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Topic: map work

Sub topic: elements of a good map

  1. A map is a representation of an object drawn as seen from above.
  2. A picture is a representative of an object drawn as seen from aside.

Picture map


Elements / features / attributes of a good map

  1. Key
  2. Title or heading
  3. Compass direction
  4. Scale
  5. Frame
  6. Boundary


It is a table bearing symbols used on a map and their meaning

The main function of a key is to interpret symbols and signs used on a map

Symbol meaning



Rift valley

Water falls



Railway line



It is the name or heading of a map

It helps us to know what the map is all about

Compass direction:

It is a symbol that is used to show direction of places on a map

Primary / cardinal points






Secondary points

North west

North east

South west

South east



Scale helps to determine the actual distance between places on a map

Type of scales


Representative fractional scale

1:1000km or 1km


Statement scale

1cm represents 50km

1cm = 50km

Latitudes and longitudes

Latitudes are imaginary liens drawn on a map running from East to West

Longitudes are imaginary lines drawn on a map running from north to South

Latitude is the distance north or south of the equator

Longitude is the distance East of west of the prime meridian

Examples of major latitudes

Equator 00

Tropic of cancer 23 ½0 N

Tropic of Capricorn 23 ½ 0S

Arctic circle 66 ½ 0N

Antarctic circle 66 ½ 0S

Uses of latitudes

They help in location of places on a map

They determine climate of a place



Examples of major longitudes

Prime meridian / Greenwich meridian 00

International dateline 1800 or W


Uses of longitudes

They help to locate places on the map

They help to determine time using the Greenwich meridian

They help in determination of dates using the international dateline

Location of Uganda and her neighbours

Ways of locating places

Using physical features

Using the compass direction

Using longitudes and latitudes

Using landmarks

Using the position of the sun



Locating Uganda

It lies in the continent of Africa in the region of East Africa

It lies between latitudes 4 ¼ 0N and 1 ½ 0S of the equator

It lies between longitudes 2900E and 3500 East of the Greenwich meridian

Map of Uganda



Direction country capital city president

North  South Sudan Juba  H.e Salva Kiir

East Kenya Nairobi H.e. Mwai Kibaki

West DR Congo Kinshaha H.e Joseph Kabila

South  Tanzania Dodoma H.e. Jakaya Kikwete

South West  Rwanda Kigali H. e. Paul Kagame


Uganda as a landlocked country

A landlocked country is a country with no direct access to the sea

A country without a coastline

Hinterland is an area which is served by a sea port

Uganda’s major seaports include

Port Mombasa in Kenya

Port Dar – es – salaam in Tanzania

Both ports handle Uganda’s imports and exports


Problems of landlocked countries

High transport costs

Delays of imports and exports

Highway robberies

High taxation

Expiry of some products due to delays



Cooperation with neighbouring countries

Promotion of air transport

Promotion of peace and security with neighbours


Why Uganda should have good relations with neighbours

To enable free movement of her people and goods

To create a wider market for her products

To promote peace and security



The physical features of Uganda

Physical features are natural land forms of an area

Relief is the general appearance of the landscape


Examples of major physical features in Uganda

Mountains / lakes / rivers / rift valley / plateau


Plateau (table land )

A plateau is a flat raised piece of land

The plateau covers the largest part of Uganda



A mountain is the highest piece of land


Examples of mountains in Uganda

Rwenzori / Elgon/ Moroto/ Mufumbiro


Mountain Rwenzori

It is the highest mountain in Uganda

It is found in Western Uganda in the district of Kasese and Bundibugyo

It is a block mountain with many peaks that form ranges

It is found along the border of DRC and Uganda

Its highest peak is Margherita

Peak Marherita is snow rapped throughout the year because “The peak crosses the snowline”

HM Stanley was the first European to see Mt. Rwenzori

He name it mountains of the moon because its peaks looked like a rising moon.

The Bamba and Bakonjo live on its slopes in Uganda while the Pygmies live on it in DRC

Donkeys are the major means of transport


Mountain Elgon

It is a volcanic mountain found in Easter part of Uganda in the districts of Bukwo, Sironko, Mbale and Kapchorwa

It is the second highest mountain in Uganda

Its local name is Masaba and Wagagai is its peak

Its along the border of Uganda and Kenya

Joseph Thomson was the first European to see it

It has a large hole on its top called a crater

The Bagishu and Sabiny live on its slopes

The Bagishu grow Arabica coffee and the Sabiny grow wheat.

Kapchorwa is the leading producer of wheat in Uganda



Factors that have favoured the growing of wheat and Arabica coffee on Mt. Elgon

Presence of fertile volcanic soils

Presence of reliable rainfall

Presence of cool climate


Mt. Mufumbiro

It is a volcanic mountain which is active

It is found in the extreme western part of Uganda along the border of Uganda and Rwanda

Muhavura is its peak with a small crater lake

The thick vegetation and Bamboo acts a home of Mr. Gorillas

Mountain Mufumbiro is sometimes referred to as the switezerland of Africa because it is very cool like the Alps of Europe

The Bakiga Bafumbira, Batwa , live on its slopes


Mountain Moroto

It is a volcanic mountain found in North eastern part of Uganda in Moroto

Its peak is summit

It receives little rainfall because it receives dry winds

The Karimojong live on its slopes and practice cattle keeping.


Problems facing people who live on mountain slopes

Soil erosion

Land slides

Volcanic eruptions


How is soil erosion controlled in hilly areas

By contour ploughing


Strip cropping


Reasons why mountainous areas are densely populated

There is fertile soil good for crop growing

There is reliable rainfall food for crop growing

There is cool climate good for human settlement


How poor road net work can be overcome in hilly areas

By using donkeys

By building winding roads


Rift valley

A rift valley is a long depression on the earth’s surface with escarpments


Problems faced in rift valley areas

Poor road network

High temperatures



Advantages of the rift valley

They have fertile soils for crop farming

They attract tourists who bring in income

Their grazing grounds for animals

Rift valley lakes are fishing grounds



A lake is a hollow (depression) filled with water


Examples of lakes in Uganda

Victoria / Kyoga / George / Edward


Types of lakes

Depression (basin) lakes

Rift valley lakes

Ox – bow lakes

Manmade lakes

Crater lakes

Lava dammed lakes



Depression lakes

Depression lakes were formed by the process of down warping such as L. Victoria, L. Kyoga, L. Mburo, L. Kwania , L. Opeta


Characteristics of depression lakes

They are shallow

They have fresh water


Lake Victoria

It is the largest lake in Uganda

It is shared by the three East African countries

It is crossed by the Equator

It is the source of the Nile

John Speke was the first European to see and name L. Victoria

L. Victoria is locally known as Nalubaale


Inland ports on L. Victoria

Port Jinja, Luzira, Entebbe, Bukakata

Map of L. Victoria showing inland ports MK pg 19


Major activities carried out around lake Victoria



Crop growing





Problems experienced on lake Victoria

Water hyacinth

Pirates / water robbers

Storms and strong winds

Dangerous water animals


Lake Kyoga

It is the most swampy lake in Uganda

It is swampy because it is swallow

It is surrounded by L. Kwania, L. Opeta and L. Nakivale


Rift valley lakes

They are formed on the floor of the rift valley

They were formed by faulting



Lake Edward

Lake Albert



Characteristics of rift valley lakes

They are deep

They have salty water

They are wide

They are narrow

They are oblong in shape


Lake Albert

It is found in western Uganda in the districts of Hoima Kibaale and Bullisa

It lies along the border of Uganda and DRC

Port Butiaba is its major inland port

Sir Samuel Baker was the first European to see and name it L. Albert

Its locally known as L. Mritanzinga


Economic activities carried out on L. Albert

Fishing/ tourism/ oil exploration / transportation/ trading


Lake Edward

It lies along the border of Uganda and DRC

HM Stanley became the first European to see it

Kazinga channel connects it to L. George

Kazinga channel is a tourist attraction with many hippos


Ox – bow lakes

They are formed as a result of river erosion and deposition

These are found along river Rviz

Manmade lakes

These are lakes formed when man blocks a river valley

These are on lakes formed by man’s activities



Kabaka’s lake

Lake Kajjansi

Lake Kibimba

Lake namugongo


Volcanic lakes

These are lakes formed by the process of volcanicity

Categories of volcanic lakes

Crater lakes:

These are lakes formed on top a dead volcano e.g. L. Katwe, lake Elgon crater

Lava dammed lakes

These are lakes formed when lava blocks a river valley e.g. lake Mutand, lake Bulera, Bunyonyi which is the deepest ‘



A river is a stream of water flowing from a place of higher altitude to lower altitude


Types of river

Permanent rivers: These are rivers that flow throughout the year


Seasonal rivers: these are rivers that flow during the rainy season and dry during the dry season.


Stages or courses of a river

Upper / youthful stage

Middle / mature stage

Lower course or old stage / senile


Examples of rivers

River Nile

River Kagera

River Nkusi

River katonga

River semlila

River Kafu

River Achwa


Map of Uganda showing major rivers



Terms related to rivers

Source: point where a river starts

Mouth of a river: point where a river ends

Estrary: wide mouth of a river

Tributary: small river joining a bigger river

Distributary: small river flwoing away from a bigger river.

Gorge: narrow part of a river with an over deepened valley

Confluence: point where rivers meet

Meander: the curved bend of a river


River Nile

It is the longest river in the World.

Its locally known as Kiira.

