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FIRST TERM E-LEARNING NOTE

 

SUBJECT: HOME ECONOMICS   CLASS: JSS1

 

SCHEME OF WORK

 

WEEKS  TOPIC

1.  Introduction to Home Economics

2.  Home Economics and National Development

 3.  The Human Body (The Hair)

4.  The Human Body (The Eyes)

5.  The Human Body (The Nose and Ear)

6.  The Human Body (The Skin)

7.  The Human Body (The Teeth)

8.  The Human Body (The Hands and Feet))

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9.  Good Posture  

10.  Revision and Examination.

 

REFERENCE TEXTBOOK

  • Home Economics for Junior Secondary Schools by Elizabeth U. Anyakoha.
  • Home Economics New Concept for Nigerian Junior Secondary Schools (book 1) by Popoola O.O (Mrs.)

 

 

WEEK ONE

TOPIC: INTRODUCTION TO HOME ECONOMICS

Home Economics entails a lot of things. Its main concern is the welfare of individuals and families. Before the missionaries arrived Nigeria, there were no formal schools. At that time young girls learnt homemaking skills from their mothers, aunts or other older women in the family. Boys also learnt trades, crafts and farming from their fathers, uncles and older men in the family. In these ways the young ones were taught by their parents. Learning was mainly through observation, imitation and practice. When the missionaries came they built schools and taught people how to read and write. As the number of girls increased a special centre was created and the course was introduced as Domestic Science due to the fact that the subject is more versatile than cooking, sewing and housecraft. The name was changed to Home Economics. Home Economics is a very important subject in schools today. It is taught at the primary, junior and senior school levels.

 

DEFINITION OF HOME ECONOMICS

Home Economics can be explained in different ways. It is a field that is concerned with improving family life. It does this by:

  1. Preparing people for family living.
  2. Finding out the needs of individuals and families
  3. Finding ways of meeting these needs.
  4. Improving the goods and services which the families use e.g. food, clothing, housing, etc.

 

Home Economics
is also defined as a means of careful management of human and material resources for individual, family and community development.

 

EVALUATION

1. Define Home Economics

2. Give a brief history of how Home economics came into existence.

 

Major Areas in Home Economics

Home Economics is made up of many areas. These areas can be grouped into 7 major areas. Each area can be further broken down into sub-areas. All these areas are interrelated.

  1. Food and Nutrition: It deals with the study of foods and their nutrients.

     

  2. Clothing and Textiles: It deals with textiles designing and sewing of clothes. It includes wise selection of clothes, personal hygiene and good grooming.

     

  3. Home Management: It deals with the process of using those things which the family has, to obtain the things needed by the family.

     

  4. Consumer Education: It teaches people how to make wise decisions when selecting or buying goods and services.

     

  5. Housing and Interior Decoration: It deals with provision of housing for the family. It also involves planning available space in the house, selection and arrangement of pieces of furniture and other decorative pieces in the house.

     

  6. Child Development and Care: It deals with how children grow and develop. It deals with how to care for children properly.

     

  7. Family Living: It deals with how people live in the family. It teaches people how to maintain good relationship in the family.

     

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOME ECONOMICS AND OTHER FIELD OF STUDY

Home Economics draws its knowledge from other field of studies such as:

  1. Chemistry: It teaches us about food nutrients, their properties and the effect of heat on them.

 

  1. Biology: It teaches us about plants and animals, parts of human body and how they function.

 

  1. Physics: It teaches us about electricity and how the electrical appliances in the home functions.

 

  1. Economics: It enables us to know how to use and manage our human and material resources.

 

  1. Mathematics: It teaches us about measurements and calculations which are important in Home-Economics especially in food preparation.

 

  1. Agricultural Science: It helps to know about food production and preservation which are necessary for good health.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. State three major areas in Home Economics.
  2. Define Home Economics.
  3. Give a brief history of how Home Economics came into existence.
  4. Mention five subjects Home Economics drew knowledge from.
  5. Home Economics was previously called?

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The following are major areas in Home economics except (a) food and nutrition (b) clothing and textile (c) consumer education (d) agricultural science.
  2. Home Economics is the study of (a) how we gossip at home (b) how we relate to others (c) how we take care of the home (d) culture
  3. ——- areas in Home Economics educates the masses on wise selection of products and food stuffs in the market (a) Interior decoration (b) consumer education (c) food and nutrition (d) child development and care
  4. ——- involves in the provision of housing for all (a) clothing and textiles (b) housing and interior decoration (c) consumer education (d) outdoor catering
  5. —— was previously known as domestic science (a) agricultural science (b) Mathematics (c) Home economics (d) Basic technology.

 

THEORY

  1. Give a brief history of how Home Economics came into existence.
  2. Mention five major areas in Home Economics and explain them.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Read Introduction to Home Economics from Home Economics for Junior Secondary Schools (book1-3) by Elizabeth U. Anyakoha, Pages 1-6.

