became a demonstrated sport at the 1988Olympic Games and as an official Asian game in 1984.

     

    TAEKWANDO IN NIGERIA

    It was introduced into the country by an Ivorian master AikpaAime in 1975 and embraced by many people. 1n 1983, the federal government invited two Korean expertsMr.Moo CheunKimandMr.Jhoo Rae –Pak to instruct the Nigerian army in 1986, Taekwondo Association of Nigeria (T.A.N) was formed.

     

    Skills and techniques

    Stance:  Parallel stance

     Sitting stance

     Frog / walking stance

     Back L- stance

     Fighting stance

     Cat stance

    Hand attacks: punches

    Open hand technique

    Close hand strikes

    Kicks: Front kick

    Side kick

    Back kick

    Roundhouse kick

    Drop / Ace kick

    Blocks Single forearm block

    Low block

    Rising block

    Palm block

    Knife hand block

    Self defense  Linear / hard techniques

    Circular / soft techniques

    Patterns  Solo taekwondo patterns

    Team taekwondo patterns

     

    Facilities and equipment

    Competition area (10m by 10m)

    Trunk protector (hogu)

    Head protector

    Groin guard

    Fore – arm guard

    Shin guard

    Mouth piece / guards

    Breast protectors (female’s only)

    Dokok : the official dress of the competitors

    Dojang : the place where the competition were held.

    Belts: white signifies no prior knowledge / beginner

    Yellow signifies foundation and growth stage

    Green signifies more solid level of skill and ability

    Blue signifies sky and new heights

    Red signifies sun

    Black signifies proficiency and maturity

     

    Regulations

    Duration: it is three rounds of two minutes each with a one – minute rest period between rounds. In case of a tie score after the completion of the 3rd round, a 4th round of two minutes will be conducted as the sudden death overtime round.

     

    Scoring: points are awarded by judges as follows:

    One point for attack on trunk protector

    Two points for attack on the head

    One additional point if, the opponent is knocked down and referee counts.

     

    Points Deduction: this happens as warning or a penalty for prohibited acts. When a contestant points (up to four points) has been deducted , the referee shall declare him / her loser by penalties.

     

    IMPORTANCE OF TAEKWANDO

    The emphasis of the importance of taekwondo on the following:

    1. Mental discipline
    2. Ethical discipline
    3. Etiquette
    4. Justice
    5. Respect
    6. Self – confidence

     

    Safety Rules

    1. When a competitor is injured, theCentre referee must stop the match and call the doctor.
    2. An injured competitor that is unfit to fight according to the doctor’s decision cannot continue the bout again during the event.
    3. If two competitors injure themselves at the same time and both are unfit to fight, the winner is the competitor that that scored more points and if the scores are even, the jury president will decide.
    4. A competitor that refuses the doctors decision will be disqualified.

     

    OFFICIALS AND THEIR DUTIES

    1. JURY: He or she gives the final decisional rule.
    2. Referee: He/she controls the match.
    3. Judges: They give in line and accordance without judgement.
    4. Umpire: He/she checks competition dress.
    5. Timekeeper: He/she takes the role of starting and ending the match.
    6. Recorder: He/she keeps match records.

     

    EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  72. Mention five importance of taekwondo.
  73. State the safety rules guiding taekwondo.
  74. List the officials used in taekwondo.

     

    WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

    1. Taekwondo is a ____ national sport. A. Korean B. Japanese C. Turkish D. None of the above.
    2. The act of kicking and punching is called ____ A. Chinese B. Wrestling C. Judo D. Taekwondo.
    3. Which of these is not among the various martial arts school founded ____ A. Odokwan B. Mudokwan C. Chin – Chang D. Changukwan.
    4. The father of modern taekwondo is called ____ A. General Beucto B. General Choi Hong Hi C. General Ching – Chong D. Major Hong – Kong.
    5. The international Taekwondo Federation Canada (ITF) was founded in the year ____ A. 1996 B. 1966 C. 1986 D. all of the above.

     

    THEORY

  75. State five rules and regulations of taekwondo.
  76. Mention five skills and techniques in taekwondo.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

    Read pages 56 – 64 of Essentials of Physical and Health Education for Junior Secondary School book 3.

     

    REFERENCES

    Essentials of Physical and Health Education for Junior Secondary School book 3.

    Physical and Health Education Workbook for JSS 3.

    WEEK NINE

    TOPIC: BOXING

    BRIEF HISTORY

    Fist fighting was first played in Olympic games in about 688 B.C. Boxing in the past used to result in bloody clash but was revived in the 18th century in England. Boxing became a workman sport and prize fights which attracted participants and spectators from the working class. Boxing is also called “the manly art of self-defense”. A sport in which two competitors try to hit each other with their glove encased fists while trying to avoid each other’s blows. Modern boxing started in 1866 when Marquees of Queen Berry gave new set of rules of three minutes rounds with one minute rest in between.