Its source is at Lake Victoria near Jinja

Its mouth is at Mediterranean sea and it ends in a Delta

Damietta and Rosetta are its two main distributaries

The Nile in Uganda has two sections i.e.

Victoria Nile: between Lake Victoria and Lake Albert

Albert Nile: between Lake Albert and Nimule

River Nile flows northwards because its source is at a higher altitude than the north.

River Achwa is the only tributary of the Nile in Uganda


Water falls along the Nile in Uganda

Bujagali falls, Kavuma falls, Murchison falls.


Dams found along the Nile in Uganda

Bujagali dam, Kiira dam, Nalubaale dam


Nile valley countries

Uganda / Sudan / Egypt / Ethiopia


River kagera

It pours into Lake Victoria

It forms a natural boundary between Uganda and Tanzania


River Achwa

It is a tributary of river Nile found in northern Uganda

Its main tributaries are Agago and Pager

It is the most extensively used river for irrigation in Uganda


River Katonga

It draws into Lake Victoria


River semlila

Found along the border of Uganda and DRC

It drains into Lake Albert


River Kafu and Nkusi

Kafu flows into Lake Kyoga while Nkusi into Lake Albert


Reasons why transport is difficult on some rivers

They have rapids

They have waterfalls

They have rocks

They are narrow

They wild dangerous aquatic animals.


Problems facing rivers

Dumping of waste materials in them.

Prolonged drought.


Formation of physical features


Types of mountains in Uganda

Block mountains (horst mountains)

These were formed by faulting e.g. Rwenzori .


Faulting is the process by which rocks of the earth’s crust are broken down.

Two theories or forces explains the formation of block mountains.

  1. Tensional forces
  2. Compressional forces


Formation of block mountains

  1. Compressional
  2. Faults
  3. Horst mountain


Volcanic mountain

These were formed by the process of volcanicity.

Volcanicity is the process by which molten rocks (magima) is forced on the earth’s surface.



Hot molten rocks below the earth’s surface

Lava molten rocks on the earth’s surface

Crater: hole on top of a volcano

Vent: a hole through which magma reaches the earth’s surface.

Eruption: violent release of lava, ash and gases on the surface of the earth.


Types of volcanic mountains

Active volcano: those that are likely to erupt any time

Dormant (sleeping) those that are resting but like to erupt in future.

Dead (extinct) those that cannot erupt any more.


A volcanic mountain (formation of volcanic mountain)

Diagrams on pg 19 Mk


Formation of the rift valley

A rift valley was formed by faulting

Two forces are responsible for the formation of the rift valley

  1. Tensional force
  2. Compressional force

How a rift valley was formed

Diagrams not drawn

  1. Tensional forces
  2. Faults (fault lines)
  3. Escarpments


Importance of physical features


Help in rain formation

Attract tourists

Used for study purpose

Have fertile soils for forming

Form natural boundaries



Help to generate hydro electricity

Sued for transport

Attract tourists

Source of minerals

Source of water for domestic use and irrigation



Source of water

Sued for transport

Attract tourists

Used for study purposes



Used for farming

QN. How do physical features influence human activities


The climate of Uganda

Climate: is the average weather condition of a place recorded for a long period of time.

Weather: is the state of the atmosphere at a given time.

Climate is recorded over along period of time (30 – 35 years) while weather is determined after a short period of time.


Main factors of climate




Types of climate in Uganda

Tropical climate

Equatorial climate

Semi desert climate

Mountain climate


Map showing climatic regions in Uganda


Tropical climate

Uganda lies within the tropic of cancer and the tropic of Capricorn so much of Uganda’s climate is of the tropical type i.e. hot and wet.


Characteristics of the tropical climate

It is hot throughout the year.

Rainfall received is less than that of the equatorial climate

Has two main rainfall seasons

Rainfall is received during the hottest season of the year.


Economic activities

Growing of crops e.g. simsim, sorghum, cotton




Equatorial climate

This type of climate is experienced in areas lying along the equator e.g. Kampala, Jinja, Wakiso, Entebbe

It is described as hot and wet throughout the year.


Characteristics of equatorial climate

It is hot and wet throughout the year

It receives convectional rainfall

Humidity in the region is high due to high transpiration and evaporation rates


Economic activities

Crop growing coffee, tea, cocoa






Problems facing people in equatorial regions


Poor road network

Soggy soils


Semi arid climate

This climate lies in the north eastern part of Uganda in the districts of Kotido, Moroto and Nakapiripirit


Characteristics of semi desert climate

The temperatures are vey high

It has low and unreliable rainfall (cyclonic / frontal)

It is described as hot and dry.


Economic activities

Animal rearing




Problems of semi arid areas

Very cold at night and cold during day

Little rainfall received


Mountain climate

This type of climate is experienced in highlands and is cool due to high altitude

Highlands and mountains help in formation of relief rainfall.

Places that lie on the leeward side (rain shadow of the mountain receive less or no rainfall while those on the windward side receive much rainfall

Highland and mountainous experience low temperatures compared to low land areas.

Water bodies help in the formation of convectional rainfall.


Influence of climate of human activities

People in areas with heavy rainfall practice crop growing while those in areas with semi arid areas practice pastoralism


Farming in Uganda

Farming is the growing of crops and keeping of animals

Why is it important for farmers to know the climate of an area?

Its because the type of crops grown and animals kept depend on the climate


Farming systems in Uganda

Subsistence farming: this is the growing of crops and keeping of animals mainly for home use.


Why do most people in Uganda practice subsistence farming

It is cheap

It requires less land

It requires cheap labour force from family members.


Disadvantages of subsistence farming

Low quality products

Low yields


Mixed farming: this is the growing of crops and keeping of animals on the same piece of land under the same management


Advantages of mixed farming

A farmer gets double income

A farmer gets a balanced diet

There is interdependence between crops and animals

A farmer gets skilled labour


Disadvantages of mixed farming

It is expensive to start and manage

It requires skilled labour

Animals can easily damage the crops

It requires a large piece of land



Plantation farming

This is the growing of one perennial crop on a large scale for sale


Examples of plantation crops





Oil palm



This is a beverage crop

It requires warm temperatures and heavy rainfall


Examples of tea plantation estates




Tea growing districts







Ta is harvested by plucking buds



Coffee is a beverage crop

It contains a substance called caffeine


Types of coffee

Arabica coffee grown in highlands

Robusta coffee grown in low lands

Clonal coffee


Advantages of clonal coffee over other types

More resistant to diseases

Matures faster than other types

Gives high yields


NB: coffee is harvested by hand picking of berries



It grows in swampy areas

Its stems are crushed to get juice which makes sugar crystals


Sugarcane plantation in Uganda

Kakira in Jinja

Lugazi in Mukono

Kinyara in Masindi

Sango bay in Rakai



Is a cereal crop which requires low temperatures and heavy rainfall.

The grains provide flour used in baking.

In Uganda wheat is mainly growin in Kapchorwa, Kisoro, Bundibugyo


It is a fibre crop used in the textile industry

It is grown using seeds and harvested by picking fluff

It is taken in ginneries to remove seeds and remaining is lint

The lint is processed into threads and this is called spinning


Cotton growing districts in Uganda

Kumi, Iganga, Tororo, Jinja, Kamuli, Lira, Gulu, Apac, Pallisa, and Kasese


Uses of cotton

To make threads

To make cloth

To make cotton wool used in hospitals

The seeds make animal feeds

The seeds can produce cooking oil and soap.


Cattle keeping

It is divided into three

Dairy farming


Nomadic pastoralism


Dairy farming

Is the keeping of cows for mainly milk production

Dairy farming is mainly carried out in the cool mountainous areas

Dairy farms are commonly found in Kisoro and Kabale


Dairy farms are commonly found in Kisoro and Kabale


Products obtained in a dairy farm

Milk, butter, yoghurt, ghee, cheese


Ranch farming

Is the rearing of cattle for beef production

Ranch farming is mainly carried out in dry areas

Sometimes bulls are used for transport and ox – ploughing


Products from a ranch


Hooves for making glue

Horn tips for making buttons


Examples of ranches in Uganda

Nyabushozi – Mbarara

Kisozi – Mpigi

Kabula – Sembabule

Maruzi – Apac

Buruli – Nakasongola

Achwa – Kitgum

Ujuk – Katakwi

Bunyoro – Masindi


Nomadic pastoralism

Pastoralism is the keeping of animals as a way of life.

Nomadic pastoralism is the movement of cattle keepers from one place to another looking for pasture and water.

It is mainly carried out in Semi arid areas


Districts where nomadic pastoralism is carried out





Problems facing nomadic pastoralists

Shortage of water and pasture

Cattle rustling / cattle raiding

Animal diseases


Why do nomads keep large numbers of animals


For cultural purposes

For food


Irrigation farming

This is a method of farming where crops are provided with water by an

This is the supply of water to land in order to make it productive especially in dry areas.

The supply of water to crops mainly in dry areas.



