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  1. Introduction to Social Studies


-Scope and Nature of Social Studies

-History of Nigerian Social Studies

2  Social Environment:Primary and Social Group

–  Meaning

–  Family

–  Definition of Family

 –  Family as a Primary Social Group

–  Roles and Responsibilities of Members

3  Family as a Basic Unit of Society

 Characteristics of Large Family Size

 Characteristics of Small Family Size

Consequences of Family Size

4.  Culture and Social Values I

 Meaning of Culture

 Component of Culture

 Features of Culture

 Characteristics of Culture

5.  Culture and Social Values II

 Cultural Similarities in Nigeria

Cultural Differences in Nigeria

Shared Norms and Values of Nigerian Communities

6  Socialization

Meaning and Processes




7.  Friendship

 Meaning of Friendship

Types of Friendship

Factors that Determine Choice of Friends

Behaviour that Could Destroy Friendship

8.  Qualities and Behaviour that Enhance Friendship

 Positive and Negative Peer Pressure

 Ways of Improving Friendship

9.  Common crimes

 Causes and Effects

10.  Revision



  • Solakat New Syllabus on Social Studies for Jss Basic seven by a. Oluwasola Oyewole
  • Simplified Social Studies for Nigerian Secondary Schools and Colleges Book One by Yusuf R.A
  • Fundamentals of Social Studies for Basic seven by Akinyemi Sola.







Nature of Social Studies

Objectives and Importance of Social Studies


Social Studies is the study of man and his environments. These environments are social and physical; social, because man does not live alone, he needs to interact with his neighbours, family colleagues etc. and it is physicalbecause he makes use of things around him like land, air, rivers, plant, animals etc.

In addition to social and physical environments, is the usefulness of science and technology in solving problems in the two environments.

Therefore, social studies is the study of man’s life, his interactions with his social and physical environment and how sciences and technology help him to solve problems in these environments.



  1. Define social studies.
  2. State how problems could be solved in the social and physical environments.


Scope of Social Studies

The scope of social studies covers how man lives, what he does and how his life is affected by the things around him.


Nature of Social Studies

Social Studies deals with the total experience of man in his environment. It consists of combination of subjects which include Geography, History, Civic, Economics, Religious Studies, Government, Sociology etc. Social Studies as a subject studies how a family is formed, know about socialization process, helps us to about the conflicts in the society, its causes, effects and how they are resolved.


Objectives of Social Studies

Since man lives in a group or society of different cultures, there is the need for social studies so as to achieve specific objectives such as;

  1. To understand and appreciate other people’s cultures and to live peacefully with them.
  2. To learn how to rely on and exploit the physical environments.
  3. To be law abiding citizens and nation builders.
  4. To stress the importance of cooperation, understanding and tolerance in a multi culture country like Nigeria.
  5. To be dynamic leaders and good followers.
  6. To understand changes and how to cope with such changes in our community.
  7. To appreciate the need to play our roles at home, school, community and in our country for the benefits and development of ourselves and the country at large.
  8. To give us balanced education.


Importance of Social Studies

  1. Social studies enables us to know and make good use of natural resources in our environment.
  2. It helps us to develop a good sense of moral and social responsibilities, e.g. honesty, hard work, dignity, punctuality etc.
  3. It teaches the importance of peaceful co-existence with other people from different cultural area.
  4. Social studies teaches the students to be good citizens of their country by performing their duties.
  5. It lays a solid foundation for the study of other subjects such as Government, Geography, Economics etc. in the senior secondary schools.
  6. It helps in exposing students to different societies and cultures.



  1. State the significance of social studies to man.
  2. List (4) four combined subjects in social studies



  1. Explain the usefulness of science and technology.
  2. List the two environments of man and explain any one.
  3. Give an example of problem being solved in any of the environment.