 

 

WEEK TWO

TOPIC:
HOME ECONOMICS AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT:

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN HOME ECONOMICS

  1. Dietetics: A dietitian works in hospitals, helping with diets for the treatment and prevention of diseases.
  2. Nutritionist: A nutritionist can work in a health department, schools, hospitals and industries. They ensure nutritious and safe meals are available at all time.
  3. Food Service personnel: People in this career can work as catering managers, supervisors, stewards etc. depending on their qualifications. They work in hotels, hospitals, schools, airlines etc.
  4. Catering: A caterer cooks for people in boarding schools, hospitals, hotels, offices etc.
  5. Hotel Manager: This involves running a hotel as business. It is also called institution management.
  6. Teaching/ Lecturing: Teaches in various areas grades such as primary, secondary or tertiary institutions.
  7. Researchers: Researchers work on food and nutrition problems; they discover new ways of planning and cooking foods.
  8. Food Technology: A food technologist applies the principles of foods, science, and engineering in the development, production, processing, packaging and distribution of foods.
  9. Designing: Persons in this career create new designs for garments (fashion)

 

Home Economics Career Requirements

Home Economics careers require education at different levels of education. Such as:

  1. Senior Secondary Schools: Boys and girls can obtain credits or distinctions in any Home Economics Subjects like Food and nutrition, Clothing and textile, Home management, etc. at this level with this qualification, people can obtain entry-level jobs such as attendants, waiters or waitresses, sales person, etc. such entry-level requires on-the-job training.

 

  1. College of Education: Studying in this college is usually three years duration. The Nigerian Certificate of Education (NCE) certificate is awarded at the end of the study. These colleges offer Home Economics.

 

  1. Monotechnics and Polytechnics: They offer programs on the area of Home Economics such as food and nutrition, catering, etc. and award National Diploma (ND) after the completion of two years and later (HND) Higher National Diploma after two years additional programme.

 

  1. Universities: They offer:

    (i) 4 years Bachelor of Science (BS.c) or Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) in any area of Home Economics.

    (ii) 1-2 years master’s degree and 3-4 years Doctorate degree (Ph.D) in any area of Home Economics.

 

EVALUATION

  1. Mention five Home economics related subjects.
  2. Mention any two certificates that can be awarded after studying Home Economics

 

IMPORTANCE OF HOME ECONOMICS TO THE INDIVIDUAL, FAMILY AND NATION

  1. Home Economics teaches people how to live a good, healthy and happy life in the Family, community, nation and the world.
  2. Home Economics prepares boys and girls for home making.
  3. It teaches people how to care for themselves.
  4. It teaches people how to care for their homes.
  5. It teaches family members how to get along with one another in the family and society.
  6. It teaches people how to spend their money wisely
  7. It teaches people how to plan, cook, serve and eat good food.
  8. It teaches people how to choose, make, wear and maintain their clothing.
  9. It teaches the family, nation and individual how use what they have to get what they want.
  10. It teaches the individuals to be self-reliant.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. Define Home Economics
  2. State five major areas in Home Economics
  3. Mention five career opportunities in Home Economics
  4. State three subjects required to study Home Economics in the university.
  5. Enumerate the importance of Home Economics to the family, community and you.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. ——- is a career in Home economics (a) accountancy (b) banker (c) hotel manager (d) lawyer
  2. The Nigerian Certificate of Education (NCE) is awarded at ——– (a) secondary schools (b) universities (c) colleges of education (d) primary schools.
  3. Home Economics drew knowledge from the following subjects except (a) mathematics (b) agricultural science (c) Christian religious studies (d) Physics.
  4. ——– applies the principles of foods, science, and engineering in the development, production, processing, packaging and distribution of foods. (a) Researcher (b) Teacher (c) Nutritionist (d) Food technologist.
  5. —— subject teaches people how to spend their money wisely (a) Biology (b) English language (c) French (d) Home economics.

 

THEORY

  1. State four importance of Home Economics each to the family, nation and individual,
  2. State three career opportunities in home economics.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Read Home economics and national development from Home Economics New Concept for Junior Secondary Schools Popoola O.O. 9pages 6-10)

 

 

WEEK THREE

TOPIC: MYSELF AS AN INDIVIDUAL

THE HUMAN HAIR

As an individual, you need to take good care of yourself. This involves personal hygiene and good grooming. These are necessary for good health and personal appearance .Your appearance is also very important. This is because it is your appearance that tells people about the kind of person you are.

 

Personal hygiene and good grooming requires cleanliness of every part of the body including Hair, Eyes, Ears, Teeth, Skin and Legs.

 

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All mammals have hair, a slender, threadlike outgrowth of the epidermis. Each strand of hair is composed of a scleroprotein called keratin and lacks both blood vessels and nerves. Both the color and form of human hair and the shape of the hair follicle serve as reliable determinants of racial and ethnic heredity.

 

The hair is defined as a slender, threadlike outgrowth of the epidermis. Your hair is one of your greatest assets. Healthy and well groomed hair helps to improve your personal appearance. The condition of your hair depends on factors such as food, heredity and proper care,

Each hair grows from a narrow tube in the skin called the hair follicle. Hair follicle has a tiny oil gland near its base. The gland produces oil that lubricates the hair and softens the skin around it.

