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FIRST TERM E-LEARNING NOTE

 

SUBJECT: BASIC TECHNOLOGY   CLASS: JSS1

 

SCHEME OF WORK

 

WEEK  TOPIC

  1. CONCEPT OF TECHNOLOGY & CAREER PROSPECTS IN TECHNOLOGY
  2. WORKSHOP SAFETY RULES AND RESOLUTIONS
  3. WORKSHOP SAFETY (II)- DEFINITION OF ACCIDENTS
  4. SAFETY GUIDELINES- ROAD SIGNS
  5. MATERIALS AND PROCESSING – IDENTIFICATION OF WOOD
  6. IDENTIFICATION OF METALS
  7. IDENTIFICATION OF METALS(II)
  8. IDENTIFICATION OF CERAMICS & GLASSES
  9. IDENTIFICATION OF RUBBER
  10. IDENTIFICATION OF PLASTIC

 

REFERENCE MATERIALS

  • NERDC, Basic Technology for JSS, Book 1
  • EVANS, Basic Technology for JSS, Book 1

 

 

WEEK ONE

TOPIC: CONCEPT OF TECHNOLOGY

ecolebooks.com

CONTENT

  • Definition of technology
  • Products of technology
  • Economic activities in developed and underdeveloped technology
  • Importance of technology
  • Career prospects in technology  

MEANING OF TECHNOLOGY

The term is derived from the Greek words tekhnē, which refers to an art or craft, and logia, meaning an area of study. Thus, technology means literally, the study or science of crafting. Technology can be defined as the processes (methods) and products (materials) that make life easy and stress free. It is also the application of acquired systematic and scientific knowledge in the development of tools and machines by people to enable them to provide various needs.

 

Technology is the general term for the processes by which human beings fashion tools and machines to increase their control and understanding of the material environment.

 

Technology is the study, development, and application of devices, machines, and techniques for manufacturing and production processes.

Technology is also a method or methodology that uses technical knowledge or tools.

 

PRODUCTS OF TECHNOLOGY

The use of hoes and cutlass has been replaced by the use of tools and machines powered by steam, water, wind, electricity and sun.

 

Product of technology refers to the materials, machines and equipment that are used to make life easier. They are the finished products of engineering works; the tools used to achieve specific objectives. Examples of products of technology are pressing iron, tractor, G.S.M / cell phone, air conditioner, grinding machine, gas cooker, washing machine, electric bulb e.t.c

 

EVALUATION

  1. In your own words, explain the meaning of technology.
  2. Mention fifty products of technology.

 

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN DEVELOPED AND UNDER DEVELOPED TECHNOLOGY

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

UNDERDEVELOPED TECHNOLOGY 

MODERN TECHNOLOGY 

FARMING 

Hoes, Cutlasses, Knives

Tractor, bulldozer, plough, big machines

FISHING 

Nets ,hooks and traps

Sophisticated and fast moving fishing vessels 

TRANSPORTATION 

Trekking, horses and Camels.

Cars , railway, aircraft and ocean lines

COMMUNICATION 

Oral message and letter writing 

Telephone ,radio message and television, telex 

FOOD PRESERVATION 

Drying, salting e.t.c

Refrigeration, canning e.t.c

AGRICULTURAL 

Manure and animal faeces

Fertilizer 

 

IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY

  1. It encourages creativity in students.
  2. It provides students with a solid foundation for future training in pre-vocational subjects.
  3. It prepares students with basic technological literacy.
  4. It enhances technological growth from the grass roots.
  5. It makes students self-reliant.

 

BASIC UNIT OF TECHNOLOGY

  1. Basic Electricity & Electronic
  2. Auto-Mechanical & Mechanical Engineering
  3. Wood Work
  4. Metal Work
  5. Technical Drawing
  6. Building Construction

 

CAREER PROSPECTS IN TECHNOLOGY

There are many occupations in the field of technology: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics engineering, computer engineering, telecommunication engineering, civil engineering, building engineering, chemical engineering, aeronautical engineering, architecture, e.tc

EVALUATION

  1. State the differences in economic activities in developed and underdeveloped technology.
  2. State five importance of technology.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Read on Technology from Introductory Technology (JSS1) by Evans. Pages 3-7

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. ____ the processes (methods) and products (materials) that make life easy and stress free (a) Machine (b) Tool (c) Equipment (d)Technology
  2. Technology is derived from the Greek words tekhnē, which refers to a/an___ (a) art or craft (b) test (c) training (d) trash.
  3. The following are products of technology except (a) stone (b) microwave (c) aircraft (d) computer
  4. The following are modern technology except (a)cars (b)mobile phone (c)tractor (d) hoes
  5. The following are the importance of technology except …………..
    1. It encourages creativity in students.
    2. It provides students with a solid foundation for future training in pre-vocational subjects.
    3. It prepares students with basic technological literacy.
    4. It encourages waste of resources.