Fundamentals of Social Studies for Basic Seven by Sola Akinyemi. Pages. 1 – 9

Solakat New Syllabus on Social Studies for JSS Basic Seven by A. Oluwasola, Oyewole .Pages 1-4

Simplified Social Studies for Nigerian Secondary Schools & Colleges Book 1 by Yusuf R.A. Pages 1&2



  1. The study of man and his interaction with his social and physical environments is———A. studies C.musicD.basic science
  2. Which of the following is not an example of physical environment? A. Hills B. LakeC. Family D. Oceans
  3. All BUT one of the following are the three areas / dimensions of social studies A. mountain B. science and technology C.physical environment environment
  4. Social studies is the study of man in his——–A. social environmentB. physical environment C. environments D. technological environment
  5. Man influences his environment through the aid of A. valley and mountains B. technical expertise C. science D. science and technology




1. What is Social Studies?

2. Explain briefly why man’s environments are social and physical.





Social environment is defined as the social practices around a man and the interactions that exist between him and other men (people) in the groups – family, peer group, school, community and institution. The social practices around man include customs, language,food, dressing norms etc.



Social group is an aspect of social environment that refers to a number of people who are united and organized to achieve a common goal. It is categorized into two;

  1. Primary Social Group
  2. Secondary Social Group


Primary Social Groups

A primary group is one in which its members are closely related. They know each other very well. It is formed by nature as individuals have little or no choice over the group they find themselves. Examples of primary group are family, age group and kinship.


Characteristics of a Primary Social Group

  1. The members are small.
  2. They depend on one another.
  3. They maintain a continuous and permanent membership.
  4. There is a close and intimate relationship among members.
  5. There is face-to-face interaction.



  1. Define social environment.
  2. Explain social group and state its types


The Family

A family refers to those who are related by blood, marriage or law (i.e. adoption) through the union of a minimum of two adults of opposite sex with or without children.

Blood relationship (e.g. father and son) is called a consanguine or natal relationship. Marriage relationship (e.g. wife and father in-law) is described as a conjugal relationship. The social group a child is born into is the family.


Types of Family

  1. Nuclear Family: This is made up of father, mother or mothers and children (biological or by law). Nuclear family could be monogamous (one man, one woman with or without the children) or polygamous (one man and several wives) i.e. polygyny or one woman and several husbands i.e. polyandry).


Image From EcoleBooks.comMr. Ben  Mrs. Ben

 (Husband)  (Wife)



 Segun Taiwo Kehinde James Hannah

 (son) (son) (daughter) (son) (son)

Fig. 1

  1. Extended Family: In this type of family, uncles, aunties, cousins, nieces, grandparents, step mothers etc. are all members of the same family, though they may not live together. There are many nuclear families in an extended family.

    Image From EcoleBooks.comMr. Ben   Mrs. Ben

    (Husband)  (Wife)


Segun _______ Abidemi Kehinde _______ Gbade

(son) (wife) (daughter)  (husband)


Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From

Biola   Tope   Seyi  Sola   Seun Bisi ______ Tony

(daughter)   (daughter)  (son)  (son)   (son)   (daughter)  (husband)



Fig. 2

  1. Compound family: this consists of some brothers, sisters and relatives with their wives, husbands and children living together in the family house.


Functions of the Family

  1. Procreation: Family exists in order to produce younger ones.
  2. The family ensures that the children have everything they need to survive and become responsible members of the society.
  3. The family ensures that children are properly socialized. The family teaches the child acceptable norms and values of the society.
  4. Every child needs to be given love, security, affection, and companionship right from birth.
  5. The parents are expected to give each child good formal education besides the informal training which naturally takes place in a normal family.


Roles and Responsibilities of Members

A. Father

  1. He is the head of the family and the bread winner.
  2. He provides the basic amenities.
  3. He disciplines the erring members of the family .
  4. He is the family’s representative outside.


B. Mother

  1. She prepares food for the family.
  2. She sees to the cleanliness of the home.
  3. She assists the father in the provision of the family needs.
  4. She also disciplines the children.

C. Children

  1. They run errands for their parents and elderly people.
  2. They perform domestic chores .
  3. They show respect to their parents and the elders in the community.
  4. They take care of their parents when they are old.


Age Group

This is made up of people of about the same age in a society who do things in common.



This refers to a group linked together as a result of a common ancestor, marriage ties or adoption. Kinship is an extension of extended families.



  1. Mention three examples of primary group.
  2. Give four roles of a father.
  3. Mention five roles of a mother.



Solakat New Syllabus on Social Studies for Basic Seven by A. Oluwasola Oyewole. Pages. 21&30.