 

HAIR GROWTH

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A hair grows upward from the root. Lengthening fibres of keratin-filled dead cells, grouped around the semi hollow medulla, make up the cortex. A living structure called the bulb (visible as a white lump at the end of a plucked hair) surrounds and feeds the root, which lies in a pocket of the epidermis called the follicle. Hair grows fastest when it is short.

 

FUNCTIONS OF THE HAIR

  1. It enhances our appearance
  2. It keeps the head warm in cold weather
  3. It protects the head.

 

Types of Hair

Basically we have twotypes of hair

  1. Natural Hair
  2. Artificial Hair

 

NATURAL HAIR

  1. Dry Hair: This type of hair is dry, dull and unattractive. It can result from an insufficient production of oil from the oil glands, poor food, illness or damage to the hair as a result of improper care.
  2. Oily Hair: This occurs when the oil glands are over active and produce more oil than it’s needed.
  3. Soft Hair: This type of hair is light and can easily be blown about by the wind.
  4. Tough / Coarse Hair: This hair type is thick and can easily break up a comb. It is difficult to comb and manage.
  5. Short Hair: Short hair could be invented by some people, others may prefer to wear their hair short.
  6. Long Hair: Some people have and wear long hair. This type of hair could result from hereditary, good food and proper care of the hair. Long hair can be kept tidy by plaiting and packing it.

 

ARTIFICIAL HAIR

These are available as wigs, wool, rubber, hair pieces commonly called attachment etc. This can be planted in with the natural hair

EVALUATION

  1. List the two types of hair
  2. Explain three types of natural hair.

 

CARE OF THE HAIR

  1. Washing your hair with clean water and shampoo.
  2. Rinse well and dry with a clean towel.
  3. Apply oil / hair cream to lubricate and aid growth.
  4. Plait if necessary.
  5. Regular brushing and combing
  6. Cut them short when necessary.

 

REASONS FOR OILING/GREASY THE HAIR

  1. To make it soft.
  2. To lubricate/ soothe the scalp.
  3. To make the hair shine.
  4. It helps the hair to grow.
  5. It serves as medicine to infected hair.

 

HAIR INFECTION

  1. Dandruff: This appears as scales on the scalp.

 

CAUSES OF HAIR DANDRUFF

  1. Shedding of dead cells on the surface of scalp. It is the dead cells that forms the scales which you see dropping out when such hair are combed.
  2. It could be caused by neglecting the scalps which become infected with bacteria and fungus. It results in a thick scale that causes itching.

 

TREATMENT

  1. Remove the scales as much as possible by brushing or combing the hair vigorously.
  2. Wash the hair at least 3 times in a week with anti-dandruff or antiseptic soap.

 

PREVENTION

Wash the hair regularly and use good hair oil.

 

  1. Hair Lice: These are small animals which infect the hair. They are parasites because they live on a person’s hair and suck blood from the scalp. Their bite causes itching.

 

CAUSES

  1. They strive in very dirty hair
  2. They are easily spread from one person to another through contact.

 

TREATMENT

  1. Shaving off the hair completely for hair lice. The shavings should be destroyed by burning.
  2. Where complete shaving is not possible cut the hair very low. Comb the hair vigorously with a fine comb to loosen the eggs.
  3. It is possible to go to a chemist shop and ask for anti-louse ointment. Apply according to direction.

 

  1. Ring Worm: This is caused by the growth of fungus between the inner and outer layers of the skin. It shows a central area of the skin surrounded by a ring of small round spots. The affected area is bald without hair.

 

TREATMENT

  1. Shave the hair
  2. See a doctor

 

PREVENTION

  1. Always keep the hair clean.
  2. Do not use other peoples comb, brush as this could easily transfer such hair infection.
  3. Keep all tools used for the hair properly.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. Mention four hair infections
  2. List four types of hair and explain them
  3. Define Home economics
  4. State three importance of home economics
  5. State three career opportunities in home economics

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Another name for artificial hair is called——- (a) bald hair (b) fabric
  2. (c) fiber glass (d) attachment.
  3. What kind of hair is dull, dry and unattractive? (a) soft hair (b) long hair
  4. (c) dry hairs (d) short hair.
  5. When the glands are over active and produce more oil it could result to —–type of hair (a) soft hair (b) dry hair (c) greasy hair (d) all the types of hair.
  6. Each hair grows from a narrow tube in the skin called hair——- (a) follicle (b) pit (c) root (d) organ.
  7. Each Follicle has a tiny ——- near its base (a) pit (b) oil glands (c) scalp (d) follicle.

 

THEORY

  1. List the various types of hair we have
  2. Explain any two

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Read “The hair” from Home Economics for Junior Secondary Schools, by Elizabeth U. Anyakoha, Pages 8-10

WEEK FOUR

TOPIC: THE HUMAN EYE

STRUCTURE & PARTS OF THE EYES

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The eye is an organ that allows you to see. The cornea, iris, pupil, and lens focus light rays from an object onto the retina to form an image. The retina then sends this image on to the brain.

The eye is made up of different parts. Each part performs a special function. An understanding of the different parts of the eye will help you take good care of your eye.