Types of irrigation

Overhead sprinkler irrigation

Canal irrigation


How can crop farming be made possible in dry areas


Advantages of irrigation farming

Crops can be grown throughout the year

A farmer gets high yields

Dry land can be made productive for crop growing


Disadvantages of irrigation farming

Needs skilled labour

Requires a reliable source of water

Leads to erosion and leaching

It is expensive to start and maintain


Examples of irrigation schemes



Source of water

Crops grown



River Kibimba

Rice, main vegetables



R. Nyamaba, R. Sebwe

R. Mobuku

Cotton, maize, bananas, onions, tomatoes




Flowers, tomatoes, pineapples




Citrus fruits, e.g. oranges, lemons, pears



R . Achwa

Citrus fruits


Traditional cash crops

These are crops that were introduced by the colonialists for export e.g. cotton, coffee, tobacco


Nontraditional cash crops

These are crops that were formerly grown for food but now ar sold e.g. maize, beans


Advantages of nontraditional cash crops

They have ready market

They mature quickly
they serve more than one purpose


Why people are encouraged to grow nontraditional cash crops

To promote export trade

To promote industrialization


Problems faced by farmers in Uganda

Poor transport network

Crop pests and diseases

Unstable prices

Shortage of capital

Soil erosion



Feeder roads should be constructed and maintained

Agricultural chemicals and tools at low costs

Set minimum standard prices for goods

Give loans to boost farming activities

Set up cooperative societies to look for markets

Provide improved varieties of seeds and animals


Factors affecting climate

Nearness to water bodies

Distance from the equator (latitude)


Man’s activities

Vegetation cover

Local winds

Relief of an area


Qn. Let the teacher explain how each factor affects climate


Vegetation of Uganda

Vegetation is all plant life covering the earth’s surface


Types of vegetation

Natural vegetation

Plantation vegetation


Natural vegetation

Is the plant cover of an area that grows on its own.


Examples of natural vegetation






Plantation vegetation

Is the plant cover of an area planted by man


Examples of plantation vegetation





Types of natural vegetation

Equatorial vegetation (tropical rain forests)

Savannah vegetation

Semi desert

Mountain vegetation

Mountain vegetation



Rain forests

They are mainly found along the equator

Its ever green


Examples of tropical rain forests

Mabira (Mukono)

Budongo (Masindi)

Marabigambo (Rakai)

Bugoma (Hoima)


Types of tree species got from natural forests

Mvule (troka)



Rose wood

African walnut

Green heart


Characteristics of tropical rain forests

They are evergreen (don’t shade off their leaves)

They grow very tall and at the same time form canopies

They have broad leaves and large trunks

They have buttress roots

Have thick undergrowth

Provide hard wood

Take long to mature


Activities carried out in this vegetation





Savannah vegetation

This covers the largest part of Uganda

It is sub divided into two namely;

Savannah grassland

Savannah woodland

Most trees in woodland savannah are deciduous (shade off their leaves during the dry season)


Examples of trees in savannah vegetation




Characteristics of savannah vegetation

Has tall grass

Has scattered tree species

Trees are deciduous


Activities in the savannah


Animal rearing

Crop growing


Why most game parks in Uganda found in Savannah vegetation

Has a complete food chain

Has a good habitat


Semi desert (bush land and shrub)

It is found in north eastern Uganda


Characteristics of semi desert vegetation

Has thorny shrubs and thickets e.g. cactus

Has short and scattered grasses

Trees have thin leaves and thick barks


Economic activities

Nomadic pastoralism




Diagram showing mountain vegetation


More vegetation is found in the windward side of the mountain because of reliable rainfall.


Why is plant growth difficult on tops of high mountains

The areas are too cold and rocky.


Economic activities carried out



Animal rearing e.g. dairy

Crop growing


Swampy vegetation

Swamps are water logged and vegetated areas

Sometimes swamps are called wetlands


Swamps are divided into

Swamp forests are swamps that have trees

Papyrus swamps: are swamps that have grasses growing in them.


Uses of swamps

Source of raw materials

Act as fishing grounds

Habitat for wild animals

Areas of scientific study

Help in rain formation

Filter water and remove pollutants

They are grazing grounds for animals

They have fertile soils for crop growing


Problems facing wetlands

Draining swamps

Disposal of industrial wastes

Over harvesting of swamp vegetation

Establishment of infrastructure, roads, industries and housing


Dangers faced by people living near swamps

Swamps harbor disease vectors e.g. mosquitoes

Harbor dangerous wild animals like snakes

In case of heavy rainfall floods can be menace


Plantation vegetation

This vegetation include; trees that are planted by people.


Examples of plantation forests in Uganda








Districts with plantation forests in Uganda

Lendu in Nebbi

Mafuga in Rukungiri

Bugamba in Mbarara

Nyabyeya near Budongo forests

Katuugo near Nakasongola

Magamaga in Iganga


Uses of plantation forests

Provide soft wood for making paper rulers pencils plywood and match boxes


Characteristics of plantation forests

Trees provide soft wood

Trees have same species

Trees mature quickly

Trees are tall and straight

They are evenly spaced

There is little undergrowth

They are evergreen


Importance of forests to man

They are sources of timber

They are sources of wood fuel

They help in rain formation

They attract tourists

They are a habitat for wildlife

They are for education and scientific research

They are sources of herbs

They help in controlling soil erosion


Why man has destroyed forests

To get land for farming

To get herbal medicine

To get wood fuel

To get timber


Ways of conserving forests



Agro – forestry

Enforcing laws against deforestation

Gazetting land for forests

Massive sensitization of people on uses of forests


Factors affecting vegetation distribution

Climate of an area

Relief of an area

Nature of the soil

Human activities e.g. deforestation, afforestation

NB: Let the teacher explain how each of the above factors influence vegetation distribution.



























Foreign influence in Uganda

Foreigners are people who are not citizens to a particular country.

A citizen is a person who enjoys civil, constitutional and human rights of a nation or country.

Foreigners to Uganda came from two regions or continents. These regions are Asia and Europe

Foreigners to Uganda came in four major groups.


Groups of foreigners in Uganda







These were the first group of foreigners to enter Uganda.

Traders came in two groups

These groups were;

Asian traders

European traders


Asian traders

Asian traders came to Uganda in two groups

These groups were;

Arab traders

Indian traders


Arab traders

Arabs were the first group of foreigners to enter Uganda

They came from Saudi Arabia, Persia, Yemen, Oman in the continent of Asia

They used their boats called DHOWS to cross Indian ocean.

The monsoon winds helped them to blow their dhows to the coast of East Africa.

The Arabs first settled at the coast of East Africa.

They settled in places like;

  1. Kilwa
  2. Mogadishu
  3. Mombasa
  4. Lamu
  5. Malindi
  6. Zanzibar and
  7. Sofala

The Arabs named the land at the coast the “Zenji” empire

The word Zenji means the land of the black people

The Arabs entered Uganda through Tanganyika present day Tanzania

They passed through places of Tabora and Karagwe.


Why the Arabs entered Uganda through Tanganyika.

They feared to face the hostile people in Kenya

The first Arab traders to come to Uganda were led by Ahmed Bin Ibrahim. Ahmed Bin Ibrahim therefore was the first Arab trader to come to Buganda in 1844.

Kabaka Sunna II of Buganda received the first Arab traders in Buganda.

Suray Bin Amir was another important Arab to come to Buganda.

The Arabs came to Uganda majorly to carryout trade.

They later spread Islamic religion.


Goods (items) brought to Uganda by Arabs to Uganda








Some crops


Goods taken by Arabs from Uganda






Food stuffs


The Arabs used barter trade system

Barter trade is the exchange of physical goods.

The Arabs later introduced cowrie shells.

Cowrie shells were later used as a medium of exchange

Another group of Arabs to enter Uganda from the north in 1841.

These Arab traders came from Suda and Egypt.

These were called the Khartonmers

They raided the areas of Acholi, Bunyoro and Lango.

In Buganda the traders were moving in big groups called caravans


Effects of the coming of Arabs in Uganda


They introduced cowrie shells which was used in trade as the firs form of money.

They introduced new goods (e.g. cloths, beads, etc)

They introduced Islam.

They introduced new crops (e.g. mangoes, rice etc)

They introduced new culture (dressing styles)

Trade activities increased.

They developed trade routes in Uganda

Chiefdoms developed into kingdoms and empires.

They introduced Swahili language.



They introduced slave trade in Uganda

Slave trade increased wars among communities in Uganda

People lost their lives through slave trade

They caused disunity among people


Why Islam took long to spread in Uganda

The Arabs were more interested in trade

The Arabs were hated for being slave traders

Islam was preached in foreign language which proved hard to the natives.

Arabs were not favoured by the colonialists

People feared the practice of circumcision


Slave trade and slavery

Slave trade is the buying and selling of human beings.

Slavery is the illegal owing of a person by another person


How slaves were obtained by Arabs

By raiding villages

Through inter tribal wars

By direct buying


Why slave trade developed in Uganda

There was need for labour at the coast and the other countries

The Arab traders and African chiefs wanted money

The African chiefs wanted guns for defense and expansion

Disunity among communities in Uganda


Why slave trade took long to come to an end

Chiefs and kings were benefiting a lot

African chiefs and kings supported it


Effects of slave trade in Uganda

Population decrease

Uganda lost strong men and women

A lot of suffering and death was experienced

Property was destroyed

Families split up

It led to famine

Slave trade caused wars



Kingdoms developed

New crops were introduced

New items were introduced


Indian traders

This is another group of Asian traders

Indian traders came from India

They came to carryout trade

Alidina Visram was the first Indian trader to open up a shop in Kampala

Indians introduced Rupees as a form of money

Rupees replaced the cowrie shells that was introduced by the Arabs


Other important Indian traders include

Mehta khalida

He established the first sugarcane plantation in Uganda at Lugazi in 1924.

Muljibahi madhvan

He started Kakira sugar plantation at Jinja

Later other Indians came to build the Uganda railway.