 

THEORY

  1. Define technology.
  2. State 10 products of technology.
  3. State the differences in economic activities in developed and underdeveloped technology.

 

 

WEEK TWO

TOPIC: WORKSHOP SAFETY RULES AND RESOLUTIONS

CONTENT

  • Workshop layout
  • Workshop safety rules and regulations(bench workers)
  • Workshop safety rules & regulations(machines)
  • Workshop safety devices

 

WORKSHOP LAYOUT

A WORKSHOP is a place where activities such as fabrication, designing, construction and drawing take place. It has an office, a toilet, a machine section and a store.

There should be a first aid box, work-benches and machines in it.

SAMPLE WORKSHOP LAYOUTImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

 

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

WORKSHOP SAFETY RULES AND REGULATION (BENCH WORKERS)

Safety means protection from, or not being exposed to the risk of harm or injury.

  1. Carry out all your activities with care and caution.
  2. All accidents whether minor or fatal must be reported.
  3. You must always wear goggles and nose mask during welding, drilling and metal or wood cutting.
  4. Return all tools and accessories to their proper storage areas after use.

 

WORKSHOP SAFETY RULES AND REGULATION (MACHINES)

  1. Safety goggles should be worn when performing machining operations to protect the eyes from flying particles.
  2. Loose-clothing should be worn in order to prevent being caught by revolving parts of machines.
  3. Before operating any machines, time should be taken to make sure that the machines are completely in order.
  4. No attempt should be made to remove chips from the machine with hands.
  5. No attempt should be made to stop machines with hands even when the power has been switched off.
  6. Avoid touching any moving parts of the machine and do not lean on it.
  7. Workshop/machines must be cleaned each day after work.

*Students should comport themselves properly while in the workshop.

 

EVALUATION

  1. Draw a simple basic workshop layout.
  2. State five safety rules and regulation for (a) bench workers (b) machines.

     

    WORKSHOP SAFETY DEVICES

To maintain safety in the workshop, practical safety devices should be provided and used to protect delicate parts of the body. These include:

  1. Hand gloves: To protect the palms and fingers
  2. The shield or safety goggles: To protect the eyes.
  3. Boots / Hard sole shoes: To protect the legs, the feet and the toes.
  4. The Helmet: To protect the head.
  5. Overall: To protect the chest and body generally.
  6. Nose mask: To protect the nose from inhaling dust.
  7. Fire extinguisher and sand buckets: These are to be used to stop fire from destroying lives and property.

     

    EVALUATION

  8. Mention five (5) workshop safety devices.
  9. State their uses.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

Read on workshop safety rules and regulations from Introductory Technology (JSS1) by NERDC. Pages 6-12

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. _______ is a place where activities such as fabrication, designing, construction and drawing take place. (a) Factory (b) Hospital (c) Hostel (d) Workshop.
  2. ______ means protection from, or not being exposed to, the risk of harm or injury (a) Methodology (b) Skill (c) Safety (d) Technology
  3. _______is a negative experience that happens to somebody when he does not expect it (a) An accident (b) Disease (c) Fire outbreak (d) Electrical sparking.
  4. The following are causes of accidents except (a) using appropriate safety devices (b) Lack of concentration (c) horseplay (d) Lack of carefulness in handling machines
  5. _____ are to be used to stop fire from destroying lives (a) Extinguishers and bucket of sand (b) Helmets (c) Boots (d) Goggles

     

    THEORY

  6. Draw a typical Basic Technology workshop layout.
  7. State five (5) workshop safety precautions.
  8. Mention five (5) workshop safety devices.