    Classes of boxing

    There are eight major classes of boxing:

  • flyweight; 50.9 KG
  • Bantam weight:53.6 KG
  • Feather weight:57.3 KG
  • Light weight:61.4 KG
  • Welter weight:66.8 KG
  • Middle weight:72.7 KG
  • Light heavy weight:79.5 KG
  • Heavy weight:200 ibs or more

     

    CATEGORIES OF BOXING

  1. AMATEUR BOXING
  2. PROFESSIONAL BOXING

 

FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT

  1. Bags
  2. Boxing ring
  3. Focus mitts
  4. Hand wraps
  5. Head gear
  6. Heavy bag gloves
  7. Jump rope
  8. Medicine ball
  9. Mirror
  10. Sparring gloves
  11. Mouth piece
  12. Speed bag gloves

 

DURATION OF BOXING GAMES

  1. World titles: males (12 round) (female: 10 round)
  2. Intercontinental titles: males (12 rounds) (females: 10 rounds)
  3. International titles: males (10 or 12 rounds) (females:8 rounds)
  4. Regional titles: 10 rounds

 

BOXING SKILLS

  1. Stance
  2. Punches
  3. Defense
  4. Guards

 

OFFICIALS AND DUTIES

The Referee

  1. The referee is the sole arbiter in all championship contests and the only person authorized to stop a contest at any stage.
  2. The referee examines the bandages and gloves of each boxer before the contest begins.

 

The Judges

  1. All championship contests are scored and evaluated by the three judges.
  2. The 10 Point Must System will be the standard system of scoring a contest.

 

The ring side physicians

  1. The ringside physicians may enter during the course of a round only at the request of the referee.
  2. He may enter the ring between rounds on their own and advise the referee about the condition of either boxer.

 

The time keeper

The indicate the last 10 seconds remaining in each round by knocking loudly on a table.

 

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. Mention the major skills employed in boxing.
  2. What are the duties of the ring side physicians?

     

    WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

    1. Modern boxing started in _____ A. 1966 B. 1866 C. 1876 D. 1970.
    2. How many major classes of weight do we have in boxing? A. Nine B. Eight C. Seven D. Six.
    3. Which of these is not among the facilities and equipment in boxing? A. Jump ropes B. Boxing gloves C. Gym bag D. Racket.
    4. Who among these groups is not an official in boxing? A. Judge B. Linesman C. Time keeper D. Referee.
    5. The better fighter is given a maximum of _____ point on each round. A. 11 B. 20 C. 15 D. 10.

     

    THEORY

  3. List five equipment used in boxing.
  4. Enumerate five boxing skills you know.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

    Read pages 85 – 86 of Essentials of Physical and Health Education for Junior Secondary School book 3.

     

    REFERENCES

    Essentials of Physical and Health Education for Junior Secondary School book 3.

    Physical and Health Education for Workbook for JSS 3.

    WEEK TEN

    TOPIC: DRUG, USE, MISUSE AND ABUSE

    DRUG

    Drug is any substance which when ingested into the body, either through the mouth, skin or inhaled through the nose, that can change either the function or the structure of the human organism. A drug is foreign material, food, vitamins, plant, snake venom, air pollutants and pesticides.

     

    CATEGORIES OF DRUG

    There are two categories of drug which are;

    1. Prescribed Drugs: These are medicines which are available to patients only by the order of a physician. Only drugs which are prescribed by the doctors indicating the quantity or dosage are made available to customer. This means that nobody can purchase drug without doctor’s prescription
    2. Unprescribed Drugs or Over the Counter drugs (O.T.C): These are nonprescription drug that can be purchased over the counter in the chemist shops. One does not need to present a physician’s prescription slip to purchase these drugs.

     

    DRUG MISUSE

    Drug misuse is the intake of drug in the ways that are not medically valid. It is also the unintentional and inappropriate use of prescription or nonprescription medicine which may result in impaired physical, mental, and social well-being of the user.

     

    DRUG ABUSE

    This is the excessive use of substances that measurably damages health or impairs social, vocational, or emotional adjustments.

     

    FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF DRUG

    1. Dosage
    2. Potency or strength of drug
    3. Solubility
    4. Site
    5. Set and setting

     

    Patterns For Drug Use And Abuse

    1. Experinmental use
    2. Social use
    3. Situational use
    4. Intensive use
    5. Compulsive use

     

    EVALUATION QUESTIONS

    1. Mention the pattern for drug use and abuse.
    2. List the commonly abuse drugs.
    3. State the health effects of hard drugs.

     

    WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

    1. Drug abuse may be prevented among youths through ___ A. adoption of unhealthy life style B. adoption of negative social interaction C. inculcation of life coping skills

      D. unselective friendships

    2. The situation where two or more drugs taken together or in close succession reacts to give greater effects is known as ___ A habituation B. synergism C. drug abuse D. addiction
    3. The purchase and consumption of medicine without the rescription of a qualified medical doctor is ___ A. drug abuse B. drug misuse C. self-medication D. self-habituation.
    4. The following drugscan be ingested except ___ A. paraceutamol B cocaine C. gin D. Indian hemp.
    5. Drgs can be used for ___ and ___ purposes. A. medical, recreational B. utility, and recreational C. medical and utility D. defence, acceptability

     

    THEORY

  5. List five reasons a person takes drugs.
  6. State five ways drg abuse can be prevented.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

    Read pages 85 – 86 of Essentials of Physical and Health Education for Junior Secondary School book 3.

     

    REFERENCES

    Essentials of Physical and Health Education for Junior Secondary School book 3.

    Physical and Health Education for Workbook for JSS 3.




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