These were the Indian coolies (prisoners)


Effects of Indians in Uganda

They introduced rupees in Uganda

They started sugarcane growing in Uganda

They started the banking system (Banian)

They set up sugar factories in Uganda

They set up ginneries

They increased business in Uganda

They controlled all the economy of Uganda


The Indians were later expelled from Uganda by President Idi Amin Dada


The coming of Europeans to Uganda

Europeans came to Uganda in four groups these groups were






The European explorers came to Uganda

The explorers were the first European group of people to come to Uganda


Why the explorers came to Uganda

They came to look for the source of river Nile

They came to know more about Uganda

River Nile was the major physical feature that attracted most of the European explorers

Most of these explorers were sent by the Royal geographical society (RGS)

The Royal Geographical Society funded (financed) the explorers’ journeys in Uganda


John hannington speke

John Speke made two journeys to Uganda

His two journeys were sponsored by the Royal Geographical Society


John Speke and Richard Burton 1856 – 1858

They came to look for the source of the Nile

They reached Tabora in 1857

They reached Lake Tanganyika in February 1858.

They became the first European explorers to see L. Tanganyika in Tanzania.

They visited chief Kamweri of Usambara

John Speke left Burton at Tabora and moved north words

John Speke reached the shores of lake Victoria on 30th July 1858

He named it after Queen Victoria of England

Before John Speke the lake was called Lake Nyanza in Tanganyika, Nalubaale in Uganda

He proved that this lake was the source of the Nile


John Speke became the first European explore to see the source of the Nile

He was also the first European explorer to come to Uganda

On returning home they developed a disagreement about the source of the Nile.


John Speke and James Grant (1860 – 1863)

John Speke made his second journey with James Grant

He came to confirm his discovery of the source of the Nile on Lake Victoria

They were escorted by two gun men from the coast

These escorts were Mwinyi Mabruki and Sidi Bombay

They passed through the kingdom of Karagwe

They were received by king Rumanika of Karagwe

Grant fell sick and was left behind by Speke

John Speke arrived at Kabaka Muteesa’s palace at Banda in 1862.

John Speke reached the source of the Nile on 28th July 1862.

He named the falls at the source the Ripon falls.

He named the falls after Lord Ripon the president of Royal Geographical Society in Britain at that time.


Sir Samuel Bakar

He was the first European explorer to look for the source following it from the source

He came with his wife

He was the first European explorer to come with his wife

John Speke and James Grant met Sir Samuel Baker at Gondokoro in south Sudan.

They told him that they had discovered the source of river Nile

He changed his journey

He went to West and reached Omukama Kamurasi’s palace in Bunyoro

He became the first European to see Lake Mwitanzigye

He named it lake Albert after the husband of Queen Victoria of England

He also became the first European explorer to see the Murchison falls in 1864.

He was later sent as the first governor of the equatorial province by Khedive Ismail of Egypt

The equatorial Province was the region between south Sudan and northern Uganda

He established his headquarters at Patiko in northern Uganda where he helped so much in the fight against slave trade.

Sir Samuel Baker gave guns to the people of Acholi to protect themselves against slave traders.


Ways how sir Samuel baker helped the people of acholi land

He fought salve trade in northern Uganda


Henry Morton Stanley

He was sent by new Herald and British Daily telegram

He made three journeys to Africa

He entered Uganda through Tanganyika

One his first journey he was sent to look for Dr. David Livingstone

On his second journey he came to complete


Dr. David Livingstone

He circumnavigated (sailed) around Lake Victoria

He wanted to prove if it was the source of River Nile

Stanley visited the Kabaka of Buganda (Muteesa I)

Muteesa I requested Henry Stanley Morton to write a letter on his behalf inviting missionaries to Uganda


Why did muteesa I invite missionaries to uganda

To teach his people reading and writing

He expected missionaries to give him guns for protection

To teach his people Christianity

Stanley moved towards western Uganda and became the first European to see Mt. Rwenzori, R. Edward and L. George


Problems faced by explorers

Language problems

They experienced shortage of supplies like drugs, food etc

They were attacked by tropical diseases

They were attacked by unfriendly tribes

Poor means of transport and communication

Harsh climatic conditions


Effect of the coming of the explorers

Their reports encouraged traders and administrators to come to Uganda

Brought new goods in form of special gifts

They made Uganda known to outside world.



These were the second group of Europeans to come to Uganda

A missionary is a person who leaves his land to go to a foreign land to spread the word of God

They came in two major groups




Protestants missionaries

They were the first group to come to Uganda

They were sent by the church missionary society (CMS)

They are also called Anglican missionaries

They were led by Alexander Mackay others were C T Wilson and Shergold Smith

They arrived here in 1877.

Alexander Mackay was carpenter, builder, teacher

The brought the first printing press in Uganda

Other importation protestant missionary include

Dr Albert Cook

He built the first missionary hospital in Uganda at Mengo

He tried to control the spread of sleeping sickness aroud the shores of lake Victoria


Kenneth Borup

He introduced the fast growing cotton seeds called American upland variety in 1903.


Robert Ashe

Brought the first Raleigh bicycle


Bishop Hannington

He died in Busoga on his way to Buganda under the order of Mwanga

He was killed because he used a wrong route while entering Buganda


Apollo Kivebulaya

He was a Muganda missionary

He spread Christianity in western Uganda and eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.


The roman catholic missionaries (white fathers)

They came from France and arrived in Uganda in 1879.

They were led Father Simon Lourdel and Brother Amans Delmas

They were later joined by Fr. Leon, Livinchac and Ludoric Girault and Fr. Leon Barbot

They were sent by Cardinal Kavengerie of missionaries of Africa and Algeria


Other groups of catholic missionaries included

Holy ghost father

Mill hill fathers


Persecution of Christian converts

Before Muteesa I died, he had developed a dislike towards missionaries


Why Muteesa I developed a dislike for the missionaries

They disobeyed his orders

They preached against the traditional practices and culture


Who is a martyr

This is a person who dies for his or her faith.

The first three Christian martyr were killed at Natete near Busega

These were;

Makko Kakumba

Nuwa Sserwanga

Yusufu Lugalama


Write down a list of the Christian martyrs

The massive killing of the martyrs was at Namugongo

The largest number of martyrs was killed on 3rd June

This is why Christians in Uganda and neighbouring countries commemorates (remember) the 3rd June every year.

Pope Paul VI came to Uganda in 1969 to recognize the Uganda Martyrs

Arch Bishop Luwumu was also killed in 1972 by Iddi Amin Dada

He was declared a martyr by the Anglican church of England

Bishop was the first African Anglican bishop in Uganda

He is the last martyr to be killed.


Positive effects of missionary work

They introduced Christianity

They introduced formal education

They introduced new crops e.g. cotton

They built hospitals

They built schools


Negative effects

They preached against traditional cultures

They led to religious wars

They paved way for the coming of colonialists

They led religious divisions


Formal education

This is the type of education introduced by European. It replaced the informal type.


Informal education

This is the type of education that existed before the coming of Europeans



These were the third group of Europeans to come to Uganda

They came to carryout trade.


William Mackinnon

He was a British trader

He formed the imperial British East African Association (IBEACO) in 1887.

The Association got a charter in 1888 and became the imperial East African Company (IBEACO)

It had its headquarters at Machakosin Kenya


Captain Fredrick Lugard

He was a British trader

He was sent to Uganda to represent IBEACO in 1890.

He set up his headquarters at Old Kampala

He built for Edward on Old Kampala hill.

He signed a partition treat with Kabaka Mwanga

He signed a friendship agreement with Omugabe Ntare of Ankole in 1890.

Lugard restored Omukama Kasagama of Toro to his throne

Lugard brought the Sudanese soldiers to Uganda

He wanted them to help him fight wars and ensure stability and peace in Buganda



Why IBEACO was formed

To promote trade in the main land

To protect British interests in Uganda

To stop slave trade

To develop communication and transport network in Uganda

To promote peace and security


Ibeaco collapsed because it became bankrupt


Why ibeaco ran bankrupt

It lacked a reliable and potential source of income

It got so involved in the political administration which was costly

The territory controlled was too large to be maintained properly

It employed many personnel that needed big pay.

Before the company left Bishoop Alfred Tucker asked for funds from the Church Missionary Society to keep it operating in Uganda

William Mackinnon suggested the need to build the Uganda railway



This was the fourth group of Europeans to come to Uganda

They came from Europe

The first European country attempted colonizing Uganda was Germany

Germany sent Carl Peters to Uganda who signed a treaty with Mwanga demanding to have full control over Uganda 1890.


Sir Gerald Portal

He was sent to make a report on how best Uganda could be ruled in 1893


He built forts in Toro (Fort Portal) and at Entebbe (Fort Alice)

He established his headquarters at Entebbe making it the first capital city of Uganda

He declared Uganda a British protection



This is a country where foreigners, settle, develop and take full control of Administration



A person who settles in an area that has become a colony.



This is where a more powerful country controls another country




A country ruled by a foreign power temporally to protect their interests


Methods of acquiring colonies

Signing treaties

Using force

Using company rule

Using missionary work

Using agents


Systems of colonial administration

Indirect rule

Direct rule

In Uganda the British used Indirect rule

Captain Lugard proposed the idea of using indirect rule

Indirect rule was the type of rule where colonialists used African leaders to rule on their behalf.

In Uganda indirect rule was used in the kingdoms of Toro, Buganda, Ankole


Why did the British use indirect rule

It was cheaper than direct rule

It reduced rebellions

It solved the problem of language barrier

It did not interrupt cultural practices

They lacked enough manpower


Disadvantages of indirect rule

Native leaders lost full control of their territories

Native leaders were used as puppets

It caused division among natives


Direct rule

This is where colonialists did not use local chiefs to administer on their behalf.