Simplified Social Studies for Nigerian Secondary Schools & Colleges Book 1 byYusuf R.A.Pages.7- 10. Fundamentals of Social Studies JSS by Sola Akinyemi.Pages. 44 – 51



  1. _______ is made up of people of about the same age who do things in common in a society. A. Young people B. Age group C. School children D. Old people
  2. Nuclear family is common among the A.Muslims B. traditionalists C. religionists D. educated Africans and the Europeans
  3. Kinship relationship is often based on A. blood and marriage B. family and blood C. money and property D. age and achievement
  4. One of the ways by which one can become a member of a family is through A. kindness B. cooperation C. obedience D. birth
  5. Relationship by marriage is called ————- relationship. A. conjugal B. natal C. love D. friendship



  1. From fig. 2, state Sola’s relationship with Segun, Tope, Ijeoma and Tony.
  2. List and explain briefly, the types of family we have.






 Characteristics of a Large Family Size

 Characteristics of a Small Family Size

 Consequences of Family Size

The family is the smallest unit of a social organization which exists in every society. There cannot be the society without the individual families existing in it. The greater the number of families in the community the larger the society. The nature of the families will also to a large extent determine what the society will be. There will be less conflict, crime and problems if the majority of families in the society are responsible.


Functions of the Family in the Society

  1. Members of the society are replaced through the family. When somebody dies, a new person replaces him or her by birth.
  2. The family teaches a child cultural values and norms of a society. The child is taught to speak the local practice language, the customs and traditions of his people.
  3. The family teaches the child about his creator. The child knows about God for the first time through the family.
  4. The family is one of the institutions that control sexual behaviour. The child is taught that the society and God frown at sexual immorality.
  5. The family particularly the father and mother contribute to the economic growth and progress – providing productive services, paying taxes on their income, etc.


Characteristics of a Small Family Size

  1. The numbers of children are not many.
  2. The family size consists of the father, mother and many children at least six children.


Characteristics of a Large Family

  1. The numbers of children are many.
  2. The family size consists of the father, mother and many children at least six children.


Consequence of a Large Family

  1. Insufficient funds to cater for the family.
  2. Inadequate / improper care of the family.
  3. Lack of proper upbringing of the children as a result of the number of children.
  4. Pressure of large population on infrastructure e.g. housing, road etc.



  1. Mention four characteristics of a large size.
  2. Mention consequences of a large family size.
  3. Social Studies Workbook. Page 25.



Macmillam JSS Social Studies by MA Orebanjo and others. Page 21

Fundamentals of Social Studies for Basic 7. Pages 51 – 52



  1. Which of the following is not acquired during the process of socialization? A. riches B. skills C. value D. knowledge
  2. The following are examples of moral responsibilities of the children at home EXCEPT ___________A. to respect elders B. to help their parents with house chores C. to use vulgar language
  3. The most important function of the family is _______ A. living together B. doing things in common C. reproduction of human race
  4. Primary social group include _________ A. family, kinship and age-group B. father, mother and children C. kingship, peer group and family D. school, kinship and clubs
  5. Family is the smallest unit of an organization. True or False




  1. Define Family.
  2. Mention four functions of the family in the society.




Culture is defined as the total way of life of a people. It is culture that differentiates one particular community or ethnic group from the other.



  1. Culture defines a group of people.
  2. Culture is not static rather it is dynamic. It changes with time. As technology changes and as people interact with one another.
  3. It is not inborn rather it is learnt through the agents of socialization like family, religious organization,peer group ,e.t.c..
  4. Culture is a collective experience of a community or a group of people.
  5. Culture is usually acquired, it is a continuous process passed from one generation to the other.
  6. It is created by a community in order to ensure harmonious and progressive living of its members.



  1. Define culture.
  2. Explain three characteristics of culture.



There are many features of culture but they are all grouped into two; material and non material aspects.

  1. Material aspect: this refers to those things which are made by man so as to satisfy his needs. They are the products of man which when made could be seen and touched. Examples are houses, bridges, clothes, hoes, plates, aeroplanes, combs etc.
  2. Non-material aspect: this consists of those things we cannot see or touch. They are things which we learnt as part of the way we live in our society. Examples are language, religion, music, morals, dress sense, manner of eating, dancing style etc.



