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Transport sector in Uganda (Transport and communication in Uganda Notes)

  • The term transport refers to the process whereby passengers are moved from one place to another. Transport aids trade and industrial production.
  • The types of transport in Uganda include land transport i.e. human portage, animal, road, railway and pipeline transport, water transport and air transport.
  • It should be noted that Uganda is majorly relying on road transport consisting of track and feeder roads which run throughout the country. However, air transport with Entebbe international airport, Kasese, Arua, Gulu, Tororo, Jinja, etc airstrips are also important.

Location of Uganda‘s transport routes  

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Factors which influence the development of the transport sector in Uganda

Looking at the transport network distribution in Uganda, the southern half has more developed transport routes than the northern part; this is due to historical, physical and economical factors.

  • The location of major economic resource like agricultural regions, mining centers, forestry, fishing, etc. foristance transport routes have been constructed to link areas with tourist attractions like water transport to Ssese islands, air transport to Kasese near Queen Elizabeth and Kampala-Mbarara road.
  • Transport routes have been constructed to link industrial areas for raw-materials, labour and manufactured goods transportation like roads linking Kampala’s Bugolobi, Kawempe and Nakawa industrial areas.
  • The railway route was extended to northern Uganda to facilitate the marketing of cotton, tobacco, maize, millet, simsim, etc.
  • Roads and railway have been constructed to link areas with mineral resource like a railway line to Kasese to serve copper mines at Kirembe, road transport to Kabale for tin and wolfram mining, etc.
  • Timber from Ssese islands have been transported by water to the main land via Bukakata. Roads have also transported timber and wood fuel from Mabira, Budongo, etc.
  • The levels of technological resource i.e. the availability of skilled labour to extract the available resources like engineers have helped to extend Uganda‘s transport system.
  • The nature of relief i.e. mountainous areas tend to remain remote like in Kisoro and Bundibugyo because it becomes difficult to construct transport routes and in flat and gentle relief like in Mpigi, Wakiso, Kampala, Jinja there are developed transport networks.
  • Large water bodies like Victoria has facilitated water transport development through ports like Port Bell, Bukakata, Jinja, etc. however waterfalls and rapids like on R. Nile have blocked water transport.
  • Influence of climate i.e. areas in Uganda which receive heavy rainfall make it hard to construct and maintain roads like in Mukono and Kapchworwa.
  • Industrialization and urbanization leads to development of efficient, reliable, modern and well maintained transport network. This explains why Kampala city has got the best transport system in Uganda.
  • Government policy encourages or discourages transport network extension. Today the government of Uganda is emphasizing the development of water transport to reduce on transport costs. Also the government puts a lot of money in the ministry of works to establish transport routes though it’s affected by corruption.
  • Availability of a large capital base to invest in the development of modern transport network. It should be noted that construction of transport routes is very expensive.
  • Historical factor of early colonialists who constructed many roads in the central region for administration and a railway line to link raw-material collecting centers like Jinja-Kasese railway line to collect copper ores.
  • The Arabs and Missionaries also helped in the construction of roads in parts of Buganda, Busoga, and Bunyoro to help them spread their religion.
  • Political instability

Contribution of the transport sector to the development of Uganda

The transport sector in Uganda has got both negative and positive contribution to Uganda‘s development which include;

