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These were separate homes for educated blacks who were working in large cities in South Africa.

Examples of townships

  • Soweto
  • Sharpeville  Nyanga.
  • Kwa Thema
  • Evaton


Townships were characterized by poor housing conditions, shortage of social services, poor wate management.

The fight/struggle to end apartheid.

Organizations that fought apartheid.

  • Frontline states.
  • Organization of African Unity (OAU).
  • Commonwealth Organization (CWO).
  • Political parties.


Front line states

• These were neighbours of South Africa that helped to fight against apartheid policy.



Examples of frontline states

  • Zimbabwe
  • Angola
  • Mozambique
  • Botswana
  • Lesotho

How frontline states helped to fight against apartheid policy

  • Sponsored / funded freedom fighters.
  • Provided training grounds for freedom fighters.
  • Trained freedom fighters.
  • Provided material support to freedom fighters.
  • By economic sanctions.
  • Provided hiding grounds to freedom fighters
  • Offered travel documents to freedom fighters

    The OAU

How O.A.U helped to fight against apartheid policy.
  • OAU suspended South Africa as a member.

    OAU organized peace talks between government and freedom fighters

    (Liberation movements)

    The Commonwealth Organisation

How the CWO helped to fight against apartheid policy.

  • CWO suspended South Africa as a member.


  • CWO put trade sanctions on South Africa.

Prominent people who helped to fight against apartheid.

  • Nelson Mandela
  • Bishop Desmond Tutu
  • Oliver Tambo
  • Chief Albert Luthuli
  • Chris Hani
  • Robert Sobukwe

    Nelson Mandela

  • He fought against apartheid policy.
  • He was the first black president of South Africa.
  • Fought for:

human rights, freedom Equality


Bishop Desmond Tutu

  • He chaired the Truth and reconciliation Commission.

    Fredrick William De’Klerk

  • He was the last racist president.
  • He released Nelson Mandela from prison.
  • He organized the first multi- racial elections in South Africa.
  • He handed over power to the democratically elected president (Nelson Mandela)





  1. What were townships?
  2. Name the largest township in South Africa during apartheid.
  3. Write two ways frontline states supported South African freedom fighters.
  4. Why are the following remembered in the history of South Africa;
    1. Nelson Mandela?
    2. Bishop Desmond Tutu?





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