  1. a. Differentiate between material and non-material aspects of culture.

    b. Highlight their features.

  2. List three examples each of the two aspects.



  1. Language: it is one of the most important ways of identifying a group of people. Through language, we can quickly state what or which culture one belongs. It is an avenue through which our culture is passed from one generation to the other.
  2. Mode of dressing: this is another way of identifying a group of people or their culture. For instance, a typical Yoruba man or woman wherever he or she is, will still occasionally dress in ‘buba and sokoto’ or ‘iro and buba’
  3. Folklores: these are invented stories about man and animal kingdoms. Through folklores, children are entertained and taught one moral lesson or the other.
  4. Legend: each ethnic group has its belief and story pertaining to the origin of man and the world.
  5. Skills and Tools (Technology): Nigeria had small industries made up of small workshops where skilled works were carried out before the advent of the Europeans. Binis were involved in ivory making and brass wares. The Ijaws and Itsekiri were noted for salt making while native soaps were the products of the Yorubas and Edos etc.
  6. Games and Entertainment: games also bring out a particular culture. For instance ‘Ayo’ and ‘Okoto’ are peculiar to Yorubas. Entertainment is majorly in form of singing; ‘Shantu and Samban’ are sets of drums among the Hausa Fulanis while ‘gangan, bata etc.’ are Yorubas musical instruments.
  7. Buildings: before the arrival of the European, each ethnic group builds its houses in a way different from others.
  8. Food and Drink: pounded yam and yam flour are common solid food in Yorubaland while tuwo and danwanke are popular among the Hausa Fulani. While the Hausas enjoy Burukutu and Sekete as their drinks, Yorubas and Igbos like palmwine.
  9. Religion: the way a group of people relate to the supernatural and its belief is a feature of culture. Each cultural group has its own way of relating to the supreme being before the introduction of Christianity and Islam.
  10. Arts and Crafts: arts and crafts are products of our physical environment and as such each cultural group has its unique art and craft in form of carvings, metal works, painting, sculpture, wood work etc.



  1. Explain why language is seen as one of the most important features of culture.
  2. Differentiate between legends and folklores.
  3. List out the features that are material aspects of culture.
  4. Draw out the building of four different cultural group.



  1. List any two ethnic groups and their mode of dressing.
  2. Explain how culture is acquired.
  3. Social Studies Workbook .Pages 52-54



Macmillan Social Studies Book 1 by M.A. Orebanjo Pages 43-45.

Solakat New Syllabus on Social Studies for JSS Basic Nine by A. Oluwasola Oyewole . Pgs. 44 & 50.

Simplified Social Studies for Nigeria Secondary Schools & Colleges Bk 3 by Yusuf R.A.Pgs. 29 & 30.

Fundamentals of Social Studies Junior Secondary School Book 1 by J.O Olatunde etal. Pgs. 92 – 97



  1. Which of the following is not an aspect of culture? A. IdentityB. ReligionC. MusicD. Values.
  2. The following are parts of culture except A. dancing B. dressing C. transportationD. food.
  3. The most important aspect of culture that is used to identify a group of people is——A. drink B. house C.language D. food.
  4. Cutlass, spear, clothing are examples of A. material cultureB. non material cultureC. cultural relativity D. weapons.
  5. Folklores are for entertainment alone. Yes or No.
  6. ‘Culture is dynamic’ means culture A. changes gradually B. is strong C. is stagnantD. is static
  7. The material aspects of culture A. can be seen and touched B. cannot be seen and touchedC. can be eatenD. cannot be handled
  8. ______ is the total way of life. A. Socialization B. Culture C. IdentityD. Language
  9. All but one of the following are components of culture A. it is not inbornB. it is dynamic is not acquired D. it is a collective experience of a community or a group of people
  10. All of the following are examples of non-material culture except A. pot B. cloth C. folklore D. comb



  1. a. What is culture?

    b.List four components of culture.

  2. Briefly explain the features of culture.





Cultural Similarities among Nigerians

Though there are many cultures in Nigeria because of the many cultures therein, there are still some aspects of their culture that are the same.

