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VISUAL SUMMARY AT A GLANCE – PRIVACY AND SECURITY

PRIVACY

LARGE DATABASES

PRIVATE NETWORKS

PRIVACY

INTERNET AND THE WEB

TRADITIONAL COOKIES
AD NETWORK (ADWARE) COOKIES

MAJOR PRIVACY LAWS

SECURITY

THREATS TO COMPUTER SECURITY

COMPUTER CRIME

MALICIOUS PROGRAMS
DENIAL OF SERVICE (DOS) ATTACKS
INTERNET SCAMS
THEFT
DATA MANIPULATION

SECURITY

MEASURES TO PROTECT COMPUTER SECURITY

ENCRYPTING
RESTRICTING ACCESS
ANTICIPATING DISASTERS
BACKING UP DATA

ERGONOMICS

PHYSICAL HEALTH

EYESTRAIN AND HEADACHE
BACK AND NECK PAIN
REPETITIVE STRAIN INJURY (RSI)

MENTAL HEALTH

NOISE
STRESS/TECHNOSTRESS

DESIGN

THE ENVIRONMENT

THE GREEN PC

SYSTEM UNITS
DISPLAY UNITS
MANUFACTURING PROCESS

PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY

CONSERVING ENERGY
RECYCLING
EDUCATING

OPEN-ENDED

DISCUSS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DATABASES AND PRIVACY

? Every day, data is gathered about us and stored in large databases
? The federal government alone has over 2,000 databases
? Our Social Security number has become a national identification number
? Information resellers (aka information brokers) make up an entire industry that collects and sells personal data.
? Electronic profiles are built containing highly detailed and personalize descriptions of individuals
? Some concerns involve the possibility of:
IDENTITY THEFT
? The illegal assumption of someone’s identity for the purposes of economic gain
MISTAKEN IDENTITY
? The electronic profile of one person can be switched with another.
? The Freedom of Information Act entitles you to look at information kept by credit bureaus and government agencies

DISCUSS THE CODE OF FAIR PRACTICE. WHY HAS THIS PRACTICE NOT BEEN MADE INTO LAW?

? The Code of Fair Practice is a set of guidelines established by former Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Elliot Richardson. It addresses a number of privacy concerns, and is supported by many privacy advocates.
? The fact that it is not law can be argued for a variety of reasons, some political.

DISCUSS THE VARIOUS KINDS OF COMPUTER CRIMINALS.

? Several types can include employees, outside users, hackers and crackers, organized criminals, and terrorists

WHAT ARE THE PRINCIPAL MEASURES USED TO PROTECT (PROVIDE?) COMPUTER SECURITY? WHAT IS ENCRYPTION? HOW IS IT USED BY CORPORATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS?

? Some methods include using encrypted messages, restricting access via log in/password combinations, biometric scanning, and firewalls, anticipated disasters, and backing up data
? Encryption takes an email message and scrambles it so it is unreadable by anyone but the intended recipient
? Both corporations and individuals can send email this way, including the use of Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)

WHAT IS ERGONOMICS? HOW DOES COMPUTER USE IMPACT MENTAL HEALTH? PHYSICAL HEALTH? WHAT STEPS CAN BE TAKEN TO ALLEVIATE TECHNOSTRESS? WHAT IS ERGONOMIC DESIGN?

? Ergonomics is the study of human factors related to things people use.
? Impacts on mental health can include noise, electronic monitoring, and technostress
? Impacts on physical health can include problems with eyestrain and headaches, back and neck pain, and repetitive strain injuries such as Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.
? Steps to alleviate technostress include trying to adapt computers to users rather than the other way around. Other ways to reduce stress include taking breaks, using ergonomically designed equipment, and eliminating electronic monitoring

USING TECHNOLOGY

SPYWARE

? This section refers you to Making IT Work

ERGONOMIC WORKSTATIONS

? This section refers you to Tim’s toolbox section on Ergonomics

PRIVACY AVOCATION ONLINE

AIR TRAVEL DATABASE

? Have students search the web to find information about the Computer Assisted Passenger Pre-screening System (CAPPS).
? Discuss the usefulness of such a system – what are the advantages and disadvantages of using this in terms of security and privacy.

FIREWALLS

? Students are asked to write a one page paper titled “Firewall Security” and answer questions discussed in the text, such as a) Define firewall, etc.

PLAGIARISM

? Students are asked to write a one page paper titled “Plagiarism” and answer questions discussed in the text, such as a) How is copying another person’s work easier, etc.

WHAT ARE FOUR PRIMARY COMPUTER ETHICS ISSUES?

