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Organic chemistry II (alkanoic acids and alkanols) Questions

1. A student mixed equal volumes of Ethanol and butanoic acid. He added a few drops of

concentrated Sulphuric (VI) acid and warmed the mixture

(i) Name and write the formula of the main products  

Name………………………………….

Formula……………………………………..

(ii) Which homologous series does the product named in (i) above belong?

 

2. The structure of the monomer phenyl ethene is given below:-

 

a) Give the structure of the polymer formed when four of the monomers are added together

b) Give the name of the polymer formed in (a) above

3. Explain the environmental effects of burning plastics in air as a disposal method

4.  Write chemical equation to represent the effect of heat on ammonium carbonate

5.  Sodium octadecanoate has a chemical formula CH3(CH2)6 COONa+, which is used as soap.

 Explain why a lot of soap is needed when washing with hard water

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6.  A natural polymer is made up of the monomer:

 (a) Write the structural formula of the repeat unit of the polymer  

 (b) When 5.0 x 10-5 moles of the polymer were hydrolysed, 0.515g of the monomer

were obtained.

Determine the number of the monomer molecules in this polymer.  

(C = 12; H = 1; N = 14; O =16)

Image From EcoleBooks.com7.  The formula below represents active ingredients of two cleansing agents A and B

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Which one of the cleansing agents would be suitable to be used in water containing magnesium

 hydrogen carbonate? Explain

8.  Study the polymer below and use it to answer the questions that follow:

 

 (a) Give the name of the monomer and draw its structures

 (b) Identify the type of polymerization that takes place

 (c) State one advantage of synthetic polymers

9.  Ethanol and Pentane are miscible liquids. Explain how water can be used to separate a mixture

of ethanol and pentane  

 

10.

 

 

 (a) What is absolute ethanol?

 (b) State two conditions required for process G to take place efficiently

 

11.  (a) (i) The table below shows the volume of oxygen obtained per unit time when hydrogen

peroxide was decomposed in the presence of manganese (IV) Oxide. Use it to answer

the questions that follow:-

Time in seconds

Volume of Oxygen evolved (cm3)

0

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

0

10

19

27

34

38

43

45

45

45

45

(i) Plot a graph of volume of oxygen gas against time

  (ii) Determine the rate of reaction at time 156 seconds

  (iii) From the graph, find the time taken for 18cm3 of oxygen to be produced

  (iv) Write a chemical equation to show how hydrogen peroxide decomposes in the presence

of manganese (IV) Oxide

(b) The diagram below shows how a Le’clanche (Dry cell) appears:-

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(i) What is the function of MnO2 in the cell above?

 (ii) Write the equation of a reaction that occurs at the cathode  

 (iii) Calculate the mass of Zinc that is consumed when a current of 0.1amperes flows

through the above cell for 30minutes (1F =96500c Zn =65)  

12.  (a) Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

  (i) CH3COOCH2CH3 *

 

(ii)  

 

 

(b) The structure below shows some reactions starting with ethanol. Study it and answer

the questions that follow:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(i) Write the formula of the organic compounds P and S *

  (ii) Name the type of reaction, the reagent(s) and condition for the reactions in the following steps :-

(I) Step I  *

   (II) Step II  *

(III) Step III  *

  (iii) Name reagent R  ……………………………………………………………  *

(iv) Draw the structural formula of T and give its name *

(v) (I) Name compound U………………………………………………………..

(II) If the relative molecular mass of U is 42000, determine the value of n (C=12, H=1)

 (c) State why C2H4 burns with a more smoky flame than C2H6  *

13. a) State two factors that affect the properties of a polymer

 b) Name the compound with the formula below :

CH3CH2CH2ONa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 c) Study the scheme below and use it to answer the questions that follow:-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

i) Name the following compounds:-

I. Product T ………………………… II. K ………  

ii) State one common physical property of substance G

iii) State the type of reaction that occurred in step J

iv) Give one use of substance K

v) Write an equation for the combustion of compound P

vi) Explain how compounds CH3CH2COOH and CH3CH2CH2OH can be distinguished chemically

vii) If a polymer K has relative molecular mass of 12,600, calculate the value of n (H=1 C =12)

14.  Study the scheme given below and answer the questions that follow:-

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(a) (i) Name compound P ……………………………………………………………………  

(ii) Write an equation for the reaction between CH3CH2COOH and Na2CO3

(b) State one use of polymer Q

(c) Name one oxidising agent that can be used in step II   …………………………………..