  1. Respect in Nigeria: Irrespective of one’s status, elders are respected in Nigeria.
  2. Traditional Political System: each community in Nigeria has its own traditional political system under a paramount chief with different titles like Oba, Obi, Obong etc.
  3. Age-grade: in every community in Nigeria, there are age mates who identify with themselves.
  4. System of Marriage: this is similar in typical Nigeria traditional communities where virgin brides are highly honoured.
  5. Leadership: authority is often exercised by the elders in most communities in Nigeria. A practice where elders rule is Gerontocracy.
  6. Communal living: extended family is a common feature of all cultures in Nigeria.
  7. Occupation:farming and trading are common to all cultures.
  8. Nigerians place high values on dignity of labour, good neighbourliness and patriotism. No job is bad within the Nigerian culture except armed-robbery and its likes.


Cultural Differences among Nigerians

There are several cultures in Nigeria. The people are diverse and the cultures and traditions vary. By each group’s culture; we can differentiate one group from the other.

  1. Language: it is a remarkable difference that differentiates one culture from the other in Nigeria. There are over 250 indigenous languages in the country.
  2. Religion: before Christianity and Islam got to Nigeria, there were various traditional religious beliefs in Nigeria. The mode of worship also differs.
  3. Greetings: there is variance in how each ethnic group greets their elderly ones. For instance, a Yoruba male/female will prostrate/kneel down to greet elders while the Hausas will squat or kneel down.
  4. Dressing: the Hausa man’s way of dressing in ‘babariga’ with a cap to match differentiates him from an Igbo man who wears caftan and ties a wrapper. The manner of dressing of each group’s womenfolk also differs.
  5. Arts and Crafts: this also differentiates one group from the other. While those in the south engage in wood carving, the Northerners engage in leather works.
  6. Food: those in the southern part of Nigeria eat food made mostly from tubers like fufu while the Northerners eat food made from grains e.g. tuwo.



  1. Briefly explain how communal living and system of marriage are similar to different cultures in Nigeria.
  2. List and explain (3) three cultural differences in Nigeria culture.
  3. List (5) five indigenous languages in Nigeria and the states where the languages are spoken.



  1. Make a list of different four (4) types of food by any two (2) ethnic groups of your choice.
  2. Define social environment.
  3. List any other three (3) jobs that are frowned at by Nigerians.
  4. Social Studies Workbook for Basic Seven. Pgs 54 – 57



Macmillan Social Studies Book by M.A. Orebanjo. Pgs. 47 & 48

Solakat New Syllabus on Social Studies for JSS Basic Nine by A. Oluwasola Oyewole, Pg. 50.

Fundamentals of Social Studies Junior Secondary School Book 1 by Sola Akinyemi.Pgs 97 – 105



  1. Which of the following statement is true? A. There is one culture in the whole world B. There are cultures based on the number of countries in the whole world C. There are cultures as there are many continents in the world D. There are many cultures as there the numbers of communities in the world
  2. Which of the following does not belong to the group? A. Obas B. Emirs C. Imams D. Obis
  3. Nuclear family is a common feature of all cultures in Nigeria? Yes or No
  4. One of the following is not a cultural similarity in Nigeria A. Language B. Occupation C. Political system D. Age grade
  5. ____________ implies that there is deep feelings for one another in all culture of Nigeria A. Age grade B. Respect C. Communal living D. System of marriage



  1. List three cultural differences in Nigeria culture.
  2. Mention five cultural similarities in Nigeria culture.





Socialization is the process of learning the culture (language, belief, values) etc. of one’s community or society. By learning the societal norms and values, it becomes easy for him to associate and interact meaningfully in the society he lives.


Types of Socialization

Primary Socialization: This is when one is socialized through the help of older persons. This is also known as childhood socialization. It takes place in the child’s family.

Secondary Socialization: Is when a person is old enough to learn by himself.


The Significance of Socialization

1. Socialization helps the new member to know, understand and participate in the culture of his community.

2. It promotes peaceful coexistence and social interaction among people.

3. It prepares the new member to fit into his community by conforming to its way of life.

4. It prepares and teaches individuals in the community, the roles expected of them based on their status.


Processes of Socialization

There are four main processes through which individuals are socialized into their community.