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comParts of the Eyes Functions

  1. The eye brow Prevents sweat from running down into the eyes.

     

  2. The eye lashes Protects the eyes from dust and dirt.

 

  1. The eye lids They can close to protect the eye from foreign objects.

 

  1. The eye balls  These are the organs of sight, It is connected to the brain by the sensory nerve called optical nerve.  

 

  1. Cornea  A protective layer. It keeps dust and dirt from passing through the pupil of the eye.

 

  1. The Iris  It is the coloured part of the eyes. It surrounds the pupil. It can increases or decreases the size of the pupil.

 

  1. The Pupil  the hole in front of the eye ball through which light rays pass into the eye.

     

  2. The lens  a glass – like part of the eye. It focuses the light rays into one spot on the retina thus forming the image.

     

  3. The Retina  A light sensitive spot where image is formed.

     

  4. Aqueous humour  both keeps the eye ball round.

     

  5. Vitreous humour  they enable the eye to maintain its shape.

     

  6. Tear gland Pours out tear over the front of the eye. The tear washes away any dust which enters the eyes.

CARE OF THE EYES

  1. Use good light when reading or doing any fine work such as sewing. Poor light strains the eyes.
  2. Do not rub the eye when you have something in it.
  3. Do not wash your eyes with disinfectant unless on doctor’s advice.
  4. Do not borrow another person’s face towel for wiping your eyes.
  5. Do not watch television in a completely dark room.
  6. Do not sit too close to the television screen.
  7. Eat food rich in vitamin A such as carrot, Green vegetables and red palm oil.
  8. If you have to wear glasses, do so according to the opticians’ instruction and keep it clean always.

 

LACK OF PROPER CARE FOR THE EYES CAN LEAD TO

  • Straining on the eyes.
  • Eye Infection
  • Poor sight( long or short sightedness or blindness)
  • Need to wear glasses
  • In serious cases, major injury to the eyes could result in blindness

 

EVALUATION

  1. State two ways by which we can care for our eyes
  2. State the functions of the following:
    1. The retina
    2. The lens
    3. The iris

 

COMMON EYE DEFECTS

  1. Long Sightedness (Hypermyopia): Results in an inability to see objects that are too near. But objects that are far can be seen.
  2. Short Sightedness (Myopia): Results in inability to see objects that are far away. But objects that are near can be seen.
  3. Night Blindness: Result in inability to see in the dark.

 

REMOVAL OF FOREIGN OBJECTS FROM THE EYES

Foreign objects such as flying insects, soap, dirt, etc. get into the eyes. Do not rub or scratch the eyes. Get a clean bowl of cold water and deep your eyes into the bowl and blink the eyes at intervals. If the object remains there, see the doctor.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. State three eye defects
  2. Mention two hair infections
  3. State two ways we can care for the hair
  4. Mention five career opportunities in Home economics
  5. List five parts of the eyes

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. _____ is a light sensitive part of the eye where images are formed (a) Retina (b) Pupil (c) Aqueous humous (d) Tear gland (e) Lens.
  2. ______ part of the eyes has the ability to increase or decrease the size of the pupil (a) Lens (b) Retina (c) Pupil (d) Iris.
  3. The ability to see distant objects alone is called______ (a) River blindness (b) Night blindness (c) Short sightedness (d) Long sightedness.
  4. Carrot, Green vegetables and Red palm oil are sources of (a) Vitamin K (b) Vitamin A (c) Vitamin E (d) Vitamin D.
  5. The eyes is a sense organ for (a) taste (b) talking (c) sight (d) feeling

 

THEORY

  1. State three common eye defects and explain one of them.
  2. State two parts of the eyes and their functions.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Read on: “The structure, functions, parts and care of the eyes” from Home Economics for Junior Secondary Schools, by Elizabeth U. Anyakoha, Page 16-18.

 

 

WEEK FIVE

TOPIC: THE NOSE AND EAR

STRUCTURE OF THE NOSE

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NOSE

Your nose helps you breathe and smell. Air enters the nose through the nostrils and passes into a large space called the nasal cavity. Nerve cells in the olfactory bulb collect information about smells in the air and pass that information to the olfactory tract and onto the brain. Air then leaves the nose and travels through the mouth and throat into the lungs.

 

The nose is the organ of smell. The very top of the nose consists of bones. The rest is made of cartilage, small mucous membrane. The lining of the membrane contains small glands which produce watery secretion. This secretion keeps the lining moist. The nose is divided into two nostrils by a partition called SEPTUM. The nerves of smell which run from the nose to the brain are called the olfactory nerves. There are tiny hairs at the entrance of the nose. They act as filters for the air that goes to the lungs.

 

FUNCTIONS OF THE NOSE

  1. It is the sense organ of smell
  2. It acts as a passage or channel through which the air we breathe passes in and out of the lungs.
  3. The air entering the lungs is filtered and warmed by the tiny hairs at the entrance of the nostrils.

 

CARE OF THE NOSE

  1. Avoid pushing objects into the nose.
  2. Avoid picking or poking the nose with finger nail or any object.
  3. Blow the nose gently and avoid the habit of sniffing.
  4. Avoid plucking the hair in the nose.
  5. When it is necessary, the nose should be cleaned with clean handkerchief or a clean piece of soft tissue paper.
  6. See a doctor for the treatment of any nose infection.