     

     

    WEEK THREE

    TOPIC: WORKSHOP SAFETY (II)- DEFINITION OF ACCIDENTS

    CONTENT

  • Definition of accident
  • Causes of accidents
  • Accident prevention
  • Fire

     

    DEFINITION OF ACCIDENT

An accident is an unforeseen turn of events without an apparent cause i.e. a negative experience that happens to somebody when he does not expect it. Accidents can be caused by people and equipment.

 

CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS

Causes of accidents in the workshop can be grouped under two major headings:

  1. Unsafe actions (ii) unsafe conditions

     

    Unsafe Actions

  • Lack of concentration
  • horseplay
  • Lack of carefulness in handling the machines
  • Fatigue / tiredness
  • Failure to use safety devices

     

    Unsafe Conditions

  • Bad/faulty machine
  • Slippery or wet floors
  • Absence of safety devices
  • Non-maintenance of tools
  • Working in the workshop when one is tired or sick.

     

    EVALUATION

  1. What is an accident?
  2. State five (5) causes of accidents.

 

ACCIDENT PREVENTION

Accidents in the workshop can be prevented by observing the following rules:

  • Keep workshop clean and tidy
  • No horse play
  • Dress safely for work
  • Work safely with hand tools
  • Work safely with machines
  • Work safely electrical tools, machines and appliances
  • Work safely with hot materials
  • Always be very careful.

     

    TYPES OF FIRE

    There are two types of fire which can occur in a workshop. These are

  1. Electrical fire
  2. Chemical fire

 

ELECTRICAL FIRE

An electrical fire may result due to the following:

  • Sparks due to short circuit or partial contact
  • Poor wiring
  • Wrong electrical connections
  • Overloading
  • Not switching off electrical appliance after use.

    Electrical fire is fought with fire extinguisher, water and dry sand.

     

    CHEMICAL FIRE

A chemical fire is caused by chemical substances used or stored in the workshop. Examples of chemical substances are gas, oil and grease.

 

Chemical fire is fought with foam, dry sand or gas from a fire extinguisher. Never use water to put out fire caused by chemicals.

 

EVALUATION

  1. How can we prevent accidents in a workshop?
  2. List two types of fire that can occur in the workshop.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Read on Drawing instruments and materials from Introductory Technology (JSS1) by Evans. Pages 8-12

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1.  _______ is a place where activities such as fabrication, designing, construction and drawing take place. (a) Factory (b) Hospital (c) Hostel (d) Workshop.

2.  ______ means protection from, or not being exposed to the risk of harm or injury (a) Methodology (b) Skill (c) Safety (d) Technology

3.  _______is a negative experience that happens to somebody when he does not expect it (a) An accident (b) Disease (c) Fire outbreak (d) Electrical sparking.

4.  The following are causes of accidents except (a) using appropriate safety devices (b) Lack of concentration (c) horseplay (d) Lack of carefulness in handling machines

5.  _____ are to be used to stop fire from destroying lives (a) Extinguishers and bucket of sand (b) Helmets (c) Boots (d) Goggles

 

THEORY

1.  Draw a typical basic technology workshop layout.

2.  State five (5) workshop safety precautions.

3.  Mention five (5) workshop safety devices.

WEEK FOUR

TOPIC: SAFETY GUIDELINES- ROAD SIGNS

CONTENT

  • Definition of road signs
  • Types of road signs in nigeria

     

    DEFINITION OF ROAD SIGNS

    A road or traffic sign is a sign giving information or instructions to road users.

Traffic signs tell you about traffic regulations, special hazards and other road conditions, construction areas speed limits, etc. You should not only be familiar with each of the signs, you should recognize the special shapes and colors.

 

TYPES OF ROAD SIGNS IN NIGERIA

There are three kinds of road signs in Nigeria.

 

REGULATORY: They are mostly circular in shape and are of two types. Those with red and yellow circles are prohibitive signs. Those with blue circles but no red border are mandatory signs. They give positive instructions and are regulatory signs.

 

INFORMATIVE: They are usually rectangular in shape and provide guidance information. The stop sign is a prohibitive sign. It tells you to come to a complete stop before making another move. Proceed when it is safe to do so.

 

WARNING: Warning Signs are usually triangular in shape, with red perimeter. The only one warning sign with inverted triangle means yield or give way.