  1. Direct Learning:It is a conscious way of learning whereby one is told what to do and how to do it. It could be formal or informal and is also known as education. An example of formal education is schooling while that of informal is apprenticeship where a person learns a skill under a master through a practical training.
  2. Incidental Learning:In incidental learning, the child learns unconsciously from his parents or age group.
  3. Learning from Models (Imitation):This is copying the way someone behaves, talks, dresses etc. because the person is admired.
  4. Role Learning:Since every person in a society has certain expectations attached to him, a person learns a new role in the society once he assumes such position. For instance, family heads, religious heads etc.


Agents of Socialization

The following are the agents of socialization;

  1. The family: this is the primary agent of socialization. Every child is born into a family and to socialize such a child, the socialized adult members of the family will teach the child.
  2. Peer-group: through playmates or age mates, the children inculcate some behaviour. People in the same peer group tend to have strong influence on dressing.
  3. The school: a child is prepared to be a functional member of the society in the school through constant reward and punishment.
  4. Religious Institution: the moral development of individuals is the primary focus of any religious institution where members are taught about love, tolerance, honesty etc.
  5. The mass media: these include radio, newspaper, television etc. Peoples (both young and old) awareness increase through the mass media and these affect their behaviors.
  6. Voluntary Organization: are organizations that provide free humanitarian services such as Boys Scout, Red Cross, etc.


Effects of Socialization

The effects of socialization on people could either be positive or negative.


Positive Effects of Socialization.

  1. Social role: socialization helps individuals discharge their roles which enhance the development of the community.
  2. Discipline: through socialization, a sense of discipline is inculcated especially through school and voluntaryorganizations.
  3. Communal spirit is developed through socialization.
  4. Respect for one’s culture and others is an effect of socialization.
  5. It ensures the transmission of our culture from one generation to another.
  6. Skills are learnt/developed through socialization.


Negative Effects of Socialisation

  1. Immorality is spread through agents of socialization like the television.
  2. The infiltration of western culture through the internet has made Nigeria to depend on the values and economy of western world.
  3. Negative peer pressure has increased crime rate in the society.



1. What is socialization?

2. List agents of socialization and explain (2) two of them.

  1. Discuss how the mass media could have negative effect of socialization on people.
  2. Why is the family regarded as the primary agent of socialization?



  1. Which of the agents prepares one to be a functional member of the society?
  2. What is socialization ?
  3. List the agents of socialization.



Macmillan Social Studies Book 1 by M.A. Orebanjo.Pgs. 36-38

Solakat New Syllabus on Social Studies for JSS Basic Nine by A. Oluwasola Oyewole.Pgs. 42 & 43.

Fundamentals .Pages 77-99



  1. Which of the following is not a socializing process? A. direct teaching B. incidental learning C. role learning D. learning from model
  2. ‘Socialization takes place from cradle to grave’. This means that socialization occurs A. at childhood stage B. during adolescence C. from birth to death D. at adolescent stage
  3. A doctor that becomes a king will learn a new role through A. the priest B. learning from models C. role learning D. education
  4. The process of acquiring languages, values and belief of a society is A. socialization B. education C. development D. modernization
  5. A child learns new attitude and skills through A. imitation B. memorizing C. ignorance D. carelessness
  6. The agent of socialization that lays emphasis on the moral upbringing of the people is called A. mass media B. secret cult C. religious organization D. family
  7. The primary agent of socialization is the A. family B. peer group C. church D. mosque
  8. Mass media as one of the agents of socialization is responsible for the following except A. entertainment of the masses B. control of people’s movement C. provision of information to people D. education of the citizens
  9. All the following are negative effects of socialization except A. delinquency B. illiteracy C. dishonesty D. education
  10. One of the following is not a voluntary organization A. Boys Scout B. Rotary Club C.nursing D. Red Cross



  1. Define socialization
  2. List the agents of socialization and explain any three.
  3. Mention two positive effects of socialization.





 Types of Friendship

 Factors that Determine Choice of Friends

Friendship is an in-depth relationship. It is a warm and intimate relationship with someone you like and trust. It is a state of emotional attachment to another person due to feelings of affection. Friendship does not involve any sexual interaction. Building friendship takes time and effort. Therefore, friendships are built slowly.