 

RESULT OF LACK OF CARE OF THE NOSE

  1. Nose bleeding.
  2. Nasal infection
  3. Breathing difficulties.

Removal of Foreign Objects from the Nose

  1. When any foreign object such as a seed, insect, etc. enters one nostril, close the unaffected one with the finger and blow the affected one. If the object fails to come out see a doctor.
  2. If both nostrils are blocked, breathe through the mouth and see a doctor immediately.
  3. Do not attempt to remove any foreign object by poking at it with an instrument.

 

STRUCTURE AND PARTS OF THE EAR

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THE EAR

The human ear is divided into three parts: the outer ear, the middle ea. The outer ear includes the visible part of the ear that is attached to the side of the head and the ear canal. The eardrum separates the outer ear from the middle ear, which is an air-filled cavity. Inside this cavity are tiny bones that vibrate when sound waves pass through them. These bones help send sound into the inner ear. The inner ear contains an organ that helps you keep your balance and another organ that passes sound waves to the brain.

 

The ear is the organ of hearing. The ear is a delicate part of the body. It is made up of different parts, the outer ear, middle ear and inner ear. The outer ear is like a funnel that picks vibrations. These are carried from the ear drum to the inner ear and are eventually interpreted by the brain as sounds. A short passage leads from the outer ear to middle ear. There are tiny hairs to the side of this entrance which trap dust, small objects or insects that might get into the ear.

 

FUNCTIONS OF THE EAR

1. The ear is a sense organ for hearing.

2. It helps us to maintain balance.

 

CARE OF THE EAR

  1. The outer ears should be washed and carefully dried daily with a clean cloth or towel.
  2. Do not interfere unnecessarily with the inner ear.
  3. It is a bad habit to poke the ears with sharp objects which may damage the middle and inner ear.
  4. Remove small excess of wax in the ear.
  5. Don’t expose the ear to excessive sound.
  6. Don’t allow your ear to be slapped by someone to avoid deafness.
  7. See the doctor for any form of ear ache.

 

EVALUATION

  1. Explain two functions of the nose.
  2. State three ways one can care for the nose.
  3. State three ways ears can be taken care of.

 

REMOVAL OF FOREIGN BODY IN THE EAR

If any object is accidentally pushed into the ears or insect gets into it, efforts should be made to expel the foreign body by putting a few drops of warm water or warm olive or groundnut oil into the ear. The object may come out but if this does not, see the doctor.

 

RESULT OF LACK OF CARE OF THE EAR

  1. The ear is very close to the brain. If the ear is infected and it is not cared for, the infection may spread to the brain and cause serious damage.
  2. Permanent deafness may occur, if the ear drum is affected.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. Explain how we can remove foreign objects from the ear
  2. Explain how we can remove foreign objects from our eyes
  3. Explain how we can remove foreign objects from nose
  4. State two uses of the nose
  5. What is the function of the retina?

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Ear is made up of ______ Parts (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 3 (d) 5.
  2. The _____ ear is like a funnel that’s picks up vibrations. (a) middle

    (b) inner (c) chair (d) outer.

  3. The nose is made up of _______ and _______ (a) Cartilage and bones

    (b) Cartilage and pelvic (c) Cartilage and limps (d) Limbs and curve

  4. _____ is responsible for producing watery secretions in the nose (a) Cartilage (b) Glands (c) Septum (d) Nerves
  5. The nerve of smell that runs from the brain to the nose is called (a) Olfactory nerves (b) Olfactory nerve (c) Olfactory nerves (d) Sensory nerves

 

THEORY

  1. State two functions of the nose
  2. State two results of lack of care of the ear.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Read the Structure, Parts and Care of the nose and ear from Home Economics New Concept for Nigerian Junior Secondary Schools, by Popoola O.O., Pages 23-25.

WEEK SIX

TOPIC: THE SKIN

STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN

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THE SKIN

The Human skin has three layers. The epidermis forms the outer, protective layer. The dermis contains hair roots, sweat and oil glands, nerves, and blood vessels. The fat layer attaches the skin to internal organs.

 

The skin is the outer protection of the body. It consists of two layers known as the epidermis and dermis.

 

The epidermis is the outer layer which includes the hairs and the pores through which the skin gets rid of waste matter in the form of sweat while the dermis is the inner layer known as [true skin] it has blood vessels, tiny glands, hair roots and fat. The sweat glands send out sweat, [perspiration] through the pores. The skin helps to keep the body temperature normal [370C] by sending out sweats during hot weather. As the sweat dries up, it cools the body. The dermis is made up of the following:

  1. Sweat glands which produce sweat.
  2. Oil glands which produce oil that keeps the skin and hair fresh and soft.
  3. Blood vessels help it to perform its functions.
  4. Fat deposits which reduce heat loss from the body.

 

FUNCTIONS OF THE SKIN

  1. It protects the body from bacterial infection (germs), poor weather and injury.
  2. It helps the body to get rid of waste products through sweating
  3. It helps to keep the body temperature normal [i.e at 98.40F or 370C] by producing sweat during hot weather.
  4. It also keeps the body warm in cold weather.
  5. When the sun shines on the skin, vitamin D is produced by the skin.