 

EXAMPLES OF ROAD SIGNS IN NIGERIA

  1. REGULATORY SIGNS (PROHIBITORY):

    Image From EcoleBooks.com

     

    Image From EcoleBooks.com

     

     

    II.WARNINGSIGNS:Image From EcoleBooks.com

     

    III.REGULATORY SIGNS (MANDATORY) DIRECTION TO BE FOLLOWED:

     

    Image From EcoleBooks.com

    WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  2. What are road signs?
  3. State the types of road signs in Nigeria
  4. Draw ten road signs and state their meaning.

     

     

    WEEK FIVE

    TOPIC: MATERIALS AND PROCESSING-IDENTIFICATION OF WOOD

    CONTENT

  5. Identification of Wood
  6. The Structure of Wood (internal)
  7. Major Parts of a Tree (external)
  8. Types of Wood
  9. Uses of Wood

    IDENTIFICATION OF WOOD

The materials used in technology include woods, metals, ceramics, rubbers and plastics. These materials come in different forms and each form performs a unique function.
Wood is a hard fibrous substance that chiefly composes trees and bushes and is found beneath their bark.

Wood is one of the materials used in furniture making and in building construction. Different types of wood are identified by:

  • their color,
  • classification into soft and hard woods
  • their properties e.g. hardwood has broad leaves while soft wood has needle – like leaves.

     

    THE INTERANAL STRUCTURE OF A WOOD

    Image From EcoleBooks.com

    The internal structure of wood is made up of the following:

  1. Pith
  2. Xylem
  3. Phloem
  4. Cambium
  5. Cork cambium
  6. Bark

     

    EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  7. Mention the materials used in technology.
  8. Draw the structure of wood (internal).

    There are trees all around us. Some are big and some are small.

     

    MAJOR PARTS OF A TREE (EXTERNAL)

    The major parts of a tree are:

  9. roots
  10. trunks (branches)
  11. leaves
  12. flowers and

When a tree is allowed to remain for a long time, its trunk (stem) becomes bigger and bigger and the tree grow taller. The tree trunks are cut into wood or timber.

 

CLASSES OF WOOD

We have two classes of wood namely:

  1. HARD WOOD
  2. SOFT WOOD

     

    PROPERTIES OF HARD WOOD

  3. It is dark in colour.
  4. They are gotten from DECIDUOUS TREES.
  5. It has a complex cellular structure
  6. It is heavy.
  7. It has annual rings which are not visible.
  8. Hardwood trees have broad leaves.
  9. Examples include Iroko ,Afara , Mahogany ,Opepe, Omo e.t.c.

    Hard wood is used for furniture making and building construction.

     

    PROPERTIES OF SOFT WOOD

  10. It has lighter colour than hardwood.
  11. It is not heavy.
  12. It is easy to work on.
  13. It is gotten from CONIFEROUS TREE.
  14. Softwood trees have narrow and needle like leaves.
  15. Softwood trees are usually evergreen because they do not shed their leaves in dry season.
  16. Examples include spruce, fine, cedar, cypress e.t.c
  17. These are trees that bear naked seeds called (cones)
  18. These trees grow better in a temperate region (cold region of the world)

     

    USES OF WOOD

    Wood is used today in the following industries and processes:

  19. HOUSING: Wood is used for home furniture as doors, window and roofing.
  20. INDUSTRIAL BUILDING: Many industries are constructed using wood.
  21. JOINERY: Wood is used for making staircase in our buildings today.
  22. PACKAGING: Packaging technologist cannot do without wood for making crates, pallet, and packaging electronics equipment.
  23. FURNITURE; Chairs, bed, wardrobes, table book-cases etc.
  24. TRANSPORT: Railway, train-wagons, lorry-body.
  25. BRIDGES AND POLES: Most farm bridges and bridges across the roads in villages are made with wood. Some electric poles and railway sleepers are made of wood.
  26. PULP AND PAPER: Exercise book, textbooks, magazines e.t.c are made from pulp and paper derived from wood.
  27. MEDICINE: People who have their arms and legs amputated (cut off) such are usually replaced by artificial limbs made from wood.
  28. CLOTHING: Most heels and some soles shoes are made from wood e.g. the rayon stocking.
  29. TOOL MAKING: Handles for hammer, pick axes, felling axes, screw driver and many other tools are made from wood.

