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There will be three papers, Papers1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 shall be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.


PAPER 1:  will consist of forty multiple-choice objective questions all of which are to be answered in 1 hour for 40 marks.


PAPER 2:  will consist of five essay questions. Candidates will be required to answer any four questions in 1½ hours for 60 marks.


 PAPER 3:  will consist of two practical tests both of which must be carried out by candidates in 2 hours for 100 marks.

For the practical test, schools will supply materials needed locally.











  1. Instructions in basic safety rules relating to personnel, tools,  equipment and environment.


  1. Types of fire extinguishers. Foam, dry powder, sand, water and wet-blanket types

1.1.1 Identification and use of various safety devices e.g. aprons, goggles, shield, etc.


1.2.1 Demonstration/use  of fire extinguishers.  


2.1 Use of basic tools e.g.  hand tools and power


2.2 Use of measuring  instruments


2.3 Use of basic equipment  e.g. jacks, hoist, air-  compressors, etc. 

2.1.1. Identification and use of basic tools.


2.2.1 Identification and use of measuring instruments.

2.3.1 Identification and use

of basic equipment. 



3.1 Layout of a conventional  motor vehicle.


3.2. Functions of the main


3.3 Drive arrangements:

Front engine rear wheel  drive, rear engine rear  wheel drive, front engine  front wheel drive, four-  wheel drive.

3.1.1 Inspection of the

layout of a motor vehicle.

3.2.1 Identification of the

main components.

3.3.1 Inspection of the drive arrangements. 


(a) Main Components



















(b) Principles of



(c) Types of engine







(d) Crank


and firing order.





(e) Valve-



4.1 Classification of engine

(petrol and diesel   engine) and their main parts.


4.2 Arrangement and  functions of the main  components: Cylinder  head  and cover; cylinder  block,

crankshaft, flywheel,  connecting rod, piston  and rings, spark plug  (petrol) fuel injection pump and injector (diesel), valve, valve springs, oil seal, cam- shaft, push rod, rocker shaft/arms.


4.3 Two stroke and four stroke cycle petrol and diesel engine.


4.4 Advantages and  disadvantages of petrol  and diesel engines.


4.5 Single and

multi-cylinder engines.







4.6 Crank arrangement and firing orders: 2, 4 and 6 cylinder in-line engines.

V-4,V-6 and 4-cylinder horizontally-opposed engines.


4.7 Functions and operation  of valve operating  mechanisms. Drives  layout, main  components, 4-cylinder

 12 – and 16 – valve engine. Valve timing including   calculation of valve  opening and  closing   periods.

4.2.1 Identification of main  components.




4.2.2 Decarbonization of cylinder head.














4.3.1 Identification of two

and four stroke engines.







4.5.1 Inspection and  classification of engines  according to cylinders.

4.5.2 Compression test.

4.5.3 Measurement of the bore and crank- journals for wear.


4.6.1 Determination of

 firing order through  valve opening.

4.6.2 Fault diagnosis.




4.7.1 Identification of main


4.7.2 Valve adjustments.

4.7.3 Fault diagnosis. 


5.1 Fuels and combustion:

elements of combustion;  air-fuel ratios; types and

properties of fuel-petrol and diesel.



5.2 Petrol: Layout and  operation of petrol supply  system-gravity and force-  feed systems:

simple carburetor,

 multi-jet carburetor.

Air filters/cleaners.

Mechanical and electrical  fuel pumps. Advantages  and disadvantages.


5.3 Petrol-injection system:

Merits and demerits.

Electronic Fuel (Petrol)  injection (EFI).





5.4 Diesel: Layout of a diesel

supply system: elementary treatment of injection pumps and injectors. Cold starting devices.

5.1.1 Checking fuel

system troubles.

5.1.2 Inspection of exhaust gases for normal air-fuel ratios and excessively worn engine.


5.2.1 Inspection layout of  petrol supply system:

dismantling,  examination and reassembling of a mechanical fuel pump.