(d) A sample of polymer Q is found to have a molecular mass of 4200. Determine the number of

monomers in the polymer  (H = 1, C = 12)

(e) Name the type of reaction in step I …………………………………………………………..

(f) State one industrial application of step III  

(g)State how burning can be used to distinguish between propane and propyne. Explain your

answer

(h) 1000cm3 of ethene (C2H4) burnt in oxygen to produce Carbon (II) Oxide and water vapour.

Calculate the minimum volume of air needed for the complete combustion of ethene

(Air contains 20% by volume of oxygen)  

15.  (a) Study the schematic diagram below and answer the questions that follow:-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 (i) Identify the following:

Substance Q ………………………………………………………………………………………………..  

Substance R…………………………………………………………………………………………………  

 Gas P…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..  

  (ii) Name:

 Step 1…………………………………………………………………………………….

 Step 4…………………………………………………………………………………….

  (iii) Draw the structural formula of the major product of step 5  

 (iv) State the condition and reagent in step 3  

16.  Study the flow chart below and answer the questions that follow

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com

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(a) (i) Name the following organic compounds:

 M……………………………………………………………..……..

 L…………………………………………………………………..

  (ii) Name the process in step:

Step 2 ………………………………………………………….….

Step 4 ………………………………………………………….…

(iii) Identify the reagent P and Q

 (iv) Write an equation for the reaction between CH3CH2CH2OH and sodium

 

17.  a) Give the names of the following compounds:

 i) CH3CH2CH2CH2OH ……………………………………………………………………

 ii) CH3CH2COOH  …………………………………………………………………

 iii) CH3C – O- CH2CH3 ……………………………………………………………………

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com18.   Study the scheme given below and answer the questions that follow;

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com

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Image From EcoleBooks.com

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Image From EcoleBooks.com

 i) Name the reagents used in:

Step I: ………………………………………………………………………

Step II ……………………………………………………………………  

Step III  ………………………………………………………………………

 ii) Write an equation to show products formed for the complete combustion of CH = CH  

 iii) Explain one disadvantage of continued use of items made form the compound formed

in step III

19.   A hydrated salt has the following composition by mass. Iron 20.2 %, oxygen 23.0%,

sulphur 11.5%, water 45.3%

 i) Determine the formula of the hydrated salt (Fe=56, S=32, O=16, H=11)

 ii) 6.95g of the hydrated salt in c(i) above were dissolved in distilled water and the total

volume made to 250cm3 of solution. Calculate the concentration of the resulting salt solution

in moles per litre. (Given that the molecula mass of the salt is 278)

20. Write an equation to show products formed for the complete combustion of CH = CH  

 iii) Explain one disadvantage of continued use of items made form the compound formed

in step III

 

21.  Give the IUPAC name for each of the following organic compounds;

  i) CH3 – CH – CH2 – CH3

 

  OH

ii)CH3 – CH – CH2 – CH2 – CH3

 

C2H5

  iii)CH3COOCH2CH2CH3

 

22.  The structure below represents a cleansing agent.

  O

 

R – S – ONa+

 

O

a) State the type of cleansing agent represented above

b) State one advantage and one disadvantage of using the above cleansing agent.

 

23.  The structure below shows part of polymer .Use it to answer the questions that follow.

CH3 CH3 CH3





― CH – CH2 – CH- CH2 – CH – CH2

 a) Derive the structure of the monomer  

 b) Name the type of polymerization represented above

24.  The flow chart below represents a series of reactions starting with ethanoic acid:-

 

 

 

 

(a) Identify substances A and B

 (b) Name the process I

 

25.  a) Write an equation showing how ammonium nitrate may be prepared starting with

ammonia gas

 (b) Calculate the maximum mass of ammonium nitrate that can be prepared using 5.3kg of

ammonia (H=1, N=14, O=16)

 

26.  (a) What is meant by the term, esterification?