  • It facilitates the development of internal trade through movement of goods from areas of production to consumers like roads transport milk, cattle, banana from Mbarara to Kampala, millet, simsim, sorghum from Lira and Gulu to Jinja and Kampala.
  • It facilitates the development of international trade. Roads transport coffee to Mombasa for export, flowers and fish are transported to USA and Europe by Entebbe international airport and the railway imports commodities from Busia boarder through Jinja to Kampala.
  • Transport facilitates labour mobility especially road transport which transports workers to different industries and businesses in Kampala from their residents in Mukono, Wakiso, Luwero, Mpigi, etc.
  • It facilitates industrial development through movement of raw-materials and industrial goods like fish from Ssese islands is transported by water to Masese and Ggaba for processing, cement is transported from Hima and Tororo industries to main markets of Kampala, Jinja by roads.
  • Transport facilitates the development of tourist industry through linking tourists to tourist potentials like Kampala-Kasese road and Entebbe international airport to Kasese airstrip move tourists to Queen Elizabeth National Park.
  • Transport has generated employment opportunities to many Ugandans. Such are employed as drivers, conductors, guides, mechanics, engineers, traffic officers, controllers in Multi-plex, UTODA, UBOA, etc.
  • It has generated government revenue through taxes and licenses to transport companies i.e. Multi-plex and taxis pay a lot of money to KCCA, URA also gets a lot of revenue from vehicles imported, insurance companies like NIC, etc.
  • Transport has facilitated the development of the mining industry since it helps to transport machinery, labour and minerals to processing centers like Kasese-Jinja railway line was to transport copper from Kirembe, roads to Tororo and Hima to transport cement from limestone minerals, etc.
  • It has helped to promote the fishing industry through transportation of fish to fish markets in Jinja, Kampala, Masaka and processing as well as exportation. Many feeder roads link landing sites like Masese, Katotsi and Lambu to market centers has helped to develop fishing.
  • Transport facilitates the development of the agriculture sector through movement of farm inputs like seeds, fertilizers and outputs like milk, cotton to market and processing centers. Like Kampala-Jinja road links Lugazi sugar plantation and Kasaku tea estate in Mukono, Kampala-Arua road which link WestNile to BAT factory in Kampala for tobacco processing, etc.
  • It facilitates political governance through fast movement by both local and central government officials in all parts of Uganda. E.g. roads link villages of Kaliiro, Kibisi and Kinuuka, Kashagama sub-counties to Lyantonde district administrative offices.
  • It promotes co-operation between Uganda and her neighbours e.g. roads like Busia-Kampala-Kabale, Busia-Kampala-Kasese and Tororo-Soroti-Moyo transport goods to Rwanda, DRC and South Sudan respectively through Uganda.

It should be noted that transport sector has got negative contributions to Uganda‘s development. These include;

  • It pollutes air, water and land through fumes by vehicles, trains, ships and other water vessels pollute water from oil spills which endangers aquatic life and water quality.
  • Many accidents occur on roads such as Kampala-Masaka, Kampala-Jinja, on L. Albert and Victoria killing many important people and loss of property. Such human resource would have been used for Uganda‘s development.
  • During the construction of transport routes many people are displaced loosing property and investments e.g. the construction of the Northern-by-pass around Kampala and the 1998 expansion of Entebbe road displaced many people in Namasuba, Nalya, Bwaise, Namuwongo, etc.
  • Forests have been cleared in the process of constructing roads and railway lines, airstrips, etc. parts of Mabira in Mukono were cleared to construct Kampala-Jinja road.
  • The construction of transport routes and their maintenance is costly. This necessitates Uganda to depend on neo-colonialists since the billions required are provided by the World Bank and the other bodies with a lot of interests.
  • Floods have resulted into spread of diseases like bilharzias, cholera and dysentery which result from construction of roads like the Northern-by-pass in Bwaise and Namugoona.
  • Other negative contributions are regional imbalances created, smuggling especially by water transport, and profit repatriation by the foreign companies which construct and maintain the transport routes.

 