PRIVACY

? Concerns the collection and use of data about individuals

ACCURACY

? Relates to the responsibility of those who collect data to ensure that the data is correct

PROPERTY

? Relates to who owns data and rights to software

ACCESS

? Relates to the responsibility of those who have data to control and who is able to use that data

WHAT IS AN INFORMATION BROKER? WHAT IS IDENTITY THEFT? WHAT IS MISTAKEN IDENTITY?

? An information broker is an organization that collects and sells information about private individuals
? Identity theft is the illegal assumption of someone’s identity for the purposes of economic gain
? Mistaken identity is the electronic profile of one person can be switched with another. The Freedom of Information Act entitles you to look at information kept by credit bureaus and government agencies, helping you to avoid mistaken identity.

WHAT ARE HISTORY FILES? WHAT ARE COOKIES? DESCRIBE THE TWO TYPES OF COOKIES.

?Your use of the Web may be monitored, including the creation of a “history file” including a list of all the sites you’ve visited
? Cookies are special files that capture information about the web sites that you visit. Two basic types include:

TRADITIONAL COOKIES

? Monitor your activities at a single site
? Often used to provide customer service

AD NETWORK (AKA ADWARE) COOKIES

? Monitor activities across all sites you visit
? Examples include Double Click and Avenue A
? Programs called “cookie cutter programs” help to filter out these “bad” cookies
? Spyware is software that are designed to secretly record and report on an individual’s activities on the Internet. Adware is just one type of spyware

DESCRIBE THE CODE OF FAIR INFORMATION PRACTICE.

? The Code of Fair Information Practice has been established to encourage organizations to follow its recommended practices. Note it is not law, but a recommended practice.

IDENTIFY FIVE TYPES OF COMPUTER CRIMINALS.

EMPLOYEES

? The largest category of computer criminals

OUTSIDE USERS

? Criminal Suppliers and clients that have access to an organization’s computers

HACKERS AND CRACKERS

? Hackers are people who gain unauthorized access to a computer for the fun and challenge of it
? Crackers do the same for malicious reasons
? A “bomb” is a destructive computer program put into a system

ORGANIZED CRIME

? Use computers just like legitimate businesses, only for illegal purposes
? Counterfeiters and forgers use computer technology

TERRORISTS

? Knowledgeable terrorist groups can disrupt computer and communication systems

DESCRIBE FIVE FORMS OF COMPUTER CRIME.

MALICIOUS PROGRAM

VIRUSES
? Programs that migrate through networks and operating systems most attach themselves to programs and databases
? Computer Abuse Amendments Act of 1994
WORMS
? Special type of virus that doesn’t attach itself to programs or databases, but fills a system with self replicating information
TROJAN HORSES
? Programs that come into a system disguised as something else

DENIAL OF SERVICE

? Like a worm, it attempts to slow down a system
? DOS attacks flood a system with requests for information or data, typically via the Internet

INTERNET SCAMS

? A scam is a fraudulent or deceptive act or operation designed to trick an individual into spending their time or money for little or no return
An Internet scam is a scam using the Internet

THEFT

? Can take many forms, including theft of hardware, software, data or computer time
? Software piracy is the unauthorized copying of programs for personal gain
? The Software Copyright Act of 1980 says it IS LEGAL to make a backup copy of software, however, these copies may NOT be sold or given away

DATA MANIPULATION

? Finding entry into a system and leaving a message may seem like a prank, but it IS AGAINST the law

LIST FOUR WAYS TO PROTECT COMPUTER SECURITY.

ENCRYPTING MESSAGES

RESTRICTING ACCESS

ANTICIPATING DISASTERS

BACKING UP DATA

WHAT IS ERGONOMICS AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?

DISCUSS THE MOST SIGNIFICANT PHYSICAL CONCERNS (WITH COMPUTERS) AND HOW THEY CAN BE AVOIDED.

EYESTRAIN AND HEADACHE

BACK AND NECK PAIN

REPETITIVE S
TRAIN INJURY

DISCUSS THE MOST SIGNIFICANT MENTAL CONCERNS (WITH COMPUTERS) AND HOW THEY CAN BE AVOIDED.

NOISE

ELECTRONIC MONITORING

WHAT IS A GREEN PC?

WHAT ARE THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF A GREEN PC?

SYSTEM UNIT

DISPLAY


MANUFACTURING

WHAT OTHER ACTIONS CAN YOU TAKE TO HELP PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT?

CONSERVE

RECYCLE

EDUCATE


EcoleBooks | COMPUTER A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - VISUAL SUMMARY AT A GLANCE – PRIVACY AND SECURITY

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