In Uganda direct Rule was used in areas which did not have local leaders and those areas which resisted e.g. Bunyoro, Kigezi, Kabale, Ntungamo


Reaction’s resistance

Resistance through staging rebellions

Collaboration through signing treaties or agreements


Kabalega’s resistance

Never wanted British rule in his kingdom

Wanted to protect Bunyoro’s independence

He used his army of the Abarusula but they were defeated by Colonel Henry Colville

Kabalega was arrested and exiled to Seychelles islands in the Indian Ocean

While on his way back in 1992 he died on the way at Mpumudde near Jinja.


Mwanga’s revolt

He was not happy with Uganda’s involvement in the politics of his kingdom

He wanted to send away the missionaries who were dividing his people and making his subject disobey his orders.

Mwanga was defeated by the British captured and exiled with Kabalega to Seychelles island

The British replaced him with his young son Daudi Chwa II

He later died in 1907 while in exile


Lamogi rebellion 1911 – 1912

This was staged by the people of Acholi against the British

It was led by chief Awich of Payera



The Acholi never wanted to register their guns

Awich wanted to protect his independence


Nyangire rebellion

The word Nyangire means “I have refused”

It was staged by Bunyoro

The Banyoro never wanted Baganda agents to rule them.

Banyoro fought the Baganda agents who fled to Hoima

Finally governor Henry Colville sent troops and they defeated Bunyoro



The 1900 Buganda Agreement

It was signed between the Buganda kingdom and the British protectorate government

Sir Harry Johnston signed on behalf of the British government

Sir Apollo Kaggwa signed on behalf of the Buganda kingdom

The agreement was signed during the rule of Kabaka Daudi Chwa II

Daudi Chwa II did not sign the agreement because he was very young of about 3years old

He was ruling under regents (helpers)

The helpers were;

Sir Apollo Kaggwa (prime minister)

Stanas Mugwanya (chief justice)

Zakaria Kisingir (treasurer)


Terms (issues) of the agreement



Government / administration


Effects or results or outcomes of the 1900 Buganda agreement

Land was divided into mailo and crown land

Buganda’s land was divided into 20 counties

Buganda’s boundaries were fixed.

Hut and gun taxes were introduced

Kabaka’s powers were reduced

The lukiiko was given more powers


How did toro benefit from the 1900 buganda agreement

It confirmed Toro’s independence from Bunyoro


Toro agreement of 1900

It brought Toro under the British protectorate


Ankole agreement (1901)

It was signed between the British and Omugabe Kahaya of Ankole

Ankole was given the counties of Buhweju, Igara, Bunyaruguru and Kajara in 1898.

Nuwa Mbaguta was the prime minister at that time



Nuwa mbaguta

He helped to fight illiteracy in Ankole

He started the building of roads in Ankole

He planted trees in Ankole to improve on the environment


Semei Kakungulu

He extended the British rule in Eastern and northern Uganda

He signed treaties with the native chiefs in eastern Uganda

He built his headquarters at Budaka

He helped the British to arrest Kabalega and Mwanga

He planted Mvule trees to improve on the environment

He built roads in Eastern Uganda


Fixing the boundaries of Uganda

Uganda was declared a British protectorate in 1894.

Present day Uganda is smaller compared to Uganda before 1900.


A map of Uganda showing evolution of Uganda



Why some parts were removed or given to Uganda

Nyanza province was given to Kenya in 1902

To have the Nandi and Masai under one government

To put the Uganda railway under one administration

To allow Uganda concentrate on the development of north – eastern region

West Nile from Sudan to Uganda in 1914

To have maximum control over the Nile

North eastern part from Uganda to Kenya 1926

To separate the Karamojong and the Turkana

Lado enclave from Uganda to Sudan 1914

To separate the Sudanese from the Acholi


Negative effects of fixing boundaries

Tribes were separated for example there are Luo in Kenya and Uganda

Families were split


Effects of colonial rule


Encouraged cash crop growing

Built roads and railways

Built schools

Built hospitals

Built modern industries

Taught people modern administration

Encouraged the respect of human rights



Loss of natives’ independence

Put unjust laws

They over exploited Uganda

Racial segregation

Promotion of divide and rule

Loss of major elements of culture


Reasons for the introduction of crop growing in Uganda

To get raw materials for their industries

To enable Ugandans to get income to pay taxes



Colonel sir Henry Colville

He fought and defeated Kabalega

He brought Bunyoro under British rule


Sir Harry Johnston

He was last British commissioner in Uganda

He signed the 1900 Buganda agreement on behalf of the British government


Sir Hesketh Bell

He was the first governor in Uganda

He encouraged the growing of cash crops

He introduced the first ford car in Uganda

He linked the railway line from Jinja to Namasagali

He constructed ports on lake Victoria, Albert, and Kyoga.


Sir Fredrick Jackson

He ruled during the first world war

He started the construction of Mulago hospital

He overcame the Lamogi rebellion


Sir Robert Thone Coryndon

He established the legislative council in 1921


Sir geofrey f. archer

He opened Makerere college


Sir William gowers


Sir Philip mitchel

He turned Makerere college into a university to promote higher education


Sir Charles dundas

He governed Uganda during the world war two


Sir John hathon mall (1944 – 1952)

Africans joined Legco during his reign

The first political parties were formed during his term in office


Sir Andrew cohen (1952 – 1957)

He exiled Kabaka Mutesa II in 1953

Nyanza textile was built during his time

Owen falls dam was completed during his term of office

He started the construction of parliamentary building and radio Uganda


Sir Fredrick Crawford

He organized the first general elections in 1958

He completed the construction of parliamentary building


Sir walter coutts

He was the last colonial governor of Uganda

He organized the last general elections to independence


The independence of Uganda

Independence in Uganda was obtained peacefully

A series of conferences were organized in London but some Ugandans attended

Mr. JV Wild chaired the committee which organized the first general elections

Uganda got self government in 1961 led by Ben Kiwanuka

The London conference was organized in 1961

On 9th October 1962 Uganda attained independence

He was the first prime minister of independent Uganda

In 1963 edward Muteesa II was appointed first non executive president of Uganda and deputized by Nadiope Wilberforce.

DP, UPC and UNC participated in the first elections

The duke of Kent handed over the instruments of power to elected prime minister Milton Obote

Uganda attained her independence through forming political parties

UPC and KY made an alliance to win DP in the elections that brought Obote as the first prime minister of Uganda


Presidents of Uganda

Kabaka Muteesa II  1963 – 1966

Milton Obote  1966 – 1971 / 1980 – 85

Amin Dada 1971 – 1979

Yusuf Kironde Lule  April 1979 – June 1979

QC Lukongwa Binaisa  June 1979 – 80

Paul Mwanga May 1980 – December 1980

Tito Okello Lutwa July 1985 – Jan 1986

Kaguta yoweri museveni January 1986


Uganda as a nation

A nation is a group of people with the same language, culture and history under one government

A state is an organized political community under one government


Characteristics of a state

It has a national leader

It has its own citizens

It has clearly marked boundaries


Symbols of a nation

National anthem

National flag

National coat of arms

National constitution

National emblem


National anthem

It was composed by George William Kakoma

It has three main parts called stanzas

Teachers should tell learners to write the anthem


Stanza I

It shows that Uganda is a God fearing country

It shows that Ugandans are united and have liberty.


Stanza II

Ugandans are friendly

Ugandans are peaceful

Uganda is a land of freedom


Stanza III

Uganda has fertile soils

Uganda is the pearl of Africa


Respect of the anthem

Whenever it is being sung all people must stand upright

If unable to stand, one should raise his or her right hand upright


When to sing the anthem

At school assemblies

National day celebrations

Burial of a ruling president

Opening of parliamentary sessions


Singing of the anthem

1st stanza sung when president is not around

1st and 2nd stanzas when the president is attending the function

All the three stanzas are sung during the burial of a ruling president

Also the three stanzas are sung during the swearing of the president


National flag

It was designed by Late Grace Ibingira

It has three colours i.e. black, yellow and red

In the middle of the flag there is a white circle with a crested crane

The crested crane always faces the flag pole

It stands on one leg to show that Uganda is moving forward in development


Why the crested crane was chosen as Uganda’s emblem

It is peaceful and gentle

It is a humble bird

NB When it is raining the national flag should not be left outside


Places where the flag is raised

Government offices

Parliamentary building

School compounds

Air ports

NB: the flag is raised at half mast on the declared day of national mourning


Meaning of colours

Black: it shows that Ugandans are black Africans

Red: it shows brotherhood

Yellow: abundant sunshine

Tropical climate

Lies along the equator


Importance of the national flag

It is a symbol of independence and unity

It is for identification


Coat of arms

It was designed by Paul Mukasa

It is a symbol of independence and unity

It has the Uganda Motto


Significances of symbols on the Uganda coat of Arms

The Uganda Kob – represents wildlife

Crested crane – represents the peaceful nature of Ugandans

Sun – represents Uganda’s abundant sunshine

Coffee and cotton – Uganda is an agricultural country and Uganda’s main cash crops

Blue strips – signify Uganda’s abundant water sources and the mighty source of the Nile

Landscape with green – represents the green colours of Uganda

Spears and shield – represents readiness of the Ugandans to protect and defend themselves in case of enemy attacks


National emblem

The crested crane was chosen as Uganda’s emblem because

It’s peaceful

It’s gentle

It’s used on government official documents and things like national flag currency etc


Functions of kampala as a city

It is an educational centre

It is a commercial centre

It is an administrative centre

It is a communication centre


Types of nations

Monolithic nation: is a type of nation with a common origin, common language, history, desires, territories and cultural institutions e.g. Rwanda, Burundi, Japan etc

Heterogeneous nation: is a nation with different groups of people with different culture, origin and languages but share the same territory e.g. Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.