Problems facing the development of transport sector in Uganda

  • Inadequate capital for both constraction and maitainance of transport routes eg kampala-Masaka, Masaka-Mbarara and Kabale-kisoro roads have been costly in their up-grading.
  • Low levels of technology required in the construction and maintainance of transport routes. The imported technology is very expensive as evidenced from foreign firms constracting and up-grading roads such as Kampala northern by pass by salin, Jinja-Bugiri by Reyonod, Busunju-Hoima by sterling etc.
  • Political instabilities especially in northern parts of Uganda a twenty year war by LRA disraputed road construction like Gulu-Peder road and Gulu to Kitigumu road. Cattle rustling in Karamoja also hindered road construction in the area.
  • There is a problem of vandalism of the railway line especially in Busoga, Mbale, Soroti and Gulu and this has hindered railway transport network.
  • Heavy rains in some areas of Uganda affect transport routes e.g floods in north eastern Uganda caused by kirik and Aswar rivers after heavy rains wash away roads and bridges making roads becoming quagmires of mud and therefore impassable during wet seasons.
  • Extensive profit repatriation by the foreign firms dealing in construction and maintainance of transport routes e.g Salini constructions which constructed the northern-by-pass in Kampala.
  • Mountainous and hilly areas of Bundibugyo, Kabale, Kapchorwa make road construction difficult and expensive. Also landslide does happen in these hilly areas of Bududa, Bundibugyo and Manafa areas covering roads.
  • The nature of rocks in the area sometimes hinder transport routes establishment. The harder rock surface along Sironko-Kapchworwa road and soft rocks in the lower vallies like in Rubigi-Kampala where the Northern-by-pass crossed made construction difficult and expensive.
  • Drainage system makes road construction difficult and expensive. Fast flowing rivers of Mubuku requires construction of bridges and culverts and swampy areas like along L. Kyoga need land fills thus becoming expensive to link landing sites of Lwampanga and Namabale.
  • Waterfalls and rapids, shallow and narrow river channels and seasonal water fluctuations make navigation on most rivers of Uganda a futile like Bujagali, Kagoma and Murchison falls limit navigation along river Nile.
  • Thick vegetation cover hinder road and railway line construction. Forests such as Mabira, Budongo and Kitomi clearing the vegetation during construction are difficult and maitainance of roads is irregular due to wet and moist conditions, e.g. Kampala-Jinja road across Mabira forest.
  • Water hyacinth over lakes such as Victoria hinders navigation especially by small boats and canoes. There is also floating vegetation in form of sudd on Lake Kyoga which all disrupts, delays and raises operation costs in the transport sector.
  • Corruption in the transport sector i.e. diverting funds made for transport routes construction for private gains. Thereis a lot of shoddy work which all hinder the sector e.g. Mukono-Katosi road saga.
  • Negative attitude towards self help projects such as construction and maintainance of feeder roads in rural areas of Pallisa, Kamuli, Kaberamaido, etc.
  • Some means of transport like air transport are too expensive and cannot be afforded by the majority Ugandans thus making it limited in specific areas like towns of Kasese, Kampala, Arua and Entebbe.
  • The collapse of the East African Railway Corporation in which Uganda had benefited by amalgamation of the system of the territories. This decreased Uganda‘s ability to finance the railway network.
  • The sector is affected by traffic congestion in busy towns of Kampala, Jinja and Mbarara and this normally affects road transport causing delays. This is partly due to poor planning of the towns and cities.

Measures to the above problems

  • There is rehabilitation of roads like Kampala-Entebbe, Iganga-Mbale, Kampala-Masaka, Kabale-Kisoro, etc.
  • The Entebbe airport has also been modernized to reach the world standards.
  • World Bank, European Union and other friendly countries have given Uganda grants, loans and aid to finance the construction and maintainance of transport routes foristance the European Union funded the construction of the northern-by-pass in Kampala.
  • There are efforts to develop local transport construction companies like Zimwe, Multi-plex which will decrease on over dependency of foreign companies which repatriate profits.
  • Many foreign construction companies have been attracted to Uganda to take over construction and maintainance work like Sterling from Italy rehabilitated Busunju-Hoima road, SBI international holdings from Switzerland rehabilitated Kampala-Mbarara-Kabale road.
  • Makerere and Kyambogo University are training technical personels in the transport sector. Other workers are gaining skills from on-job training like those who constructed Jinja-Bugiri road. This has availed skills to Ugandans to support the sector.
  • The UPDF embarked on stablising Uganda and the areas of northern Uganda are now stable. Vandalising the railway line in Busoga and other areas have been checked.
  • Various skills have been used in the construction of roads in hilly areas of Kabale, Kisoro, Ntungamo, e.g. wind along slopes to solve the problem of steep slopes.
  • Ferry services have been provided by the ministry of works and transport across parts of rivers and lakes like from Bukakata in Masaka to Ssese islands.
  • The IGG, police and parliament have embarked on fighting corruption to check on shoddy works and save millions of shillings to develop the transport sector as it was on Katosi-Mukono road.
  • Sign posts warning drivers and motorists of black spots along roads so as to reduce the rate of road accidents have been provided by the ministry of works and transport like on Kampala-Bugiri road. Also more traffic officers have been employed on roads to check on indisciplined drivers.
  • The local governments have got road construction and maintainance equipments and this is aimed at constructing and up-grading of roads like Kaliro-Katovu in Lyantonde, Wakiso-Matuga in Wakiso, etc.
  • Major mobilization by local leaders especially L.C I chairpersons has helped in changing the negative attitude of people towards self-help projects. This has helped to construct and maintain roads in Butareja and Budaka.