 

TYPES OF SKIN

  1. Normal Skin: It is soft, clear, smooth and without spots or blemishes.
  2. Dry Skin: It is usually thin, sensitive and wrinkles easily, especially around the mouth and eyes. This can result from poor feeding, ill health, dry weather, and lack of skin care.
  3. Oily Skin: It is greasy and occurs when the oil glad produces too much oil.
  4. Combination Skin (oily and dry skin): It has some part of the skin oily e.g. the nose and fore-head, while other parts are dry e.g. the leg.

 

EVALUATION

1. State two functions of the skin.

2. List four types of skin.

 

CARE OF THE SKIN

The sweat which comes out though the pores brings waste matter to the surface of the skin. If the sweat dries on the skin it may block the pores and give unpleasant odour. Anti-perspirants and deodorants may be used to control the excessive sweating and unpleasant odour.

When the pores are blocked, it results into skin infection. A skin that is cared for adds beauty to personal appearance. A good skin is soft, smooth and neither too oily nor too dry.

 

  1. Wash the whole body daily and more than once during hot and dusty season.
  2. Always have a bath after serious games or exercise to avoid body odour.
  3. Use good toilet soap, soft sponge and clean water.
  4. Do not use bleaching cream.
  5. Keep your towel, underwear and other clothes clean.
  6. Eat balanced diet.
  7. Treat skin diseases and infections promptly.

 

SKIN INJURIES AND TREATMENT

  1. Cuts: There are different types of cuts such as small, wide and deep cut. Deep cuts are caused by dirty sharp objects as nails, broken bottles, cans, wires, knives, scissors etc.

 

TREATMENT OF CUTS

Wash in water to which a few drop of mild antiseptic have been added. Apply a plaster, lint or bandage.

 

  1. Burns and scalds: These are skin injuries caused by dry heat for example, the heat of a flame or hot iron, pot, etc. Scalds are caused by moist heat like steam or boiling liquids on the skin.

 

TREATMENT OF BURNS AND SCALDS

  1. Soak a clean piece of cloth in palm oil, groundnut oil or shear butter and bandage the burns with it.
  2. Apply Vaseline and a bandage
  3. If blisters occur do not burst or open them.
  4. Severe burns and scalds should be treated immediately by a doctor.

 

  1. Bruises: These result when the body is given a blow with sufficient force. There is bleeding under the skin without breaking it. Swelling and deceleration of the injured area occur.

 

TREATMENT OF BRUISES

  1. Soak a clean cloth or handkerchief in a very cold water and bandage the bruise with it. Keep the bandage very wet with cold water or
  2. Wrap some ice blocks in a clean cloth and apply this to the bruise.

 

  1. Stings: These are bites from insects such as wasp, bee and scorpion.

 

 

TREATMENT OF STINGS

  1. Clean the area with cold water
  2. Apply a soothing lotion such as calamine lotion.
  3. Remove the stings from the body by:
  • Gentle squeezing at opposite sides of the puncture or alternatively, place the ring-like end of a small key over the spot.
  • Press the key hard to remove the sting.
  1. Clean the area with suitable antiseptic solution e.g. T.C.P or Dettol.
  2. Apply a bandage
  3. Very painful stings such as that of scorpion should be treated by a doctor immediately.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. Mention two layers of the skin.
  2. What are the functions of the skin?
  3. List skin injuries.
  4. Mention three hair infections.
  5. State the three major parts of the ear.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. One of the following contains sweat glands and blood vessels.

    (a) Epidermis (b) Dermis (c) Peridermis (d) Sweat pores

  2. Sweat is produced in the skin by (a) Dermis (b) Sweat pores (c) Sweat glands (d) Blood vessels
  3. When the sun shines on the skin one of the following is produced. (a) Vitamin B (b) Vitamin C (c) Vitamin A (d) Vitamin D
  4. Which of the following is not a skin injury? (a) Cuts (b) bruise (c) cancer (d) skin
  5. Whenever the skin is opened, torn or punctured by sharp objects, the result is (a) bruise (b) burn (c) cuts (d) bite

 

THEORY

  1. State three functions of the skin
  2. Mention two skin injuries

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Read “Structure, Functions, Types and Care of the skin” from Home Economics for Junior Secondary Schools, by Elizabeth U. Anyakoha, Pages 25-28.

WEEK SEVEN

TOPIC: THE TEETH

STRUCTURE AND PARTS OF THE TEETH

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comTHE TEETH

Adults have four types of teeth. Incisors have a straight, sharp edge for cutting and biting. Canines tear food with their pointy shape. Bicuspids and molars have a flat surface to grind food.

 

The first sets of teeth of a person are called milk or temporary teeth and they are usually twenty. The temporary teeth are replaced by permanent teeth. The permanent teeth are divided into three main parts namely:

  1. The Incisors: These are front teeth in the mouth which have a cutting edge. They are used for cutting off lumps of food and are eight in number.
  2. The Canine: These teeth are at both sides of the mouth. They are four sharp pointed teeth and are used for tearing food. They are sometimes called dog teeth.
  3. The Premolar: they are next to the canine. They are for tearing and grinding food. They have flat surface and are usually eight in number
  4. The Molar: These are large back teeth, with flattened surfaces next to premolar. They are twelve in number used for crushing and chewing of food.