Types of Friendship

  1. Intimate or best friend: This is a type of friendship that has a degree of intimacy. This type of friendship has the ability of greatly influencing one’s decision character and goal in life.
  2. Ordinary friendship: The friendship here is not too strong. The person does not have so much power to influence your behaviour.
  3. Acquaintance: This is the kind of friendship that exists virtually between anyone we meet while carrying out a task, etc.


Importance of Friendship

  1. It provides opportunity for companionship.
  2. It serves as a source of happiness.
  3. It provides opportunity to socialize.
  4. It develops appropriate interpersonal communication.
  5. Individuals come to know trust and depend on others for affection.


Factors that Determine Choice of Friends

  1. Gender – some people prefer having the same gender as their very close friends.
  2. Age –people of the same age bracket are likely to go into friendship.
  3. Common characters – people tend to draw close to those with similar values and friendship.
  4. Common language, nationality or tribe.
  5. Good personality and character – those who cherish sound character maybe easily attracted.
  6. Common interest – Those who have the same interest have the tendency of becoming friends, e.g. sports, profession, etc.



  1. Defined friendship.
  2. Mention the types of friendship
  3. Highlight four factors that determine the choice of friends.



  1. Social Studies Workbook for year7 pages
  2. Highlight four factors that determine the choice of friends.



  1. Which of these behaviour may not promote love relationships A. Aggressiveness B. Good communication C. tolerance D. sharing and caring
  2. Friendship could be defined as _____________ A. a state of being cruel to others B. a state of being emotionally attached to someone you like C. a state of fighting one another D. a state of having one only when things are good.
  3. ___________ is a way of improving friendship. A. Disagreeing with each other B. Exchange of gifts C. Making trouble D. Quarrelling
  4. The following factors could destroy friendship EXCEPT __________ A. betrayal of trust B. gossiping C. honest D. selfishness
  5. Which of these is NOT a place of making friends? A. Religious institutions B. Social clubs C. Workplace D. Hole



  1. Define friendship?
  2. Mention four importance of friendship.





 Position and Negative Peer Pressure

 Ways of Improving Friendship.


Qualities and Behaviour that Enhance Friendship

The following are the qualities and behaviours that enhance friendship.

  1. Forgiveness
  2. Respect
  3. Trust
  4. Affection
  5. Support during good and bad times
  6. Ability to keep confidences
  7. Cooperation
  8. Honesty
  9. Reliability


Position and Negative Peer Pressure

Peer pressure refers to the strong influence of friendship on one another in decision making.


Positive Peer Pressure

This refers to a situation where someone is positively influenced in making decision that brings progress and great achievements. Positive peer pressure includes being fluenced to be obedient, not to join bad gang, be of good behaviour all the time etc.


Negative Peer Pressure

This refers to a situation where someone is strongly influenced to misbehave or take bad decisions. Examples are being influenced to skip lessons in school, take hard drugs, disobey parents, engage in robbery, pre-marital sex etc.


Ways of Improving Friendship

  1. Sharing goals and aspirations.
  2. By having group activities and solving assignment together.
  3. Sharing information and exchanging gifts.
  4. Visiting each other’s family and other friends.
  5. Giving support in times of trouble
  6. Dating, with no expectation for shared sexual activity (adults of marriageable age.)
  7. Making positive comments about each other and having fun together.
  8. Keeping secrets and building trust.
  9. Practice active listening skills.



  1. Mention five qualities that enhance friendship.
  2. What is negative peer pressure?
  3. Mention five ways of improving friendship.


  1. Differentiate between negative and positive peer pressure.
  2. Mention two qualities that enhance friendship and mere acquaintances.