QN. To what extent is the road and railway network in Uganda are a reflection of occurrence of resources.

Approach

  • Definition of transport
  • Show roads and railway networks in Uganda
  • Draw a sketch map to locate the above
  • Give the status of road and railway network
  • Explain the resource factors and how they have favoured the existence of roads and railway while giving example.
  • Explain other factors which have favoured road and railway transport.


QN. Assess the role of in-land water transport to the economic development of Uganda.

Water transport

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Status

  • Most of the water transport occurs on lakes
  • Few rivers are used for transport due to rapids and water falls
  • Few modern ships are in operation
  • Much of the water transport sector is privately owned
  • Ferry services on major lakes and R. Albert-Nile are on an increase.

Water transport routes

  • Portbell-Kisumu, Portbell-Jinja-Buvuma, Jinja-Mwanza, Portbell-Bukoba, Bukakata-Bugoma/Ssese island, Nakiwogo-Entebbe-Kalangala, etc on L. Victoria
  • Luwero-kamuli, Apac-Lira, Kayunga-Soroti through Lwampanga-Nabyeso, Kagwara-Lwampanga, etc on L.Kyoga
  • L. George-Edward system through Kazinga channel to Katwe.
  • Butiaba-Bugungu-Congo, Arua-Bulisa, Muhangi-Butiaba-Ntoroko on L.Albert.
  • Masindi port to Kasenyi, Muhangi-Pakwach-Nimule, Lalopi-Nimule on R. Nile.

Problems limiting water transport

  • Presence of water falls and rapids like Karuma on R. Nile
  • Presence of wter weed/hythnith like on L. Kyoga and Victoria
  • Existence of swamp vegetation on the fringes of lakes and rivers like Mpologoma, L. Kyoga, etc.
  • Shallowness of some rivers like Katonga and Kagera
  • Steep gradient/escarpment like on L. Albert.
  • Narrowness of some rivers like Kafu and Sezibwa
  • Reduction in water levels during drought seasons like on L. George.
  • Strong winds/storms on lakes like Victoria
  • Strong currents/tidal range which cause accidents like on L. Albert.
  • Presence of dangerous wild animals like crocodiles at Kazinga channel.
  • Presence of rock out crop in lakes like L. Victoria
  • Floods due to heavy rains destroying ports like Bukakata on L. Victoria.
  • Suds/floating islands on l. Wamala and Kyoga.
  • Poorly developed transport network linking to ports like Nyendo-Bukakata road.
  • Remoteness of some water bodies like Edward
  • Limited capital to purchase modern vessels like on R. Nile
  • Inadequate skilled labour to handle the sector on L. Victoria ports like Port Bell
  • Limited government support
  • Low levels of technology in ship building and maintenance.
  • Competition for cargo and passengers from other forms of transport.
  • Poorly developed port handling facilities.
  • Political instabilities and piratess

NB.

Land transport is the mostly used transport in Uganda and it includes human portrage, animal, road, railway and pipe line transport.

 

Urbanization in Uganda

Urbanization refers to the process of town growth in an area. It may also refer to the process whereby an increasingly proportion of the total population of a country becomes concentrated in towns.

According to 2015 population census, only 14% of the population of Uganda live in urban areas in Uganda. The major urban areas of Uganda include Kampala city, Masaka, Mukono, Wakiso, Arua, Lira, Bushenyi, Mbarara, Kasese, Apac, Kotido, Tororo, Mbale, Pallisa, Kamuli, Iganga, Mubende and Luwero.

The major urban areas of Uganda

It should be noted that there are several criteria which are used to determine an area as urban i.e.

  • Population size
  • Population density
  • Functions of the urban center
  • Legal and administrative consideration
  • Social and economic consideration
  • Etc.