 (b) Draw the structural formulae of two compounds that may be reacted to form ethylpropanoate  

 

27.  (a) Draw the structure of pentanoic acid  

 (b) Draw the structure and give the name of the organic compound formed when ethanol

reacts with pentanoic acid in presence of concentrated sulphuric acid

 

28.  The scheme below shows some reactions starting with ethanol. Study it and answer the questions

 that follow:-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 (i) Name and draw the structure of substance Q  

(ii) Give the names of the reactions that take place in steps 2 and 4  

(iii) What reagent is necessary for reaction that takes place in step 3

29.  Substances A and B are represented by the formulae ROH and RCOOH respectively.

They belong to two different homologous series of organic compounds. If both A and B

react with potassium metal:

(a) Name the common product produced by both

 (b) State the observation made when each of the samples A and B are reacted with sodium

hydrogen carbonate

  (i) A

  (ii) B  

 

 

 

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com30.  Below are structures of particles. Use it to answer questions that follow. In each case only

electrons in the outermost energy level are shown

key

P = Proton

N = Neutron

X = Electron

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(a) Identify the particle which is an anion  

31.  Plastics and rubber are extensively used to cover electrical wires.

 (a) What term is used to describe plastic and rubbers used in this way?

(b) Explain why plastics and rubbers are used this way

32.  The scheme below represents the manufacture of a cleaning agent X

 

 

 

 

 

 

(a) Draw the structure of X and state the type of cleaning agent to which X belong

 (b) State one disadvantage of using X as a cleaning agent

33.  Y grams of a radioactive isotope take 120days to decay to 3.5grams. The half-life period

of the isotope is 20days

 (a) Find the initial mass of the isotope  

 (b) Give one application of radioactivity in agriculture

34.  The structure below represents a polymer. Study and answer the questions that follow:-

 

 

 

 

 

 (i) Name the polymer above……………………………………………………………………….

 (ii) Determine the value of n if giant molecule had relative molecular mass of 4956  

35. RCOONa+ and RCH2OSO3Na+ are two types of cleansing agents;

i) Name the class of cleansing agents to which each belongs    

ii) Which one of these agents in (i) above would be more suitable when washing with water

from the Indian ocean. Explain

iii) Both sulphur (IV) oxide and chlorine are used bleaching agents. Explain the difference

in their bleaching properties

 

 

 

 

36. The formula given below represents a portion of a polymer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(a) Give the name of the polymer

(b) Draw the structure of the monomer used to manufacture the polymer  

 

Organic chemistry II (alkanoic acids and alkanols) Answers

1. (i) Ethylbutanoate

(ii) CH3CH2CH2

(iii) Esters

2.  a) –CH- CH- CH2 – CH – CH2– CH – CH2 – CH

 b) Polypheny/ ethane

3.  Plastics may contain chlorine or fluorine compounds apart from hydrogen and carbon when

burnt, fluorine and chlorine compounds are released into the air destroying Ozone layer

4.  (NH4)2 CO3(s) 2NH3(g) + CO 2(g) + H2O(l)

5.  The first amount of soap precipitates Ca2+(aq) and Mg2+(aq) ions and soften water.

 Then additional soap dissolves oil from the fabric.

6. a) CH3CH2 O O CH2CH3 O

 

– NH – CH – C – NH – C – C – C –

 

H H  

b) 0.00005mol. P = 0.515 g of monomer.

= 1.0 mole of poly mer = 1X 0.515 = 10300 g

0.0005

RFM ( C4H9ND2)n = 48 + 9 + 32  = 103

= (C4H9NO2) = 10300

103n = 10300


n = 100 molecules

7.  Agent A – magnesium salt formed is soluble hence doesn’t form scum

8.  (a) Styrene/Phenylethene

 

 

 

 

 

 (b)Addition polymerization

 (c) – can be made into different shapes easily

Image From EcoleBooks.com– are cheaper  

– are not corroded by acids, alkalis or air

– are stronger and long lasting

– are water-proof

9.  – Add water to the mixture and shake where ethanol dissolves in water while pentane is

immiscible.   *MAT

  – Transfer the mixture in a separating funnel and allow it to settle when pentane floats

on top of water-ethanol mixture. *MAT

 – Turn on the tap to collect water-ethanol mixture while pentane remains in the separating

funnel.

