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Data: This is an unprocessed piece of fact.

Information: This organized data which gives meaning to a full sentence or statement.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DATA AND INFORMATION

Data is like if I tell ETX 2005 , its data to you , and if I add on that saying it’s your license number then it’s information for you, so data and information are interrelated to each other.

SIMILARITIES

i) Both can be presented in alphabets ii) Both can be presented in number iii) Both can be presented in symbols

DIFFERENCES

  1. Data is a raw fact which is unprocessed while information is data that has been processed.
  2. Data is the lower level of knowledge while information is the second level of knowledge.
  3. Observation and recording are done to obtain data while analysis is done to obtain information

SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Sources of information can be categorized in two groups.

PRIMARY SOURCES

Primary sources of information allow the learners to access original and unedited information. A primary source requires the learner to interact with the sources and extract information.

E.g; person interview E-mail contact, Event, Discussion, Debate, Community meeting, Survery, Artifact, Observation of object canimate and inanimate.

SECONDARY SOURCES

Secondary sources are edited primary sources, second – hand versions.

They represent someone else’s thinking

E.g. Book, CR- Rom, Encyclopedia, Magazine, Newspaper, Video tape, Audiotape, TV.

Primary or Secondary

  • Internet website
  • Graph, Chart , diagram , table

IMPORTANCE OF INFORMATION

  1. Creating awareness.
  2. Educating people iii) Alert people on danger iv) Giving instructions

v) Help in decision making vi) Used in advertising goods

QUALITIES OF INFORMATION

  1. Information should be RELEVANT. The information should be logical and fit to the level of recipients.
  2. The information should be UNDERSTANDABLE. Understandability of the information should be clear to the recipients.
  3. TIME LINES, every information should have a range of time that can be useful.
  4. RELIABILITY , Information should be reliable to the receiver

INFORMATION DISSEMINATION

This is the process of spreading or distributing information using various ways from one individual to another.

The process of disseminating information can be grouped into three main parts.

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1 Source EcoleBooks | TOPIC 1: CONCEPT OF INFORMATION - COMPUTER FORM ONE NOTES 2.Medium EcoleBooks | TOPIC 1: CONCEPT OF INFORMATION - COMPUTER FORM ONE NOTES 3. Receiver

SOURCES OF INFORMATION

  • This is the origination of the message or the information to be disseminated.
  • The sources can be directly or indirectly meaning that the information can be collected directly from the communication media.

MEDIUM

  • This includes the means of spreading the information such as newspapers, signs, magazines, radio, television, telephone, computer (with internet) etc.

RECEIVER

  • The people or audience intended to receive the information.

WAYS OF DISSEMINATING INFORMATION

i) Traditional ways ii) Modern ways

TRADITIONAL WAYS

Uses traditional tools to spread information e.g. Songs,drums,poems,whistle.

MODERN WAYS

Equipment are electrically equipped
Many people can get information at the same time
MODERN WAYS
Quick and faster to disseminate the informati01
Distance coverage is big
The cost of sending message is very low e.g. E-mail

Uses modern tools to spread information e.g. Internet, TV, radio station, magazine

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRADITIONAL AND MODERN WAYS

TRADITIONAL WAYS

l) Slow in disseminating information

2) Most of medium or equipment are manual operated
3) Messages can be sent with in short distance

4) The cost of sending the messages is too high

5) The information reach few people

THE COMPUTER

This is the electronic device that receives data input and processed it into output.

OUTPUT: This is the processed data from a computer.

INPUT : This is the unprocessed data which enter a computer.

STORAGE: The computer holds data internally during and after processing.

PROCESSING: This is the convention of input data into output data.

INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT

CHARACTERS OF COMPUTER

  1. SPEED

Computer has a very high speed in working

  1. ACCURACY

Computer never makes errors; normally errors are made by users.

3) STORAGE

Computer has memory for storing data.

  1. TIRELESSNESS. Computer never gets tired
  2. VERSATILITY

Computer can perform jobs logically step by step.

COMPUTER APPLICATION

EcoleBooks | TOPIC 1: CONCEPT OF INFORMATION - COMPUTER FORM ONE NOTES COMPUTER IN EDUCATION

  1. Gathering information from the internet
  2. Develop science project
  3. Teaching and learning process

COMPUTER IN HEALTH

In health computer are used for

  1. Diagnosing illness
  2. Modifying parents health development
  3. Assisting surgeons

COMPUTER AT HOME

1) Writing letter 2) Listening music 3) Playing games

4) Watching movies

COMPUTER IN LAW ENFORCEMENT POLICE

In law enforcement police, computer is used as

1) Storage of information 2) Making documents and printing the documents

3) DNA finger printing

COMPUTER IN MUSIC INDUSTRY

  1. Composing music
  2. Editing sound
  3. Editing video

INPUT:

This is unprocessed data which enter in a computer.

TYPES OF INPUT

1) DATA

Is the raw facts given to the computer.

2) PROGRAMS

Are the sets of instruction to direct the computer.

3) COMMANDS

Are special codes or key word that the user input to perform a task like RUN accounts INPUT DEVICES: These are the devices used to enter data into a computer *Examples of input devices:-

i)KEYBOARD: It is the most important input device

STANDARD KEYBOARD: Have approximately 101 to 106 keys

TYPES OF KEYS

  1. Letter keys : Ato Z
  2. Number keys : Oto 9
  3. Direction or cursor keys : ( up , down , right , left keys)
  4. Punctuation keys
  5. Symbols keys.

f)Specials keys ( Esc, Enter , Tab, DEL, Shift, Alt, Ctrl, Ins, Page up, Page down , Home, caps Lock, Scroll tack , Print , Screen end)

g) Function key. fl, f2 f12 ADVANTAGES

  1. Reliable for data input and number
  2. Usually supplied with computers so no additional cost
  3. Specialized keys are available

ii)DIGITAL CAMERA

The input device which take photograph and convert into digital image.

HOW CAMERA WORKS

The light from the object pass through the lens to the light, Sensor and convert it into digital image then image is taken to the memory chips from the memory chips image.

iii) MAGNETIC STRIPE READER

Magnetic stripe: These ate thin strips of magnetic tape which are usually found on the back of credit and debit cards.

ADVANTAGES OF STRIPE READER.

  1. Simple to use
  2. Data can be altered
  3. Cheap to produce magnetic stripe

iv) JOYSTICK

Input device control the movement of a pointer on the screen just like mouse. Usually used for playing computer games.

v) MICROPHONE

Used to in-put sound into a computer

vi) VIDEO DIGITIZER

This device is used to convert analogue signals from a video camera or video cassette recorder into a digital format.

The digitized video data can be saved as a file or played on the screen interface used: Fire wire

vii) MIDI INSTRUMENT

These are devices used to produce music.

They have Midi- port with specialized software digitized music into digital data so as a file.

a)Stored as a file

b)Edited

c)Displayed on screen

viii) REMOTE CONTROL

It is a device which emits a beam of infra- red light carrying digital data to a TV.

ADVANTAGES

  1. Simple to use
  2. Each button has a specific function

ix) BAR CODE READER

Input device used to read bar codes and send data into a computer.

BAR CODES: Are patterns of printed lines of different thickness

OUT PUT

This is the processed data from a computer.

TYPES OF OUTPUTS

1) SOFT COPY OUTPUT

This is intangible / untouchable output.

2) HARD COPY OUT PUT

This is the tangible / touchable output e.g. printed page




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EcoleBooks | TOPIC 1: CONCEPT OF INFORMATION - COMPUTER FORM ONE NOTES

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