     

    EVALUATION

  30. Differentiate between hard and soft wood.
  31. Mention five (5) uses of wood.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

    Read on Identification of Metals from Introductory Technology (JSS1) by Evans. Pages 27-31.

     

    WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  32. ____ is a hard fibrous substance that chiefly composes trees and bushes and is found beneath their bark (a) Tree (b) Plastics (C) Metal (d) Wood
  33. The materials used in technology include the following except (a) wood (b) metals

    (c) ceramics (d) cassava

  34. The major parts of a tree are as follow except (a) roots (b) trunks (branches) and leaves (c) flowers and seeds (d) furniture
  35. ____ are trees that shed their leaves in the dry season to prevent water loss. e.g. Iroko, Afara, Mahogany, Opepe, Omo (a) Hard wood trees (b) Soft wood trees (c) Di-cotyledonous trees (d) Coniferous trees
  36. Examples of soft wood trees include the following except (a) spruce and vine (b) cedar

    (c) cypress (d) Afara

     

    THEORY

  37. Explain why wood is referred to as a material for technology.
  38. Draw the major parts of a tree (external).
  39. State and give examples of the types of wood.
  40. Draw the structure of wood (internal).

     

     

    WEEK SIX AND SEVEN

    TOPIC: IDENTIFICATION OF METALS

    CONTENT

  • Definition and Properties of Metal
  • Classes of Metal
  • Processing of Metal
  • Uses of Metal

    DEFINITION OF METAL

METAL is a type of solid mineral substance that is usually hard and shiny. It conducts heat and electricity can travel through it.

 

Metals have characteristics which are different from those of the non-metals such as wood, plastics ceramics, rubber etc

 

PROPERTIES OF METAL

Metals can be identified by the following physical properties:

  1. Conductivity: Some metals have the ability to conduct heat and electricity.
  2. Fusibility: Some metals have the ability to be melted and cast into shapes.
  3. Magnetic: Some metals have the ability to attract iron.
  4. Ductility: Some metals have the ability to be drawn or stretched out into wires without breaking.
  5. Brittleness: Some metals have the ability to break or crack , when hit on the ground
  6. Malleability: Some metals have the ability to be hammered or beaten into shape without cracking.
  7. Toughness: Some metals have the ability to withstand (resist) bending, breaking, cracking or stretching.
  8. Density: Some metals have weight and volume.
  9. Colour (lustre): Some metals have the ability of having a shining appearance when polished.

     

    CLASSES OF METAL

    The metals used in engineering can be classified into categories

  10. Ferrous metals and their alloys
  11. Non-ferrous metals and their alloys

     

    FERROUS METALS AND THEIR ALLOYS

This group of metals contains iron. The metals are, therefore, magnetic. Examples include wrought iron, cast iron and various grades of steel.

 

NON-FERROUS METALS AND THEIR ALLOYS

This group of metals have no iron . These metals are therefore not magnetic. Examples are aluminum, copper, brass etc.

 

EVALUATION

  1. State five properties of metal.
  2. Differentiate between ferrous and non-ferrous metal.

 

PROCESSING METALS

Most metals do not occur in a pure state. They are usually combined with other metals and earthly impurities to form what is called mineral ore. The ore is then mined and processed to extract the metal of interest. The extraction process differs from metal to metal.

  1. Casting:

Casting is the process of melting and pouring molten metal into the mould to take the shape of the mould when it cools down or solidifies.

  1. Smelting:

    Smelting is the process of extracting metals from iron-ore dug from the ground .

  2. Annealing:

    Annealing is the process by which metals can be softened.

     

     

    USES OF METAL

    Alloy metal 

    composition 

    Properties  

    Brass  

    65%copper and 35%zinc  

    Soft material 

    Gilding metal 

    80% copper and 20 % zinc

    Polishes well and no corrosion  

    Bell metal  

    78% copper and 22% zinc 

    Louder in sound than other metals 

     

    Ferrous metals  

    Uses 

    Cast iron 

    Cast iron in the manufacturing of machine parts , pipes, radiators, stoves, engine blocks

    Carbon steel 

    Carbon steels are used in the manufacturing of the automobile bodies gears, hacksaws ,hammers ,drill, knives

    Alloy steels 

    Alloy steels are used in the manufacturing of cables, steels, rail, wires , springs , shoves, ball-bearing, chisels etc.