  – Separate ethanol from water by fractional distillation based on the differences in boiling

points.

Image From EcoleBooks.com10.  (a) Is 100% ethanol/is pure ethanol without water in it

Image From EcoleBooks.com  (b) 30oC and yeast

 

11.  (ii) R = v


 t

= 43 – 40.5

180 -150

= 25

30

= 0.0833cm3/s

 

(ii) 57seconds

Image From EcoleBooks.com

(iv) 2H2O2(l) 2H2O(l) + O2(g)

 

(b)   (i) To oxidize H2 produced to water

   (ii) Z

(iii) Q = 1t

  = 0.1 x 30 x 60

  = 180C

    96500c = 1F

180cc = 180 x 1

96500

 = 0.001865F

Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) + 2e-

2F = 65g

0.001865F = 0.001865 x 65

2

= 0.0606g of Zn was consumed

12.  (a) (i) Ethylethanoate.

  (ii) 2 – bromobut – l – ene

 

 (b) (i) P – CH3COOCH2 CH3

S – CH3CHONa

 

  (ii) I. Step I -Type – dehydration.

  Reagent – Concentrated sulphur acid.

 

II. Step II- Type – Oxidation

Reagent – acidified potassium magnate VII/ Potassium dichromate (VI)

 

III. Step III- Type – Hydrogenation

Reagent – Hydrogen  

(iii) R – Soda lime

  (iv) Cl


T  Cl  C  Cl


Cl

Tetrechloromethane

 

  (v) I – U – Polythene/Polyethene

II – 28n = 42000

n = 42000  = 1500

28

 (c) – It is unsaturated.  

13.  a)  – The length of the chain

– Intermolecular forces

– Cross linking of the molecules (Any two correct = 2 marks)

 

 b) Sodium propoxide  

 

 c)  i) I – T is ethane

II – K is polypropene

ii) has a sweet smell

iii) Neutralization

iv)  – Used to make ropes √ 1 mark

– Used to make crates of bottles

– Used as surface for all weather football and hockey pitches (Any correct use)

 v) CH3CH2CH3 + SO2 _______ 3CO2 + 4H2O

(N.B ignore state symbols)

 

 vi) React a small sample of each of the two substances with sodium carbonate

separately. Bubbles// efferrescence are observed with CH3CH2COOH and no

reaction with CH3CH2CH2OH  

 

vii) RMM of monomer = 42 √ ½

42n = 12600

N = 12600 = 300√ ½

42  

14.  a) i) Propene √1

  ii) 2CH3CH2COOH + Na2CO3√½ 2CH3CH2COONa

+ CO2 + H2O

 b) Making packing materials √1

 c) KMnO4√½ ∣ K2CrO7

 d) H H

 
 

  H- C- C = C – H) √1 = 4200


  H H   n

   
 

42n√ = 4200

n = 4200∕42

  = 100

 e) Esterification √1

 f) Conversion of oils to fats. √1

 g) Propane burns with a clear falme√1 while propyne burns with a sooty flame √1because propyne has a higher √1 C : H ration than propane.

 h) C2 H4(g) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) √1

  1 Vol.  3 vol

  1 Vol. = 1000 cm3
√½  

  Vol of O2 required = 3 x 1000 cm3 = 3000 cm3
√½

  Vol of air required = 100 x 3000 cm3

  20

 = 15,000 cm3√½

 

15.  (a) (i)  Q – CH3CH2COOH  (accept name (propanoic acid)

Image From EcoleBooks.com  R – CH3CH2COOH  (Propanoic acid)

Image From EcoleBooks.com  P- Hydrogen

Image From EcoleBooks.com

(ii) Step I Esterification

Image From EcoleBooks.com Step 4 – Oxidation

 

(iii)

 

  Reject

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com

(iv) Condition – 180 – 250o

Image From EcoleBooks.com reagent – Conc. H2SO4

 

 

 

 

 

16.  (a) (i) M: Ethan – 1, 2- diol  

  L: Ethanoic acid  

 (ii) Polymerisation  

Hydrogenation  

 (iii) Concentrated sulphuric acid  

Ethanoic acid  

 