Factors which influence growth of urban centers

  • The effect of economic factors such as mining and industrial growth, foristance Kilembe in Kasese grew up as a result of copper mining, Katwe town as a result of salt mining, Tororo and Hima as a result of limestone mining.
  • Historical factors such as head quarters of cultural leaders like Mengo of Buganda kingdom in Kampala and also British Colonial masters chose Kampala as an administrative center thus its growth.
  • Defensive reasons, foristance Gulu town which is experiencing a high rate of urban growth because many people move town for security reasons. On the other hand Kampala city was set up on hill tops in order to defend it against any external threats.
  • Availability of fertile soils which favour the development of farming that attracts a large population to settle into the area. Towns such as Masaka, Kabale, and Mbale grew up from trading centers of agricultural products to towns.
  • Availability of water resource for constant water supply to the people. This attracts many people to settle and lead to growth of such an area. Foristance Entebbe, Jinja, Kampala, Mukono grew due to the Lake Victoria fresh water body presence.
  • The availability of improved transport especially where roads or transport routes converge and then radiates to various directions, foristance in Kampala city and Gulu town. Such transport routes favour trade transaction thus urban growth.
  • Availability of reliable HEP like Jinja municipality grew up largely as a result of HEP generation from Owen falls dam on R. Nile. HEP attracts industrial growth, population settlement and urban growth.
  • Effects of government policy where the government can decide the growth of an area due to its convenience, social, political and economic reasons, foristance Kampala city was favoured due to this reason.
  • Rural urban migration especially to areas with social service and amenities such as education, health, clean water, electricity and recreational facilities. These services attract population to settle in such areas thus urban growth.
  • Favourable climatic conditions which attract settlement.
  • Hard basement rocks for the construction of strong buildings
  • Rich hinterland to provide raw materials for industries
  • Large tracts of land for expansion
  • Numerous industries that attract large population
  • Low incidences of pests and diseases
  • Advanced technology for urban development
  • Adequate power supply
  • Skilled and semi skilled labour
  • Favourable political climate
  • Large market potential which attract many people for investment
  • Adequate capital for contruction of urban centers
  • s

    It should be noted that the growth of towns in Uganda are related to increased population in trading centers which leads to urbanization.

    The increase in the population in urban centers has been caused by rural urban migration. R.U.M has been caused by factors such as high population growth rate, decline in agriculture sector, political insecurity, forced marriages, circumcision and mutilation, etc.

Functions of towns in Uganda

  • Commercial function i.e. towns contain shopping centers which help the people to carryout trade, such towns include Kampala, Jinja, Mbale, Tororo, Gulu, Kasese, etc.
  • Residential function i.e. most towns have areas which are exclusively gazette for residential purposes like in Kampala National Housing Construction Corporation owns several housing units in places like Bugolobi, Bukoto and Ntinda.
  • Administrative function i.e. towns serve as district head quarters, possesses ministerial offices and offices of NGOs. Foristance Kampala, Mbale, Iganga, Jinja, etc.
  • Industrial function i.e. towns contains industries foristance Kampala Tororo, Masaka, Mbarara, Jinja, etc. such industries have provided employment opportunities to many Ugandans.
  • Educational function i.e. many towns have got educational institutions of schools, colleges and universities. Foristance Kampala has got schools like Mengo S.S, Makerere and Kyambogo universities, etc.
  • Transport and communication function i.e. most towns in Uganda contains transport routes and communication networks. Foristance Entebbe has got the international airport, Kampala has headquarters of Uganda Railway Corporation, Taxi parks, MTN, Airtel, etc.
  • Cultural functions i.e. most towns in Uganda contain cultural sites of museums, worshiping centers, etc. foristance Kampala city has got Uganda museum, Kasubi tombs, Namirembe and Rubaga cathedrals, Bahai temple, etc.
  • Recreational function i.e. towns in Uganda contains recreational facilities in form of theatres, stadiums, halls, etc. Kampala foristance has got Nakivubo and Namboole stadiums where people go for sports, beaches in Entebbe like Lido, Aero, etc.

Effects of urbanization in Uganda

These effects are both positive and majorly negative as explained below.