    Wrought Iron 

    The wrought iron is used in the manufacturing of nails ,horse shoes, pipe ,wires, roofing sheets

     

    Non-ferrous metal  

    Uses 

    Aluminium  

    Aluminium is used for manufacturing aircraft, cooking pots for its lightness. 

    Copper  

    Copper is used for making telephone wires, water heater, pipes ,electric cables.

    Zinc  

    Zinc is used for the coating of iron and steel as a protection against rusting .It is used for wire-fence ,water tank reservoir ,bucket.

    Brass  

    Brass is for making musical instrument screws clocks.

    Silver  

    Silver is for ornament work ,mirror . 

    Nickel  

    Nickel is used for plating iron and materials to give a shining slivering appearance . It is also used for making cooking pots and sauce pan.

    Lead  

    Lead is used for making lead pipes , storage batteries , chemicals and cover electric cables.

    Tin  

    Tin is used for making engine bearing, ball-bearing medals, coins , statues and collapsible tubes.

     

    EVALUATION

  3. Explain the following methods of processing of metal (i) annealing (ii) smelting (iii) casting.
  4. State the uses of the following metals (i) alloy metals (ii) ferrous metals (iii) non-ferrous metals.

    READING ASSIGNMENT

Read on Identification of Ceramics, Plastics and Rubber from Introductory Technology (JSS1) by Evans. Pages 32-35

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. _____ is a type of solid mineral substance that is usually hard and shiny and that heat and electricity can travel through (a) Plastic (b) Rubber (c) Metal (d) Ceramics
  2. Some metals have the ability to be hammered or beaten into shape without cracking .This quality is known as (a) malleability (b) ductility (c) toughness (d) fusibility
  3. The group of metals that contains iron is known as (a) ferrous metals (b) non-ferrous metals (c) alloys. (d) terrazzo
  4. The group of metals that has no iron is not magnetic. Examples are as follow except

    (a) aluminium (b) copper (c) steel (d) brass

  5. ______ is the process by the which metals can be softened.(a) Casting (b) Smelting (c) Annealing (d) Riveting

     

    THOERY

  6. Define and state the properties of metals.
  7. State the classes of metals with examples.
  8. Explain the following methods of processing of metals (i) annealing (ii) smelting (iii) casting.
  9. State the uses of the following metals (i) alloy metals (ii) ferrous metals (iii) non-ferrous metals

     

     

    WEEK EIGHT

    TOPIC: IDENTIFICATION OF CERAMICS & GLASSES

    CONTENT

  • Ceramic materials and properties
  • Glass materials and properties

    CERAMIC MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES

Ceramic is a hard brittle heat-resistant material made by firing a mixture of clay and chemicals at high temperature. The ceramic products are products made from clay and chemical materials.

Examples are clay pots, marbles, tiles , water-closet, water-jug, glass , water basins etc.

 

PROPERTIES OF CERAMIC MATERIALS

  1. Ceramics are resistant to corrosion.
  2. They can withstand very high temperature e.g. furnace and oven.
  3. They are electrically resistant.
  4. They are usually hard and strong.
  5. They have compressive strength.
  6. They can easily be molded when wet.
  7. They can easily break when dropped on the ground.

     

    EVALUATION

  8. What is a ceramic?
  9. List five properties of ceramics.

     

    GLASS MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES

Glass is a type of ceramic. Glass is a hard usually transparent material made from sand, lime, potash, soda and lead oxide. To produce glass, these raw materials are mixed and placed in a furnace and melted. It is then formed into the desired objects.

 

MAKING GLASS

Making of glass involves the following stages:

  1. Mixing the raw materials;
  2. Heating (firing) to produce molten glass;
  3. Cooling to form rigid glass;
  4. Heating again and allowing to cool gradually (annealing).

     

    PROPERTIES OF GLASS

  5. It is brittle,
  6. It is transparent and
  7. Resistant to corrosion.

Examples of glass products are cups, bottles, mirrors, glass tubes, electric bulbs, glass window, glass doors, eye glasses and lenses.