 

EVALUATION

  1. State two functions of the teeth
  2. What is the first set of teeth an individual grows called?

 

STRUCTURE OF THE
TOOTH

  1. The Crown: This is the part that shows when you open your mouth or smile.
  2. The Root: this part of the tooth inside the gum
  3. The Neck which is the area around the surface of the gum that separates the crown from the root.
  4. The Dentine: It is the tough centre of the tooth which surrounds and protects the pulp cavity.
  5. The Pulp cavity: this contains blood vessel and nerves.
  6. The Enamel: this is a very hard substance which covers the crown of the tooth.

 

CARE OF THE TEETH

  1. Clean your teeth every morning and at bed time with either a clean chewing stick or tooth brush with paste.
  2. Rinse your mouth properly after each meal especially after eating sweet foods.
  3. Do not pick your teeth with sharp instruments such as pins, needles etc.
  4. Avoid using your teeth as nut-crackers or opener for soft drinks and beer bottles.
  5. Eat balanced diets for strong healthy teeth, e.g. milk, fruit, fish, meat and other sources of calcium.
  6. Exercise the teeth by chew nuts and soft bones.

 

CAUSES OF TOOTH INFECTION

  1. Often small pieces of food are left in the mouth after meals. When these bits of food are not removed by cleaning the mouth, bacteria produce acids. The acid first destroys the enamel and then the dentine. Pain is felt, when the nerves in the pulp cavity are attacked. This causes toothache.
  2. Sugars, sweets and starchy foods bring about tooth decay if their particles are left between the teeth.
  3. Putting dirty objects or fingers in the mouth can introduce germs which cause tooth decay.
  4. Lack of care for the teeth, failure to clean the teeth regularly can cause tooth infection.
  5. Habit of picking teeth with sharp pointed articles like pins and hard tooth-pick should not be encouraged as these can puncture the gum and make way for germs to enter.

 

PREVENTION OF TOOTH DECAY

  1. Clean the teeth regularly and properly.
  2. Keep your tooth brush or chewing stick clean.
  3. Do not use another person’s tooth brush or chewing stick.
  4. Visit the dentist whenever you have a tooth problem.
  5. Eat more hard crunchy or crisp food to give the teeth plenty of exercise.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. How can you prevent tooth decay?
  2. Explain the causes of tooth decay.
  3. Explain the term tooth decay
  4. Mention the parts of the teeth
  5. Explain mouth odour

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The first set of teeth which human beings grow are called (a) Childhood (b) Milk teeth (c) Permanents teeth (d) Junior teeth.
  2. Which of the following is important for healthy teeth? (a) Floride (b) Chloride (c) Protein (d) Nutrient.
  3. ______ are replaced by permanent teeth (a) Permanent (b) Dentine (c) Temporary (d) Molars.
  4. ______ are four sharp pointed teeth (a) Incisors (b) Molars (c) Premolars (d) Canine
  5. _____ is the part that shows when you open your mouth or smile (a) Root (b) Crown (c) Neck (d) Milk teeth.

 

THEORY

  1. Mention two types of teeth
  2. List three parts of the teeth and explain them.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Read “The Structure, Functions, Parts and Care of the Teeth” from Home Economics for Junior Secondary Schools, by Elizabeth U. Anyakoha, Pages 21-24.

 

 

WEEK EIGHT

TOPIC: Hands, Fingernails and Feet

The appearance of a person’s hands tells much about him/her. Beautiful, soft clean hands with neat fingernails give the impression that the person is very careful about her appearance and hygiene.

 

FUNCTIONS OF THE HANDS AND FEET

  1. The hands and fingers are used for touching things.
  2. They are used for doing different types of work.
  3. The legs give us support.
  4. The legs are used for walking about.
  5. The legs Salso perform some other activities such as playing games, dancing, jumping, etc.

 

IMPORTANCE OF CLEAN HANDS AND FEET

  1. Dirty hands can harbour germs especially under the fingernails. And it is easy for the germs to pass from the hands to the month.
  2. Clean hands and feet are important for personal appearance.
  3. Dirty hands and feet can be repulsive to other people. People will not want to play work or eat with a person that has dirty hands and feet.

 

CARE OF THE HANDS AND THE FEET

  1. Hands, if not kept clean, can be the source of ill-health. It is very important to wash them after using the toilet and before eating.
  2. Always trim the finger and toe nails.
  3. Apply little hand lotion or cream to the hand to make it soft.
  4. Do not use teeth to trim the finger nail.
  5. Remove any dry skin around the sole of the feet by rubbing with a pumice stone.
  6. Avoid the habit of walking bear footed.
  7. Keep your stockings and shoes clean.
  8. Wear good fitted and comfortable shoes.

 

EVALUATION

  1. State three importance of clean hands and feet.
  2. State one way two can take care of the hand.

 

The process by which the hands are softened, fingernails are trimmed, cleaned and sometimes, varnished is called a manicure while Pedicure is the care for the feet and toe nails.