  • There is a problem of inadequate housing facilities in many towns in Uganda, this has led to growth of slums like in Kampala there is Katanga, kamwokya, Kisenyi, etc.
  • There is un-employment in many towns in Uganda like in Mbarara and Kasese due to high rates of rural urban migration causing high population densities.
  • There is high rate of rural urban migration in Uganda which has resulted into social problems such as alcoholism, prostitution, rapid spread of diseases, poor sanitation, youth moral decay, etc, in Jinja, Kasese and Masaka.
  • Shortage of social services such as health and education, water, etc. this is caused by high population in urban areas which later leads to high cost of living like in Tororo, Gulu and Mukono.
  • Some urban centers like Kampala experiences floods due to encroachment on swamps and wetlands. Such floods have led to death of people and property destruction like in Bwaise and Karerwe in Kampala.
  • There is land, air and water pollution in urban areas caused by garbage, uncontrolled sewerage, industrial and vehicle fumes and wastes. This has caused environmental degradation in Jinja, Kampala and Kasese.
  • Urban centers like Kampala and Jinja face a problem of traffic congestion which cause a lot of delays and inconvenience especially during rush hours. This affect business and production as well as administration duties.
  • Limited land for expansion which has today led to encroachment on swamps and wetlands thus floods like in Kawara, Namugoona and Bwaise in Kampala.
  • Towns like Entebbe, Mukono and Wakiso experiences high costs of living and high crime rate. This is causes by un-employment as a result of rural urban migration.

    NB. The positive effects of urbanization are the functions of towns as earlier discussed.

Kampala city

This is the largest urban center in Uganda located on several hills of Old Kampala, Namirembe, Rubaga, Naguru, Kololo, Nsambya, Mbuya, Kireka, Makerere, Mulago, Mutungo, Kyambogo, etc.

It is boarded by Lake Victoria and Wakiso district

Functions of Kampala city

  • It is an administrative center with many ministerial offices, Uganda‘s parliament, international conference centers and NGOs offices, KCCA hall, etc
  • Kampala is a commercial center with major central business centers based largely on Nakasero hill and others in Katwe, Kawempe, Nakawa, etc.
  • It is a financial center with the Bank of Uganda, stanbic bank, centenary bank, etc. the city has also got several insurance companies like NICO, SWICO, as well as forex beuro.
  • Kampala is a residential center with several areas gazette for residential housing development in Bugolobi, Bukoto flats, Muyenga, Nsambya, etc.
  • It is an industrial center with several industrial areas like Nakawa, Bugolobi, Kawempe, etc, such industries have attracted many people for jobs.
  • Kampala city is an education center with several educational institutions based on nursery schools, primary like Buganda road p/s, secondary schools like Old Kampala SS, colleges like Multec and universities like Makerere University.
  • Kampala is a cultural center with Uganda museum in Kamwokya, Kasubi tombs in Mengo, worshiping places of cathedrals of Rubaga and Namirembe, Gadafi Mosque and Bahai temple in Kanyanya.
  • Kampala is a transport and communication center with several transport terminals for buses and taxis, URC head quarters, Kololo airstrip, posta Uganda, MTN and Airtel head quarters.
  • It is a tourist center with several hotels and lodges which provide excellent accommodation facilities to foreign tourists. Such hotels include Sheraton, Serena, Speke tourist hotel, Africana, etc.
  • Kampala city is a recreation center with sports stadiums like Nakivubo, beaches like Ggaba beach, theatres like La Bonita, cinema halls like Cineplex, etc.

Factors which favoured the growth of Kampala city

  • The location of Kampala on the shores of Victoria with fertile soils and reliable rainfall which support farming for constant supply of food stuffs to the people in the city.
  • Presence of plenty of water supply from L. Victoria to the city for domestic and industrial use which has supported human settlement.
  • The relatively flat and gently sloping relief of Kampala favoured the construction of important infrastructure in the city such as roads, health centers, education centers, etc.
  • The Baganda factor i.e. Mengo the head quarters of Buganda kingdom influenced the establishment of Kampala as a city by colonial master and this led to its rapid expansion and growth.
  • The generation of hydro-electric power from Owen falls dam accelerated the growth of Kampala city. The power has been used in shops, homes, offices and industries.
  • The coming and subsequent settlement of Asian Traders (Indians) in Kampala made it to develop very fast. The Indians invested heavily in commercial, residential and industrial ventures.
  • Kampala is served by a well developed transport networks. Roads radiate almost in all directions from the center, it possesses a railway network and an airstrip at Kalolo is near to Entebbe international airport.
  • The city contains modern hotels and other social facilities which attract many people into it. Such hotels include Sheraton, Equatorial, Africana, stadiums like Nakivubo, theatres like LaBonita, etc.
  • Kampala city has got an excellent communication network dominated by MTN, Airtel and Utl, this has eased communication and increased on employment opportunities which attract many people into the city.
  • The city is a commercial center, located in a densely populated area and very productive which empower its local people for its growth and development.
  • The mobilization of resources both internally and externally after Kampala being made a city led to its growth and development.