5.2.2 Fault diagnosis.




5.2.3 Dismantling, inspection  and reassembling of a  carburetors.

5:3:1 Identify the main components




5.4.1 Inspection of various  types of injection  pumps, servicing of  injectors and bleeding.


61 Purpose and layout of  the system. Types of  silencers and manifolds.




6.1.1 Inspection of exhaust system and identification of the exhaust and inlet manifolds.

6.1.2 Checking the system for leakage.


7.1 Engine Lubrication:

Reasons for lubrication and types: boundary  layer and film lubrication.

Lubricated parts and  components.


7.2 Types of feed-splash,  forced and petroil. (Wet  and dry). Principle of operation of  gear and rotor oil pumps. Oil filters.



7.3 Lubricants: Applications in engines, transmission, steering, suspension system and doors:  Viscosity rating, SAE  numbers.

7.1.1 Identification of main components.


7..2.1 Changing of oil and oil  filters.



7.2.2. Servicing and testing of pumps



7.2.3 Fault diagnosis



7.3.1. Identification of different types of lubricants. Comparing fresh and  used oil. Use of grease  gun and oil can. 


8.1 Process of heat transfer.


8.2 Water Cooling System:

Purpose and layout of  the system: functions of main components.  Thermo-syphon and  pump assisted systems.

Elementary treatment of  pressurized cooling  system.


 Thermostats: Purpose and types. (bellows and wax pellet).


8.3 Air Cooling System:

Layout and functions of  the system: main  components.  Comparison of the air  and water cooled  systems.



8.2.1 Identification of main components, inspection of radiator and its  construction,  replacement of fan belt  and hoses.


8.2.2 Flushing.


8.2.3 Fault diagnosis.





8.3.1 Fault diagnosis.






(a) Layout







(b) Clutch














(c) Gearbox











(d) Propeller shaft and universal joint.





(e) Rear Axle



9.1 Function and layout of

the transmission system.

Types-manual and automatic (excluding twin axles and double reduction axles) merits and demerits.


9.2 Functions of a clutch.

Types and operating  principles of single plate  and multiplate.

Methods of actuation-  hydraulic and  mechanical. Simple  calculations.

9.3  Introduction to  automatic transmission.

Functions of torque  converter and fluid  flywheel.


9.4 Types, layout and operating principles of sliding-mesh, constant mesh and synchromesh gearboxes; main components and their functions. Gear selector mechanism; simple calculations of gear ratios.


9.5 Functions and types of the propeller shaft, universal joint and sliding joint.



9.6 Purpose of rear axle. Arrangement and     functions of main   components: final drive,   differential unit, half –   shaft, oil seal and hub   bearings.

9.7 Methods of supporting axle shafts. Advantages and disadvantages

9.1.1 Identification of different types of








9.2.1 Dismantling,

  identifying parts and   re-assembling a clutch unit (single plate). Adjusting clutch pedal clearance and bleeding clutch unit.

9.2.2 Fault diagnosis.







9.4.1 Identification of  components of a  gearbox.


9.4.2 Inspection of gear teeth  for wear.


9.4.3 Fault diagnosis.




9.5.1 Examination of the  propeller shaft and  universal joint bearings  for bow and wear  respectively.


9.6.1 Identification of main components.


9.6.2 Fault diagnosis.


9.7.1 Identifying main components. 



10.1 Types of wheel rims:  pressed steel, disc and  wire spoke wheels.  Hub attachments.

Wheel balancing.

Tyre sizes and  markings.

10.2 Tyres: tubed and tubeless types:

Advantages and disadvantages.

10.3 Wheel balancing, tyre  sizes, markings.

10.1.1 Checking and  adjustment of wheel  bearing clearance,  removal and changing  of road wheels.



10.2.1 Tyre fitting and checking   tyre pressure.

10.2.2 Tube and tyre patching.


10.3.1 Wheel balancing.



11.1 Layout, functions and operation of braking system, drum and disc, mechanical and hydraulic. Brake lining   materials and methods of attachment.

Importance of servo- assisted brake.

Advantages and disadvantage of disc and drum brakes.

11.2 Brake fault. 

11.1.1 Inspection of different types of brakes.   Replacement of pads and shoes, bleeding and adjustment.  “Spottesting” of brakes.

11.2.1 Fault diagnosis.








12.1 General layout and functions of the front axle and steering systems.

12.2 Steering geometry.

Ackerman linkage, castor, camber, king pin inclination, toe-in and toe-out. Types of steering gearboxes-rack and pinion, recalculating balls only.