Fundamentals of Social Studies for Basic 7 by Sola Akinyemi. Pages 155-159

Simplified Social Studies for NSS&C PR Book 7 by Yusuf R.A .Pages 57 – 60



  1. The following are behaviours that enhances friendship except……. A. honesty B. trust C. loyalty D. malice E. respect
  2. All of these are qualities of a good friends except……… A. forgiveness B. selfishness C. sharing D. keeping confidence E. love
  3. An individual who has made the wrong choice of friends may develop all of the following except. __________ A. stealing B. respect C. truancy D. arrogance E. honesty
  4. The agents of socialization do not includes ____________ A. mass media b. peer group C. religious institution D. home E. market
  5. All the following are qualities of love except ____ A. showing respect B. companionship C. commitment D. understanding. E. hated



  1. Mention five qualities that enhance friendship.
  2. Mention five ways of improving friendship.




Causes and Effects

Crime is any act that breaks the law of the land. A crime is a violation of criminal law. It is an offence that is punishable by law. They are sometimes collectively referred to as social problems. These could be as a result of urbanization or development of cities, increase in population, interaction among different ethnic groups, TV, etc. Common crimes in our society include the following:

  1. Examination Malpractice
  2. Cultism
  4. Prostitution
  5. Drug abuse
  6. Corruption
  7. Drug Addiction
  8. Internet fraud
  9. Armed Robbery
  10. Kidnapping
  11. Ritual Killing etc.


Causes of Common Crimes

  1. Bad Economy – some crimes occur due to bad economy resulting in loss of job, low standard of living, low level of unemployment, etc. the major effect of all these is poverty.
  2. Crave for Societal Recognition – this has made some youths to abandon their education and engage in robbery, thuggery, internet fraud, prostitution and other vices which can make them sudden millionaires
  3. Parental Neglect – many youths have been abandoned by their parents because of their rush for wealth, position, politics and career. Such children always associate with bad friends who influence them negatively.
  4. Peer Group Influence–Youths without good families are prone to being badly influenced by their friends.
  5. Corruption – Many school principals, school owners, teachers and government officials are very corrupt. They encourage all forms of examination malpractice by collecting bribes from students.
  6. Influence of internet and television – The existence of VCD and DVD machines allow youths to freely watch dirty films and all sorts of evil on the internet.


Effects of Common Crimes

Crimes affect individuals, family and the nation at large.


Effects of Crimes on Individual

  1. Loss of life – Those who engage in cultism, prostitution and HIV/AIDS and some other social vices often lose their lives immediately or eventually.
  2. Loss of dignity and reputation – Individuals who engage in kidnapping, prostitution and sexual immorality are never respected in the society.
  3. Unemployment – Those who engage in armed robbery or other criminal activities can never be employed by anybody.
  4. Frustration and regret – Criminals and those that are infected with HIV/AIDS through sexual immorality often live in frustration and regret.


Effects of Crimes on the Family

  1. Those engaged in criminal activities hardly have a settled home. Their spouses are likely to divorce them and have an adverse effect on the children.
  2. It brings shame and dents family image, reputation and name.
  3. Members of the family may have to live in abject poverty where the family winner becomes HIV/AIDS positive or sent to jail for murder.


Effects of Crimes on the Nation

  1. Those who engage in computer fraud, drug trafficking and other crimes are indirectly destroying the image of the nation internationally.
  2. Government spends quite a lot of money on curbing HIV/AIDS and supporting its patients. Government loses so much amount of money to corrupt official who divertsgovernment funds for personal uses.
  3. The number of able bodied men and women that could have been part of the Nigerian labour force has been reduced by armed robbery, untimely death cultism, etc.
  4. It makes members of the public feel insecure.



  1. What is crime?
  2. Mention five causes of crime.



  1. Mention five importance of friendship
  2. Mention three effects of crime on the nation



Fundamentals of Social Studies for Basic7 by Sola Akinyemi.Pages 106 -109, 120 – 122

Macmillan JSS Social Studies for Book 1 by M.A. Orebanjo and others.Pages 52 -57



  1. The following are common crimes except __ A. cultism B. murder C. prostitution D. reading
  2. One of the causes of common crimes is __ A. dancing B. poverty C. education D. ethnic
  3. Corruption is common among __ A. government officials B. civil servant C. politicians D. all of the above
  4. One of the following is not a cause of cultism in Nigeria A. greed B. academic failure C. drug abuse D. contentment
  5. For some youths to end up becoming political thugs, hired assassins etc. is as a result of A. untimely death B. pride C. high level of moral decadence D. academic failure



  1. Mention five effects of crime onan individual.
  2. Mention three effects of crime on the family.

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