Problems facing Kampala city

  • There is a problem of slum (ghetto) development in the suburbs of Kampala city in places like Kivulu, Katanga, Katwe, Kisenyi, Namuwongo, Kamwokya, etc. these have social problems like prostitution, poor housing, moral decay, alcoholism, rapid disease spread, etc.
  • There is improper garbage disposal which has led to land degradation and poor sanitation in the city. Garbage sometimes causes floods as it blocks water channels, garbage also attract flies, dogs and birds which lead to easy spread of diseases such as cholera and dysentery.
  • There is high rate of un-employment by the city dwellers in Kampala city which has resulted into lumpens and pick pocketers on Kampala streets of Ben Kiwanuka, Luwum and in the taxis parks.
  • There is inadequate supply of the essential social service and amenities such as health and education services, clean water, housing, etc. this problem emanates from population explosion in the city straining the existing infrastructure.
  • There is congestion and traffic jam especially during rush hours, the two taxi parks cannot accommodate the taxis that ply various routes within the city. This cause more traffic jam.
  • Currently Kampala city is experiencing corruption by KCCA officials which has resulted into poor planning, uncollected garbage and general un-hygienic conditions.
  • The city is experiencing a high rate of rural urban migration from almost all parts of the country especially from the north eastern Uganda. Rural urban migration has aggregated into growth of slums, un-employment, theft, prostitution, etc.
  • Due to swamp reclamation areas such as Bwaise, Ndeebe, Natete, Kinawataka, industrial areas experience floods during rainy seasons. This causes loss of lives, property destruction and road network cut-off, disease outbreak like cholera, malaria, etc.
  • The cost of living is very high in Kampala i.e. housing, food stuffs, etc, are costly. This has caused insecurity in the city in search for a living.
  • Limited space for further city expansion which has made people to encroach on the existing wetlands which in turn lead to environmental degradation and floods.
  • The increasing industrial growth in Nakawa, Bugolobi, Kawempe in Kampala has resulted into air pollution. Also dense populations of vehicle in the city pollute the atmospheric air.
  • There are street children on many streets and roads of Kampala such as kampala road, Namirembe road, etc. such helpless children have increased on city insecurity.

Solution to the problems facing Kampala city

  • Rural urban migration should be controlled through addressing the issue of regional economic imbalance. This can be done through improving on agricultural sector especially in rural areas. Also provision of social services such as education, health, electricity, clean water in rural areas will help to reduce the problem.
  • Construction of estates and better housing facilities in areas where slums have grown can help to address this problem however such estates should be cheaper to accommodate low income earners.
  • The government has encouraged the growth of industries in the city, it has also persuaded foreign investors like MTN, Airtel, Shoprite, Stanbic to bring in capital so as to create more employment opportunities for the city dwellers.
  • The construction of the northern-by-pass and widening and rehabilitating of roads, the use of fly-overs like at Katwe and Nakawa is aimed at reducing on traffic jam and congestion.
  • The KCCA is today encouraging vertical expansion of the city rather than horizontal to get more space for further expansion.
  • There is widening of Nakivubo channel to accommodate more water when it rains and also protecting wetlands in Bugolobi and Namuwongo to overcome floods.
  • There is strengthening of the police and use of special police constables to curb down theft, robbery and other crimes within the city.

NB. Students should make research on Jinja Municipality.

QN. Examine the factors which influence the growth and development of towns in Uganda,

QN. Explain the effects of urbanization to the immediate environment in Uganda.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 




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