The government

A government is a group of persons ruling or controlling a country

Types of governments

Democratic government

It is a government whose leaders are elected by the people


Military government

This is a government formed after army takeovers


Federal government

It’s a government where powers of the government are shared between the central government and he local government units called states


Multi party government

It is a government formed after many political parties campaign for state power and elected


Single party government

It is a government led by one political party



Its headed by the president

Its made up of president ministers, civil servants

Ministers collectively are called cabinet

Permanent secretary is the highest civil servant


Functions of the executive

It implements government policies

It monitors service provisions to the public



It’s also the parliament of Uganda

It’s chaired by a speaker

It’s made up of people’s representatives


Functions of the legislature

It makes new laws and amends the old ones

It discusses and approves the national budget

It checks on the government’s expenditure

It discusses international relations



It s headed by the chief justice

It’s made up of judges, magistrates and lawyers


Functions of the judiciary

It settles disputes

It punishes law breakers

It interprets the law


How a government is formed

A government is formed through




Violence e.g. coup de tats


Elections in Uganda

This is when people vote to elect a leader for an official position


Types of elections in Uganda

General elections

These involve the electing of members of parliament and the president


Local elections

Here local government leaders are elected e.g. LCV, LCIII, councilors, mayors etc


Bye elections

Are elections held to fill a vacant seat



A type of elections organized to decide on a political issue


Organization of elections

In Uganda elections are organized by the body called Electoral Commission


Duties of the Electoral commission in Uganda

To conduct and supervise elections

To demarcate constituencies

To declare election results

To compile and update voter’s registers

To carryout civic education


Election terminology

Constituency: this is a voting district

Returning officer: a person in charge of elections in a district.

Voter’s register: this is a list of voters

Polling stations: these are places where voting takes place

Presiding officer: a person in charge of elections at a polling station

Polling assistant: a person at a polling station who assist a presiding officer

Polling day: it’s the day when elections are held

Polling agent: a representative of a candidate at a polling station


Qualifications of a president

Should be a citizen of Uganda

Should be 35years and not more than 75years of age

Should be a registered voter


Qualifications of Member of Parliament

Person of unsound mind

An electoral commissioner (any person involved in organizing elections

A cultural leader

A person declared bankrupt

A person sentenced to death or imprisoned without court fine


NB: a person who heads the electoral commission in Uganda is the chairman electoral commission

Mention any four special groups of people represented in the parliament


Duties of a central government

Protects citizens and their property

Defends the country from foreign attack

Provides employment to its people

Keeps law and order

Building and maintaining main roads

Building a strong economy

Looking after the welfare of its people


Constitutional development in Uganda

A constitution is the supreme law governing a country


Importance of a constitution

To have regulations governing a society

It empowers a group of people in a society

It checks the powers of leaders

It lays down ways to make other laws

It sets the limits of governmental powers

It limits misuse of government offices


Uganda’s constitutions

The 1900 Buganda agreement it had provisions of the constitution e.g. land administration, taxation, boundaries, political administration

Uganda internal self government constitution 1961

Independence constitution of 1962.

The 1966 constitution

The 1967 constitution

The 1995 constitution made by the constituent assembly

NB: It was promulgated on 8th October 1962 at the constitutional square.

It’s the constitutional day in Uganda


Budgeting and taxation

A national budget is a coutnry’s estimated income and expenditure for a given financial year.

The two major parts of a budget are income and expenditure

Uganda’s financial year begins in July and ends in June the following year.


Types of budgets

Balanced budget

It’s a type of budget where the income is equal to the expenditure


Surplus budget

It is a type of budget where expenditure is less than the income


Deficit budget

It’s a type of a budget where expenditure is greater than the income.

Diagrams illustrating the three types


Disadvantages of a deficit budget

It leads a country to debts

It encourages dependence on foreign donations

Government fails to provide services to its people

It may lead to political interference by financial donors


Long term solutions to a deficit budget

Diversifying the economy

Widening the tax base

Privatization of the economy


Importance of budgeting

It avoids unnecessary spending

It helps one identify sources of income

It ensures enough money for the required essentials

It helps to plan how to spend its income


Sources of revenue

Revenue means income of a government

Soruces of income include;




Court fines




A tax is a sum of money paid by the people of the country to the government


Types of taxes

Direct taxes

These are taxes which the government gets directly from tax payers e.g. PAYE, income tax


Indirect taxes

These are taxes incurred on spending e.g. VAT, Customs duty, and excise duty.


Customs duty: it’s a tax levied on imports and exports

Excise duty: it’s a tax levied on locally manufactured goods.


VAT – value added tax charged on goods and services


Why people pay taxes

To construct roads

To construct schools

To pay civil servants

To construct and maintain hospitals

To cater for security services


Why people don’t pay taxes

Lack of tax information

High tax rates

Corruption among tax collectors

Most tax information is written in English


Rights and responsibilities of the citizens

A citizen is a person who enjoys full, civil, democratic and human rights in a country


Ways of becoming a citizen in Uganda

By birth: is a person whose parents or grand parents were members of the indigenous communities when Uganda’s boundaries were drawn in 1926.


A foundling is abandoned child of unknown parents. If found and is less than five years that child qualifies to be a citizen by birth.



A person may become a citizen of Uganda by registration under the following ways

  1. An adopted child under the age of 18years
  2. A person who has lived in Uganda continuously since independence
  3. A person married to a Ugandan citizen for a period of 3years
  4. Legal and voluntary migrants who have lived in Uganda for atleast 10years


By naturalization

This is where a person from another country is made a citizen of a specified country


Dual citizenship

Is the possession of citizenship of two different countries at the same time


Loss of citizenship in Uganda

A person may lose citizenship in Uganda under the following grounds;

  1. Spying against Uganda
  2. Acquiring citizenship by travel
  3. Serving in an army of a hostile country to Uganda


Duties of the national citizenship and immigration board in Uganda

Registration of citizens

Issues national identity cards

Issues Uganda passports and other travel documents

Granting and canceling citizenship by registration and naturalization

NB: this board is under the ministry of Internal Affairs


Duties of a citizen

Pay taxes promptly

Keep law and order

Register for electoral purposes

Protect and preserve public property

Respect other people’s rights and freedom

Defend Uganda at all times

Take part in self help projects

Take children and other vulnerable persons against any form of abuse


Rights of a citizen

Human rights are basic rights and freedom any human being is entitled to

They include;

Freedom of protection to life

Freedom of speech

Freedom of worship

Freedom of assembly

Right to clean and healthy environment

Right to privacy

Right to belong to a tribe, clan and lineage

Right to access public information

Population size and distribution in Uganda and their relationship to economic planning and development

Population is the number living in an area at a particular time


Population distribution

Population distribution refers to the way people are spread in an area


Factors that affect population distribution

Relief of the area

Rainfall availability

Soil drainage and fertility

Presence of mineral deposits

Historical factors e.g. slave trade

Employment opportunities

Presences of social services

Biological factors e.g. fertility in women

Political stability

Urbanization and industrialization

NB: Explain how each factor affects population growh


Population and resources

The number of people in Uganda varies according to the natural resources in that area


Uganda is classified as a developing country because of the quality of its citizen


Signs of Uganda’s backwardness






Low life expectancy

High infant mortality rate

Belief in superstitions


The above indicators show that Uganda’s population cannot top its resources to the full utilization


Population growth

This refers to the increase of people in an area


Factors affecting population growth

Birth rate

Death rate

Migration rate

Early marriages

Peace and political stability

Good medical services etc


Nb: explain how each factor affects population growth


Natural population increase

This is the difference between the number of births and the number of deaths


Problems of population growth

Food scarcity

Easy spread of epidemic diseases

Lack of accommodation

High crime rate

Lack of proper social services

Land shortage

Land fragmentation

Environmental degradation

Development of slums


Ways of controlling population growth

Family planning campaigns

Tax benefits for small families

Education benefits

Act of parliament or government decree

Sensitizing the masses

Legalising abortion


Hazards which check on population growth

Hazards are bad things that check on population growth


Natural hazards

Pests and diseases


Earth quakes


Strong winds





Transport accidents


Ways of reducing population hazards

Providing proper medical services

Practicing scientific agricultural methods

Advancement in communications

Technological advancement


Advantages of population growth

Ready market for produced goods

Cheap labour force

Full utilization of resources

Enough skilled labour force

Good security services

Enough tax collection base


Problems of low population

Under utilization of resources

Low labour force

Low market for manufactured goods

Low tax collection

Low skilled labour force

Poor security services


Population census

This is the general counting of people in an area

In Uganda it is held every after ten years


Reasons for a population census

To know the birth and death rates

For proper planning for the population

For proper allocation of services

To know the age structure.


Difficulties involved in population census

It is expensive

Lack of skilled enumerators

Wide spread illiteracy

Poor civic education

Walking long distances

False information by the population

Ignorance among the people


Population terminology

Population density: this is the average number of people per square kilometer

Population density = total population = number of people per square kilometer


Over population: this is when the population of an area is greater than its resources

Under population: this is when the population of an area is less than its resources

Sparse population: this is when an area has few people compared to the size of the land

Dense population: this is when an area has many people compared to the size of the land.