12.3 Steering faults 

12.1.1 Identification of main components of different layout.


12.2.1 Front wheel alignment, inspection of tyre wear patterns.






12.3.1 Fault diagnosis. 



13.1 Purpose of the suspension system, layout and types, rigid beam and independent.

Suspension (semi- elliptic and coil springs); advantages and disadvantages, dampers (shock absorbers.)

13.1.1 Identification of differences between the rigid beam and independent  suspension.


13.1.2 Fault diagnosis. 



(a) Fundamentals










(b) Auto Wiring system








(c) Battery







(d) Ignition System









(e) Starting System




(f) Charging System








(g) Lighting System






(h) Auxiliary Unit 

14.1 Basic electrical terms and symbols. A.C and D.C sources, simple circuits, Ohm’s law and calculations involving series and parallel circuits. Basic components and their functions-relays, resistors, lamps, fuses and switches.

14.2 Wire gauges, colour coding – reasons for their use. Wiring system – earth and insulated returns: ways of joining cables- jointing, terminals, connectors and  soldering.

14.3 Purpose, construction  and testing of lead-acid  battery. Electrolyte  composition. Battery  care and maintenance.


14.4 Layout of the coil ignition system. Function and operation of the main components.

 Introduction to computerized ignition system.


14.5 Layout and functions of the main components. Types of starter motor.


14.6 Purpose and layout (dynamo and alternator).

Main components and their operation. Comparison of d.c and a.c generators.


14.7 Layout of the system  main components and  their functions. Fuses  and bulbs-types and  ratings.


14.8 Layout and operations of the auxiliary units. Instrument panel, horn, windscreen wiper.


14.9 Electrical faults. 

14.1.1 Setting up simple electrical circuits, use of simple electrical   measuring instruments.







14.2.1 Inspection and identification of various components. Simple soldering and joining of cables.





14.3.1 Examination and testing of lead-acid battery. Preparation of electrolyte.



14.4.1 Identification of main components; ignition  timing, setting of  contact breaker points  and spark plug gaps.





14.5.1 Inspection and  identification of main  components.


14.6.1 identification of the component parts.







14.7.1 Identification of main  components,  inspection and  replacement of bulbs  and fuses.

14.7.2 Head lamp focusing.

14.8.1 Inspection and testing of main components.




14.9.1. Fault diagnosis. 



(a) Fundamentals of  Electronics.









(b) Electronic Ignition








(c) Electronic Fuel Injection 

15.1 Explanation of the tem Auto Electronics.

Identification of electronic components: diodes, transistors, resistors, capacitors, LED, transducers, coil and motors.

Functions of components. Symbols in a circuit.

15.2 Operation of transistorized ignition system. Types of transistorized and electronic ignition system: Inductive and hall effect. Merits and demerits.

15.3 Purpose and type of systems (single-point and multi-point injections).


15.1 Identification of components.

















15.3.1 Identification of   components in systems (single-point and multi-  point). 



16.1 Purpose, layout and identification of major components (compressor, condenser, evaporator and dryer).  Principles of operation.  

16.1.1 Inspection and  identification of air-  conditioning system  and the components.






17.1 Main causes of accident, essentials of safe driving and application of highway code and safety devices.

17.1.1 Identification of faults and defective components that could cause accidents.

Identification and interpretation of road signs. 




1.  Technology for Motor Mechanics Volumes 1 – 4 by  S. C. Mudd (Edward Arnold



2.  Vehicle and Engine Technology by  Heinz Heister


3.  Motor Vehicle Technology and Practical Work  by  J. A. Dolan


4.  Fundamentals of Motor Vehicle Technology  by  Hillier and Pittuck

 (4th Edition)


5.  Automobile Engine and Vehicle Technology  by  Ian Chisholm


6.  Motor Vehicle Technology (Books I and II)  by  R. W. Bent


7.  Motor Vehicle Mechanic’s Textbook by  E. K. Sulley

(New Edition)

8.  Highway Code


9.  Motor Vehicle Technology for Mechanics by  P. P. J Read and V. C. Reid.

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