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  1. a) Name five source of revenue for municipal councils in Kenya.

    i) Grants from the central government, ii) Fees charges on services rendered by councils, iii) Sale of license, iv) Fines imposed on offenders.

    1. Service charge paid by


    2. Rates on property. vii)

      Aid from donor agencies.

    viii) Loans from financial institutions, ix)

    Profits from council investments,

    x) Rents charged on houses and office places.


    1. Explain five roles played by the municipal councils in Kenya.
      1. Municipal council provides and maintains transport network within their areas of jurisdiction, ii) They provide educational facilities to residents. They undertake constructions and maintenance of primary and nursery schools and employment of nursery school teachers, iii) They provide recreational facilities to the resident. They undertake the construction and maintenance of hospitals and health centres, iv) They promote business transactions by providing and maintenance of markets.

      They also sell licenses and permits to businessman,

      1. Municipal council provide employment opportunities, for instance as administrator markets. They also sell licenses and permits to businessmen.
      2. Municipal council provide employment opportunities, for instant as administrators, council and clerk, vii) Municipal council makes by – law, help regulate the activities and behaviour of the resident, lawbreaker and prosecuted, viii) They provide street lighting and ensure safety of residents.


  1. a) Name three types of local government authorities in Kenya.

    i) City Council ii) Town Council iii) Urban Council iv) Country Councils

 v)  Area Councils


  1. In what ways does the Minister of Local Government ensure that local authorities carry their duties effectively?
    1. The minister for local government carries out general supervision of

      the activities of the local authorities to ensure that they conform to the stipulated national policies.

    2. The minister nominates councillors to the local authority and set p a

    commission to run the affairs of council, iii)  By laws made by local authorities do not become effective until the

    Minister for local government approves them.
    1. The minister has the power to over – rule some of the decisions of

      the authorities,

    2. The minister has the powers to investigate activities of any local

      authority should need arise.

    3. The minister has the power to withhold grants to local authorities if

      need be.

      viii) Senior officers of the council e.g. clerks are appointed by the central government.


  1. What services are provided by Country Councils in Kenya?
    1. Administrative services are brought closer to the people.
    2. Local resources are utilized effectively e.g. Hospitals, piped water iii)  Means of transport and communication are developed/improved iv)  Local people are involved in decision making

    v)  Local priorities are identified and implemented vi) Ensures equal development in all district/decentralize industries

 vii)  Create employment for local people


  1. a)  What are the main sources of revenue for Local Government

    authorities in Kenya?

    i)  Rent from residential and other premises ii)  Rents paid by property owners / bills boards iii)  Loans form external sources iv)

    Grants from the central government

    v)  License paid by business operators / trade licenses vi)  Parking fees paid by motorists / hiring facilities e.g. stadiums, halls etc.

    vii) Fees form national parks viii) Fines paid by people who break laws. ix)  Sale of property

 x)  From cess


b) Explain six factors which undermine the performance of local authorities.

i) Some are too small to operate efficiently ii) High population concentrations rains available resources iii) Many local authorities lack adequate financial base to finance their services iv) Insufficient revenue collection system

v) Tax evasion by individuals and organizations vi) Misappropriation of funds by corrupt officers vii) Conflicts between Councillors and the Chief Officers.

viii)  Political interference in the affairs and management of local authorities ix)  Too much control by the central government

x)  Lack of qualified staff in areas of administration and financial management due to poor remunerations xi) Over employment thus

straining their financial abilities.

  1. Widespread corruption

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  2. Election of illiterate Councilors to manage the affairs of the


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