Even population: this is when the number of people per square kilometer is almost the same.

Moderate population: this is when an area hasn’t many people and very few people

Optimum population/ population explosion: this refers to the number of people which can be supported by an area according to its resources

NB: the population department is under the ministry of finance planning and economic development


Natural resources in Uganda

A resource is anything that satisfies man’s needs.

A natural resource is anything that satisfies man’s needs and exists on its own.


Types of natural resources

Renewable natural resources

These are natural resources that can be replaced naturally after uses


Examples of renewable natural resources


Human resources





Non renewable natural resources

These are natural resources that can not be replaced naturally after use such as minerals



This is the most important natural resource because

  1. Most natural resources are found on land
  2. Most economic activities are done on land

Uses of land

  1. Used for farming
  2. Used for construction


How land is misused (degraded)

Land degradation is the lowering of the quality of land

Ways of degrading land

By over grazing

By deforestation

By brick making

By dumping waster materials on land

By bush burning

By mining


Causes of land degradation


Population increase (pressure)

Road construction



How can land be conserved?

Land conservation is the protection of land against destruction

Land can be conserved by


Bush fallowing

Agro forestry

Using modern methods of farming like contour ploughing

Proper disposal of waste materials


Water bodies

Examples of water bodies








Uses of water bodies

Source of water for domestic and industrial use

Source of fish

Water bodies are used for transport etc

Some water bodies help to generate electricity e.g.

Rivers (fasting running water) HE

Hot springs – geo thermal power


How water bodies can be misused

Over using water from water bodies

Polluting water bodies by

Dumping waste materials in water bodies

Washing cars from water bodies

Urinating, bathing, defecating in water bodies


How can water bodies be conserved?

Educating people about the dangers of misusing water bodies

Enforcing laws against misusing water bodies

Avoiding constructing industries near water bodies


Fishing in Uganda

Fishing is the catching of aquatic animals


Types of fish caught in Uganda

Tilapia, Nile perch, Silver fish, Mud fish, Cat fish, Lung fish


Tilapia is the commonest type of fish caught in Uganda

Nile perch is the largest fish caught in Uganda

Silver fish is the smallest fish caught in Uganda

Mud fish is mainly got from swamps

Methods of fishing

Modern methods

By using fishing (gill) nets

By using hooks (fishing rods)


Traditional methods

By using fishing baskets

By using spears


Methods of preserving fish

By sun drying – the cheapest method

By salting traditional

Smoking – the commonest method


Modern methods

Tinning (canning)


Deep frying


Importance of fish

Source of food

Source of income

Used to make medicine

Used to make animal and poultry feeds


Importance of the fishing industry

Source of income (employment )

Source of government revenue

Promotes industrialization (leads to development of other industries)

Problems facing the fishing industry of Uganda

Poor methods of fishing like using chemicals

Price changes (unstable prices)

Water weed (hyacinth)

Poor fishing equipments

Poor storage facilities

Poor transport network

Shortage of capital

Theives on water bodies

Catching of young fish


Solutions to above problems

Poor methods of fishing – enforcing laws against poor methods of fishing

Water weed 0- uprooting using hands

Removing it using machines

Applying beetles to feed on it


Poor fishing equipments – providing modern fishing equipments at low cost

Poor storage facilities – providing modern storage facilities at landing sites

Poor transport network – improving on transport network

Thieves on water bodies – tightening security on water bodies

  • Facilitating marine police department
  • Catching of young fish – enforcing laws against catching young fish



Vegetation is the plant cover of an area


Uses of vegetation

Helps in rain formation

Supports animal life etc


How vegetation can be destroyed

By deforestation

By bush burning

By over grazing etc


How man can conserve vegetation

By afforestation

By agro – forestry

By enforcing laws against bush burning

By bush fallowing

By reafforestation


Why man destroys vegetation

To get land for construction, settlement, farming

To get herbal medicine

To get building materials

To get wood fuel



Give human activities that can improve on the climate of an area

Which human activities can affect the climate of an area negatively?



A mineral is a substance formed naturally in the earth


Types of minerals in Uganda

Metallic minerals like gold, copper, cobalt, tin etc

Non metallic like crude oil, limestone, salt, phosphates.


Uses of minerals

Source of income

Raw materials for making different products

Promote industrialization


How minerals can be misused

By over exploiting minerals


Mining in Uganda

Mining is the extraction of minerals from the earth


Methods of mining

Open cost mining

Underground (shaft mining)

Alluvial mining

Drilling mining


Major minerals , mining areas and products obtained from them


Mining area


Product (s)


Obukuru hills




Cement, builing line


Osukuru hills


Artificial fertilizers


Lake Katwe


Common salt

Crude oil

Albertine region

Hoima, bulisa, kibale

Petrol, diesel, kerosene etc







Kotido, Busia

Necklaces, trophies, rings


Importance of mining in Uganda

Source of income

Promotes industrialization

Leads to development of infrastructure

Creates employment


Problems facing the mining industry

Shortage of funds

Price fluctuation

Low level of technology

Small quantities of minerals

Shortage of skilled labour

Poor road network


Problems caused by the mining industry

Destruction of natural vegetation

Leads to population explosion

Leads to environmental pollution

Leads to displacement of people

Leads to neglect of other sectors


Wild life

Wildlife refers to plants, animals, insects, living in a natural environment


Types of wildlife

Flora (plants)

Fauna (animals)


Uses of wildlife

Promotes tourism

Creates employments

Source of government revenue

Used for study and research purposes


How wildlife can be misused

By poaching

By bush burning

By deforestation


How can wildlife be conserved?

Educate people about the importance of wildlife

Enforce laws against the destruction of wildlife


Game parks and game reserves in Uganda

A game park is land gazetted by the government to act as a home of wildlife


A game reserve is a piece of land set aside by government to be turned into a game park.


Game parks and game reserves in Uganda

National parks

Murchison falls (Kabalega) the largest

Queen Elizabeth

Mountain Rwenzori national park

Mountain Elgon national game park

Kidepo valley national Game Park

Bwindi national Game Park

Ngabing national game park

Lake Mburo national Game Park

Semlila national Game Park


Game reserves

Kibale game reserve


Piana upe


Map of Uganda showing national game parks and game reserves (Mk pg 44 – 45)


Importance of game parks

Attract tourists

Provide jobs

Preserve wildlife

Used for study and research purposes

Leads to development of remote areas

Leads to development of infrastructure like roads, railway lines


Problems facing game parks

Poaching – this is the illegal hunting of animals in game parks

Wild bush fires

Prolonged drought

Animal diseases

Shortage of water and pasture


Solutions to above problems

Poaching – enforcing laws against poaching

Animal disease – providing veterinary services in game parks

Wild bush fires – educating people about the dangers of wild bush fires



Tourism is the business of providing services to tourists

A tourist is a person who visits a place for pleasure or study purposes


Services provided to tourists

Accommodation, entertainment, security, transport, banking, health


Why tourism called an industry?

Tourism is a source of income

Tourism provides services to people

Tourism provides employment to people


Why tourism is called an invisible trade?

Tourism does not involve exchange of physical goods.


Tourist attractions in Uganda

Culture, wildlife, historical sites, scenery, climate, vegetation


Tourism centres

Kasubi tombs

Uganda museum

UWEC etc


Problems facing the tourism industry in Uganda


Poor road network

Insecurity in some parts

Shortage of modern hotels

Shortage of tourism centres


How can the tourism industry be promoted in Uganda

By fighting poaching in game parks

By improving on security in Uganda

By putting up more modern hotels

By putting up more tourism centres

Improving on transport network

By marketing the tourism industry abroad


Human resource

How is man a resource?

Man manages other resources

Man exploits other resources

Man provides services

Man provides labour


Types of labour

Skilled labour – this is trained labour force such as teachers, lawyers, doctors etc

Unskilled labour – this is untrained labour such as casual labour like sweeping, digging etc


Tropical evaluation

  1. Briefly define;
    1. A map
    2. A picture
  2. Of what importance is a scale to a map reader?
  3. Draw and name the following map symbols
    1. A rift valley
    2. A quarry
    3. Water falls
  4. Of what importance are latitudes?
  5. Why is a Greenwich meridian called so?
  6. Briefly define these terms;
    1. Latitude
    2. Longitude
  7. Suggest three ways of locating places on a map
  8. Name Uganda’s neighbor to the;
    1. North
    2. East
    3. South West
  9. Identify three problems of Uganda as a landlocked country


The physical features of Uganda

  1. What are physical features?
  2. Identify four major physical features in Uganda
  3. Which physical feature covers the largest part of Uganda?
  4. State two types of mountains found in Uganda
  5. Identify any two processes that were responsible for the formation of mountains in Uganda
  6. Of what formation is
    1. Mountain Elgon
    2. Mountain Rwenzori
  7. Why is the peak of mountain Rwenzori snow capped?
  8. In which way is Joseph Thomson related to Mt. Elgon?
  9. Name the highest peaks of the above mountains
    1. Rwenzori
    2. Elgon
    3. Mufumbiro
  10. Which means of transport is used in hilly / mountainous areas?
  11. Identify two common problems faced by people who live in mountainous areas.
  12. How do mountains influence the climate of an area?
  13. State any two suitable ways of controlling soil erosion in mountainous areas
  14. In which way are the Bakonjo similar to Bagisu?
  15. Why are mountainous areas densely populated?
  16. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow
  17. Name the physical feature marked X
  18. Differentiate between dormant and extinct volcanoes
  19. In which way is Lake Kyoga similar to Lake Victoria in terms of formation
  20. State two characteristics of rift valley lakes.
  21. Why do tourists visit Kazinga channel?
  22. What is the most swampy lake in Uganda?
  23. Why is the above lake swampy?
  24. Why are rift valley lakes salty?
  25. Why does river Nile flow northwards?
  26. Define the following;
    1. Permanent river
    2. Tributary or a river
    3. Distributary of a river
    4. Source of a river
  27. State two reasons why water transport is difficult on some rivers?
  28. Name one dam and water fall found along river Nile in Uganda
  29. Identify any one importance of waterfalls.
  30. Name the sea where river Nile pours its water.
  31. In which way is river Nile important to the industrial growth of Uganda?
  32. State any force responsible for the formation of mountains in Uganda.