 

EVALUATION

  1. What are the materials for making glass?
  2. List three properties of glass.

     

    WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  3. Which of the following is not used in making glass?
  4. Sand (b) lime (c) potash (d) clay
  5. Glass is used to manufacture eye glasses and lenses because of this property. Choose from the options. (a) Brittleness (b) resistance to corrosion (c) transparent (d) resistance to heat.
  6. Which of the following is not used in making ceramics? (a) lime (c) cement (c) mud (d) clay.
  7. The following are products of ceramics, except (a) flower vase (b) tiles (c) wash basin (d) electric bulb.

     

    THEORY

  8. What are ceramics and glass?
  9. List two differences between the two.

     

     

    WEEK NINE AND TEN

    TOPIC: IDENTIFICATION OF PLASTIC AND RUBBER

    CONTENT

  • Plastic Material and Properties
  • Rubber Material and Uses
  • Methods in Processing Plastics and Rubber

    PLASTIC MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES

Plastic is a light material that is produced by chemical processes and can be formed into shapes when heated. Plastic materials are produced by melting some chemicals together and allowing them to solidify.

 

CLASSES OF PLASTIC

  1. Thermoplastics are plastic materials that become soft and pliable when heated, without a change in its intrinsic properties. Polystyrene and polyethylene are thermoplastics. They are not affected by the application of heat and can be remolded . Examples are plastic plates, buckets, cups.
  2. Thermosets are polymers. Thermosets are plastic materials which cannot be affected by the application of heat. It sets permanently when heated and cannot be remolded. Examples are plastic handles of cooking utensils and knives, telephone parts etc

    PROPERTIES OF PLASTIC

  3. They are very light.
  4. They are very cheap in price.
  5. They are insulators.
  6. They are corrosion resistant.

     

    ADVANTAGES OF PLASTICS

  7. They are lightweight.
  8. They can be moulded into different shapes and sizes.
  9. They are relatively inexpensive to produce.

     

    DISADVANTAGES OF PLASTICS

  10. Some plastic produce poisonous flames when burnt.
  11. They litter the surroundings.

     

    EVALUATION

  12. State three (3) properties of ceramic.
  13. State three (3) properties of plastic.

     

    RUBBER MATERIAL AND USES

Rubber is a non-metal product. It looks like plastics but is more elastic than plastic. It can be stretched easily .It returns to its original length when it is released after being stretched. Rubber does not allow water to pass through it. Rubber floats on water.

 

The two types of rubber are natural or synthetic rubber.

Natural rubber comes from a milky liquid called LATEX which is extracted from the rubber tree. Synthetic rubber is produced from organic material derived from petroleum.

 

USES OF RUBBER

  1. It is used to make tyres for vehicles, hand gloves, electrical insulation.
  2. It can be used to make buckets, rain coats, rain boots, catapults,
  3. It can be used as an elastic, water proof, shock absorber.

     

    METHODS OF PROCESSING PLASTICS AND RUBBER

    Plastic can be processed by

  4. Vacuum forming
  5. Extrusion
  6. Calendaring
  7. Compression moulding
  8. Injection moulding

     

    Rubber can be processed by

    1. Vacuum forming

    2. Extrusion

    3. Calendaring

    4. Compression moulding

     

    EVALUATION

  9. Define rubber materials and state 3 uses of it.
  10. State the common methods of processing plastics and rubber.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

    Read Processing of materials from Introductory Technology (JSS1) by Evans. Pages 36-38

     

    WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  11. _____ is a hard brittle heat-resistant material made by firing a mixture of clay and chemicals at high temperature (a) Plastic (b) Rubber (c) Ceramic (d) Wood
  12. The following are properties of ceramics except (a) Ceramics are resistant to corrosion (b)They can withstand very high temperature (c)They are electrical resistant .(d)ceramics are not brittle
  13. ______ is a light material that is produced by chemical processes and can be formed into shapes when heated (a) Rubber (b) Plastic (c) Metal (d) Wood
  14. _______ are plastic materials that become soft and pliable when heated, without a change in their intrinsic properties (a) Thermometers (b) Thermo engine ( c) Thermosets (d) Thermoplastics
  15. Rubber can be processed by the following methods except (a) Vacuum forming (b) Extrusion (c) Calendaring and Compression moulding (d) Injection moulding

     

    THEORY

  16. Differentiate between thermosets and thermoplastic materials.
  17. Define rubber materials and uses.



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