 

DISEASE OF THE FOOT

  1. Athlete’s Foot: It involves the toes and the spaces between the toes. When the feet are not well exposed to air and are constantly wet bacteria and fungi grow in the space in between the toe and the sole of the fee. Application of dusting powder in the shoes and on the feet also discourages the infection.
  2. Calluses: Theses appears as thickened areas of the skin around the heel. They can be removed by scrubbing with pumice stone
  3. Corns: These are commonly caused by ill fitted shoes. They form as small moulds of dead hard and waxy skin. They can be prevented by wearing well-fitted shoes.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. What is manicure?
  2. How can the feet be cared for?
  3. State three ways we can care for our hands
  4. State two skin care products
  5. Mention two skin infections

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. One of the following is not a part of the hand. (a) fingers (b) nails (c) palm (d) heel
  2. When the feet is constantly wet, bacteria and fungi can grow in between the toes causing (a) calluses (b) athlete’s foot (c) watery foot (d) corn
  3. The process of caring for the hand and finger nails is called

    (a) pedicure (b) manicure (c) hand care (d) finger cure.

  4. ____ if not kept clean can be the source of ill-health.

    (a) hands (b) money (c) nails (d) palm.

  5. ____ is one of the tools for trimming the nails.

    (a) knives (b) broom (c) scissors (d) cutlass.

 

THEORY

  1. What is manicure?
  2. State four importance of clean hands and feet.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Read “The hands and Feet” from Home Economics for Junior Secondary Schools, by Elizabeth U. Anyakoha, Pages 30-34.

 

 

WEEK NINE

TOPIC: GOOD POSTURE

Posture is the way the body parts are helped up or carried when you walk, stand, sit or work. Posture means keeping the natural balance of the body aligned. Good posture in standing, walking or sitting is important at every stage of life especially while the bones are growing. When the body is supported by well-shaped bones and firm muscles, good posture can be attained.

To maintain a good posture, you have to eat proper and regular meals, have sufficient sleep and take plenty of exercise in an airy place.

 

IMPORTANCE OF A GOOD POSTURE OR CARRIAGE

  1. Good posture enhances appearance.
  2. It helps different parts of the body to be supported by the right bones and muscles.
  3. It gives the body a comfortable and relaxed feeling.
  4. It makes clothes to fit you.
  5. It promotes good health. Some organs of the body may be thrown off their natural positions because of your posture. This can result in backaches, tiredness, etc.
  6. Good posture gives dignity, poise, self-confidence and respect.
  7. It can also affect a person’s movement and activities.

 

 

EVALUATION

  1. Explain the term posture
  2. State two importance of good posture

 

CHARACTERISTIC OF GOOD POSTURE

GOOD SITTING POSTURE

  1. Sit with your laps on the chair
  2. Do not lean forward
  3. Sit straight with your legs relaxed.
  4. Keep your head erect and chests up.

 

GOOD WALKING POSTURE

  1. 1 Avoid dragging your feet.
  2. Do not twist or bend the body.
  3. Hold your head up.
  4. Swing the arms naturally.

 

GOOD STANDING POSTURE

  1. Carry your weight on both feet and stand firm.
  2. Push your head up and chest out.
  3. Tuck in buttock  and abdomen.

 

GOOD WORKING POSTURE

  1. Use table and chair of appropriate height and sit properly.
  2. Do not hang the feet to avoid cramps.
  3. Do not bend too low over the book while reading.

 

HOW TO MAINTAIN GOOD POSTURE

  1. Eat regular and proper meals.
  2. Have enough sleep and rest.
  3. Wear a comfortable dress\clothes.
  4. Use correct size and type of furniture for each activity.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. Define good posture.
  2. Explain the importance of good posture
  3. What is Home economics?
  4. Explain the term good groom
  5. Explain two ways by which we can maintain good walking posture  

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The act of carrying oneself in the right position is called (a) Good posture (b) position (c) exercise (d) default posture
  2. Good posture can be maintained by (a) lifting up the head (b) wearing of comfortable dress (c) relax on your book while reading (d) all of the above.
  3. Use table and chair of appropriate height and sit properly, do not hang the feet to avoid cramps and do not bend too low over the book while reading is a ——– posture

    (a) working (b) walking (c) sitting (d) standing.

  4. Good posture enhances appearance and helps different parts of the body to be supported by the right bones are the —— of posture

    (a) importance (b) behaviours (c) likes and dislikes (d) all of the above.

  5. Bad posture can lead to

    (a) ill fitted clothes (c) good looks (c) relaxed feeling (d) improved height.

 

THEORY

  1. Explain posture.
  2. Mention two characteristics of the following posture (i) walking (ii) working (iii) sitting.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Read on: “Good Posture” from Home Economics New Concept for Junior Secondary Schools by Popoola O.O. (pages 42-45).




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EcoleBooks | 1ST TERM JSS1 HOME ECONOMICS Scheme of Work and Note

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1 Comment

  • EcoleBooks | 1ST TERM JSS1 HOME ECONOMICS Scheme of Work and Note

    Akire Ifeoma, November 13, 2023 @ 4:51 pm Reply

    Good evening please I need home economics second term scheme of work for jss 1

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