    Study the map of Uganda and answer the questions that follow

  33. Identify the mountains marked 1 – 4
  34. Name the lakes marked A – C
  35. Name the rivers marked X – Z
  36. How is mountain 1 similar to 4 in terms of formation?
  37. State two importance of the following physical features;
    1. Lakes
    2. Mountains
    3. Rivers
    4. Plateau
  38. What are escarpments?
  39. Which arm of the rift valley crosses Uganda
  40. Name the mineral resource found around Lake Albert
  41. Give on inland port on Lake Victoria and Albert.


Tropical questions on climate

  1. What is climate?
  2. State the similarity between climate and weather?
  3. How can the climate of an area be determined?
  4. Give any one factor of climate.
  5. Describe the climate that covers the largest part of Uganda
  6. Suggest the main economic activity carried out in the semi arid areas of Uganda?
  7. Why do highland areas of Uganda have cool temperatures?
  8. Why is the equatorial climate described as hot and wet throughout the year?
  9. Give a reason why most parts of Uganda have the tropical climate
  10. Why is crop growing difficult in semi arid areas of Uganda?
  11. State any one problem faced by people in equatorial regions.
  12. Why is Kabale cooler than Entebbe?
  13. What type of vegetation is commonly found in highland areas?
  14. Suggest one cause of the poor road network in the equatorial regions?
  15. Give a reason for the cold conditions at night in semi arid areas.
  16. Mention any one way how climate influences human activities
  17. Why is it important for farmers to know the climate of an area?
  18. Give one characteristic of subsistence farming.
  19. Why do most people in Uganda practice subsistence farming?
  20. How is the harvesting of tea different from that of coffee?
  21. Why is irrigation farming not commonly practiced in Uganda?
  22. How are nontraditional cash crops different from traditional crops?
  23. Give one way how irrigation farming can be made possible in dry areas?
  24. Why do pastoralists move from one place to another?
  25. Mention any one way how pastoralists can be helped to live a settled life?


Tropical questions about vegetation

  1. What is vegetation?
  2. State one difference between natural and planted vegetation.
  3. Why are conifers grouped under planted vegetation
  4. Why are rain forests characterized as being evergreen?
  5. Give one example of a tree species found in natural forests.
  6. Mention one activity carried out in tropical rain forests.
  7. Give a reason why savannah vegetation covers the largest part of Uganda?
  8. What are deciduous trees?
  9. State one characteristic of the savannah vegetation
  10. Why are most game parks in Uganda found in Savannah vegetation
  11. Give a reason why trees in semi arid areas have thin leaves ad thick barks?
  12. Why is plant growth difficult on tops of high mountains?
  13. What are swamps?
  14. Suggest one problem caused by swamps to man?
  15. Why does the windward side of the mountain receive more rainfall than the leeward side?
  16. Give another name for the leeward side of the mountain.
  17. Mention one use of a swamp.
  18. State one problem facing wetlands in Uganda.
  19. State one product got from plantation forests?
  20. How do trees help in controlling soil erosion?
  21. Suggest one way how man has degraded forests?
  22. What is afforestation?
  23. Give one factor affecting vegetation distribution?
  24. How can the relief of an area affect vegetation distribution?
  25. Differentiate between lumbering and deforestation.


Tropical questions

Natural resources

  1. What is a resource?
  2. What do we call things that are useful to man and exist on their own?
  3. Identify any four major natural resources in Uganda
  4. What is the most important natural resources?
  5. State the importance of the following natural resources.
    1. Land
    2. Water bodies
  6. Who does man destroy natural resources?
  7. How can natural resources be conserved?
  8. Define the following terms;
    1. Tourism
    2. Game park
    3. Game reserve
  9. Why is tourism called an industry?
  10. Why should a tourist coming to Uganda be given a map of Uganda?
  11. How can Uganda’s tourism industry be promoted?
  12. State two problems facing Uganda’s tourism industry.
  13. Give two solutions to the above problems
  14. What problems are being faced by game parks in Uganda?
  15. What is poaching?
  16. How poaching dangerous to the tourism industry?
  17. State two game parks found in Uganda.
  18. Which national game park is famous for mountain gorillas?


Tropical questions on Arabs

  1. Name any one country from which the first Arab traders came?
  2. Name the first Arab trader who came to Buganda.
  3. Which ships were used by the Arab traders to come to the coast of East Africa?
  4. Why did slave trade take long to stop in Uganda?
  5. How did the people of Uganda benefit from the coming of Arab traders?
  6. What are “caravans”?
  7. Name the Kabaka of Buganda who received the first Arab trader?
  8. Why were the people of Uganda not happy with the coming of the Arabs?
  9. Why did Islam take long to spread in Uganda.
  10. How was the monsoon winds helpful to the early Arab traders?
  11. How did the Arabs get (acquire) slaves in Uganda?
  12. State any four items that were taken by the Arabs from Uganda?
  13. How did the coming of Arabs affect the tourism industry in Uganda?
  14. Name any one tribe that participated in slave trade in Uganda.


Indian traders

  1. Name the first Indian trader to build a shop in Kampala?
  2. How did Mehta contribute to economic development of Uganda?
  3. State the contributions of the Indians to the transport development in Uganda?
  4. What was the first form of money to be introduced in Uganda?
  5. How do people benefit from the coming of Muljibhai Madhvani?
  6. Name the president of Uganda who expelled the Indians in early 1970s?
  7. How did the Swahili language came into existence?
  8. How did the Indians contribute to the agricultural development of Uganda?



  1. Why did the early European explorers pass through Tanganyika and not through Kenya?
  2. Who was the first white man to see the source of river Nile?
  3. Why did the explorers come to Uganda?
  4. Name the society that sent most explorers to Uganda?
  5. Why did H.M. Stanley move around Lake Victoria?
  6. How is Edward Muteesa I contribute to the education in Uganda?
  7. Name the king of Karagwe who received the first explorers to Uganda?
  8. Apart from Lake Victoria name any other lake that John Speke saw.
  9. Name the explorer who looked for the source of the Nile from its source?
  10. Why was Dr. Ripon important in the coming of explorers to Uganda?
  11. State any two problems faced by early explorers to Uganda?



  1. Explain four major contributions of the missionaries to the people of Uganda?
  2. How did Kabaka Muteesa I contribute to development of education of Uganda?
  3. Which was the first missionary group to come to Uganda?
  4. Why is Alexander Mackay remembered in the history of Uganda?
  5. Why did Muteesa I invite missionaries to Uganda?
  6. Why was Bishop Hannington killed in Busoga on the orders of Kabaka Mwanga?
  7. Who was the leader of the catholic missionary group?
  8. Name the Kabaka of Buganda who ordered the killing of Christian converts?
  9. State any one positive contribution of missionaries in Uganda?
  10. Which was the first missionary hospital to be built in Uganda?
  11. Why is 3rd June remembered in Uganda every year?
  12. Name the Christian martyr who was killed from Old Kampala?
  13. What was the main reason why missionaries came to Uganda?



  1. Give three reasons why the Sudanese soldiers staged a munity (rebellion)
  2. What was the first country to try to colonize Uganda?
  3. What name was given to the soldiers of Omukama Kabalega?
  4. Who was the first governor of equatorial province?
  5. What political event took place in 1894 in Uganda?
  6. State any two reasons why IBEACO was formed?
  7. How did Kasagama of Toro benefit from IBEACO?
  8. How was the engineer of the Lamogi rebellion?
  9. Who built fort Wadelai?
  10. Why is English spoken as an official language in Uganda today?
  11. How did the British try to disarm the Acholi?
  12. How useful was Sir Samuel Baker to the Acholi?
  13. Why didn’t Daudi Chwa sign the 1900 Buganda Agreement?


Uganda becomes a nation

  1. What type of rule did the British use in Uganda?
  2. State any one term of the Buganda Agreement of 1900?
  3. Why is Sir Apollo Kaggwa remembered in the history of Uganda?
  4. Give four reasons why IBEACO failed in Uganda?
  5. State any one contribution Sir Gerald Portal in Uganda?
  6. State two ways in which Semei Kakungulu helped the British to take over Uganda?
  7. Why is Nuwa Mbaguta remembered in the history of Ankole?
  8. Who was the founder of IBEACO?
  9. State any one contribution of the colonialists in Uganda?
  10. How was Daudi Chwa able to rule Buganda yet he was young?



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EcoleBooks | primary five Standard social studies (sst) lesson notes Term one


1 Comment

  • EcoleBooks | primary five Standard social studies (sst) lesson notes Term one

    Ojuka Emmanuel, March 22, 2024 @ 7:19 pm Reply

    I stay here

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