17.  a)  i) Butan – 1 – 01// 1- Butanol// n-Butanol

ii) Propanoic acid

iii) Ethylethanoate

 

18.  i) Step I: Hydrogen

Step II: Hydrogen chloride gas// HCL

Step III: Sodium hydroxide/ NaOH/ Sodalime

ii) 2C2H2(g) + 5O2(g) _______ 4CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)

 

iii) Environmental pollutant

It is not biodegradable/ Not decomposed by bacterial

 

 

 

19.  i)   Fe S O H2O

20.2/56 11.5/32 23.0/16 45.3/18

 

0.36/0.36    0.36/0.36    1.44/0.36 2.52/0.36

1 1 4 7

Empirical formula: FeSO4 + H2O

 

ii) 6.95g  = 6.95/278  = 0.025

 0.05 moles in 250cm3 = 0.025 x 1000/250   = 0.1

 Concentration   = 6.95/278 x 1000/250   = 0.1

20.  i) Step I: Hydrogen

Step II: Hydrogen chloride gas// HCL

Step III: Sodium hydroxide/ NaOH/ Sodalime

ii) 2C2H2(g) + 5O2(g) _______ 4CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)

 

iii) Environmental pollutant

It is not biodegradable/ Not decomposed by bacterial

21.  i) Butan – 2 – Ol √ ½

 ii) 4 – methylhex – 2- ene

 iii) Propyl ethnoate

22.  a) Soap less detergent

 b) Non- biodegradable resulting in pollution

 

23.  a)

 b) Addition

24.  (a)  A – Sodium ethanoate

B – Acidified KMnO4 or K2Cr2O7  

 (b) Oxidation

25.  (a) NH3(g) + HNO3(aq) NH4NO3(s)

 

 (b) 17kg ammonia  80kg NH4NO3  ( ½ )

  5.3kg
80 x 5.3 = 24.94Kg (1½ kg)

 17

26.  (a) A reaction between an ethanol and alkanoic acid to form ester;

 

 

 

 

 

 

27.  (a)  H  H  H  H  0

        ǁ

 H C  C  C  C  C

         O   H

H  H  H  H √1

 

 

 (b) H  H  H  H H  H

 (i)         
√1

H  C  C  C  C  C√  O  C  C  H

        ǁ     

H  H  H  H  O H  H 3

 

 (ii) Ethylpentanoate . √1

 

 

28. i) ethylethanoate√ ½

CH3 – H2C- O-C-CH3
√ ½

ii) step 2: oxidation √ ½

step 4: esterification √ ½

iii) sodium hydroxide ,or NaoH√1

29.  a) Hydrogen. √1

 b) (i) A No effervescence takes place. √½

(ii)B There is effervescence √½ and the gas produced turns lime water into white precipitate.√½

30.  a) Y √1

 b) Z and W √1 have same atomic number but different mass number. √1

31.  (a) Insulators

 (b) Are non-conductor since they lack delocalised electrons  

 

 

 

32.  (a) Soapless detergent

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 (b) Non-biodegradable

33.   (a) No. of half –lifes (n) = 120 = 6

Image From EcoleBooks.com   20

Image From EcoleBooks.com Y x (½)6 = 3.5

Y = 3.5 x 26

Image From EcoleBooks.com Y = 224g

 (all steps for equation )

 

OR:

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Image From EcoleBooks.com(b)   – To study the rate of absorption of fertilizer by plants using radioactive phosphorous

Image From EcoleBooks.com – Tracing chemical and physiological processes such as photosynthesis

– Sterilizing equipment (1ny one )

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com34.  (i) Polypropene

 (ii) (H2C= CH – CH3)n = 4956

Image From EcoleBooks.com   (12 x 3) + (6×1) = 36 + 6 = 42 (molecular mass of 1 unit)

no. of units = 42n = 495

42n = 4956


42n = 4956

Image From EcoleBooks.com 42 42

n = 118

35.  i) RCOONa+ Soapy detergent

  R CH2 OSO3 Na+ soap less detergent  

 ii) RCH2OSO3 Na+ does not form scum. Its calcium and magnesium salts are soluble  

 iii) Chlorine bleaches by oxidation

SO2 bleaches by reduction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

36. (a) Polyphenylethene

(b)

 

 

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 


 




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