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1.  a)  State five factors that led to urbanization in pre – colonial Africa.

i)  Development of agriculture led to the concentration of people in settlements which subsequently developed into urban areas. ii)  Development of trade: Some cities in pre – colonial Africa emerged out of markets centers, iii)  The need for security encouraged people to settle in protected centers, some of which eventually developed into urban areas. iv)  Some cities grew out of religious centers which attracted population concentration,

  1. Major crossroads influenced the development of some urban

    centers in Africa.

  2. Some urban centers developed around royal/administrative centers.
  3. Mining centers viii) Harbours and ports.

    ix)  Availability of water for domestic irrigation and industrial purposes.

 b)  Discuss the problems of urbanization in Cairo.

  1. Overcrowding – Cairo is Africa’s largest city and one of the largest in the world. It is terribly overcrowded – Overcrowding made life for many in the city unpleasant for it led to widespread squatters squalor e.g. inadequate social services – because of its size and rapid growth it has been difficult for the government to provide enough social services.
  2. Housing is scarce – Some people are even forced to live in cemeteries and rooftops. In 1973, for example, one million people were living in cemeteries.
  3. Health vices/poor sanitation.
  4. Education
  5. Inadequate infrastructure – It has not been possible to develop the city’s infrastructure as fast as the city’s population growth. As a result roads are congested/jams and many areas of the city are poorly served with water, electricity/and telephones. vi) Unemployment – The city of Cairo has not been able to generate many jobs as its rapidly growing populations requires.

    Unemployment is therefore high. The economic and social costs of high unemployment are equally high.

  6. Social dislocation – Cairo suffers from all the social dislocations of very large cities. Crime and prostitution, insecurity and inequality are widespread. This takes a heavy toll on the lives of many residents of the city.
  7. Lack of food due to increased population growth.
  8. Pollution from vehicles, industries, desert dusts, garbage.


  1. a)  List 5 factors which led to rapid development of urban centers.
    1. Establishment of industries/rapid industrialization.
    2. Enclosure systems created a class of landless people who migrated to urban centers/rural urban migration, iii) Increased mining activities. iv) Expansion of transport system/communication.
    3. Expansion of capital for investment.
    4. Existence of entrepreneurs who were willing to invest surplus


 b)  Explain the result of urbanization in Europe in the 19th Century.

i)  Migration of many people to towns led to overcrowding in urban centers, ii)  Increase in urban population put pressure on limited social amenities such as schools and hospitals, iii) It led to the development of slums especially for those who could not afford to

pay house rents, iv) Urbanization led to environmental pollution due to uncontrolled disposal of industrial and domestic wastes/poor sanitation.

  1. Crime rate increased with the increasing number of unemployed people in the urban centers.
  2. Establishment of industries in urban centers created employment opportunities.
  3. Urbanization led to improvement of transport and communication/infrastructure such as postal services/road/railway. viii) Urbanization led to interaction between different communities from different parts of Europe in urban centers and this promoted political awareness among the masses, ix) The demand for raw materials and food in urban centers led to expansion in agriculture,
  4. Urbanization led to interaction between different communities from different parts of Europe in, urban centers and this promoted political awareness among the masses.
  5. Urbanization led to agricultural land being encroached upon as the urban centers expanded
  1. Give two factors which led to early urbanization in Africa.
    1. Trade
    2. Mining/iron working industries iii) Religion iv)


    v) Administration vi) Security vii) Transport and communication viii) Education centre e.g. Fez and

  2. Give two factors which influenced the development of urban centres in


    1. Security – location in area which could be easily defended.
    2. Trade/commercial activities with other countries. iii) Religion activities – towns developed around places of worship.
      1. Accessibility and communication network.
      2. Availability of water.
  3. a) What 5 factors influenced the development of urban centers in


    i) Discovery of new crops for farming led to the development of farming centers which attracted population and later became towns, ii) Trading activities between different communities led to the development of trading centers which later became towns.

    iii) Centers that were used for religious activities developed into towns, iv) Areas that had adequate security attracted population concentration and thus led to the development of towns.

    v) Places that were used for administrative functions developed into towns. vi) Places along the coast where ships stopped for supplies developed into towns, vii) Mining centers developed into settlements which became town for example Meroe. viii) Places where water for use was available attracted settlements and grew into towns, ix)  Towns developed at crossroads.

 x)  Centers of learning e.g. Alexandria developed into towns.

  1. a) What factors led to the development Durban centers in Africa during

    the pre – colonial period?

    1. Landless peasants migrated to urban centers in search of employment/rural – urban migration.
    2. Inadequate housing in urban centers led to development of shanties. iii) Pollution of the environment arising from industrial waste that were untreated. iv) Administration/royal centre later developed into towns e.g. Kuasi and Addis Ababa.
    1. Development of centers of learning later became urban centers e.g.


    2. Development of agriculture led to availability of food which in turn encouraged people to establish permanent settlements, vii)

      Religious centers developed into towns e.g. Ife and Kumasi viii) Places that were secure attracted population concentration and later developed into towns e.g. Thababosiu the capital of Basuto land, ix) Ports and harbours which were used as calling stations for replenishments developed into urban centers e.g. Cape Town,

      Malindi, Cairo.

    b) Explain the social effects of urbanization in Europe during the nineteenth century.

    1. Migration of people to urban centers.
    2. Inadequate housing due to high concentration of people in urban centers. iii)  Concentration of industries led to shortage of food which resulted in malnutrition.
    3. Frustration and suffering urban life led to anti – social behaviour such as drug abuse, alcoholism and prostitution.
    4. Increase in crime rate and violence created fear and insecurity.
    5. Poor working conditions e.g. child labour, long working hours and lack of workmanships I. compensation dehumanized urban dwellers.
    6. High concentration of people in urban centers strained he social amenities e.g. school and hospitals.

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