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ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND MANAGEMENT


THE MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENT
Environment refers to all external conditions surrounding an organism and which have influence over its behaviour and activities.
IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENT
i. To support the life of living organisms. Environment contains all resources which sustain life of living organisms for example water, soil, gases and minerals.
ii. Some of landscapes, water bodies and Flora and Fauna are pleasing to the eyes hence accelerate to the development of tourism activities.
iii.Sustain economic development, the environment contain variety of natural resources includes forest, minerals, water, fish and air which can be exploited by people for various human need.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
Are hazard, disasters or calamities that result into destruction of environment.
Examples of environmental problems
i. Environmental pollution.
ii. Loss of biodiversity.
iii. Soil erosion and land degradation.
iv. Desertification.

v. Flooding.
vi. Acid rain.
vi. Harmful radiation.
viii. Drought.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
Is the introduction or addition of any substance or situation that is harmful or not required to the environment i.e. Addition of unwanted material into environment.
POLLUTANTS
These are substance or materials that caused pollution i.e. Pollutant are material that pollute environment
FACTORS WHICH LEAD TO THE INCREASE OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
  1. Rapid pollution growth in the world especially in the thirds world countries this led to the increase rate of production of waste and problem in the managing of the waste.
  2. The increase level of poverty in the developing country.This made people uses cheap energy resources that cause air pollution like charcoal and fuel wood. Rapid advance in technology that has led to the development of supplicated industries which emits a lot of gases and waste.
  1. Development of transport let work that has net to the development and increase number of cars that emits a lot of fumes smokes.
  2. Increase in political conflict that forces people to keep on migrating from place to place end up polluting the environment as well as the use of bombs and nuclear weapons.
  3. Advancement of Science and Technology.
CLASSIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
Environment pollution can be classified as follows
a) Air pollution.
b) Soil/land pollution.
c) Water pollution.
d) Noise pollution.
a) AIR POLLUTION
Is an addition of waste material into air, Air is an important resource in sustaining life, without it there would be no life on earth. It is a mixture of gases surrounding the earth. These gases are such as nitrogen, oxygen carbon dioxide and others gases.
CAUSE OF AIR POLLUTION
A) Natural causes
i) Volcanic eruption
That gives out dust ashes and gaseous like sulphur and carbon dioxide.

ii)Wind
That, raise the dust and pollen to a certain levels. Dust has chemical that are toxic and hence harmful to the living organism both flora and fauna.
B) Human causes
iii) Industrial activities and automobile.
This process led to the emission of fumes and gases that pollute the air.


iv) The uses of charcoal, coal, firewood and fuel oil for difference purpose like cooking, lighting, smelting etc. pollute environment.

v) Construction activities
The construction of project like road construction, salting up buildings and etc. lead to introduction of dust into the air.
vi) Agricultural activities pollute the air through
– Digging in the soil that raises dust into air.
-Spraying some chemicals like insecticides.
vii)Mining activities: this in also led to the introduction of dust and some gases into the atmosphere.
EFFECTS OF AIR POL
LUTION
  1. Reduction in amount of solar energy because of being blocked by the layer of dusts or fumes hanging in the atmosphere leading to problems in photosynthesis.
  2. Transportation in plants in upset since the smoke and dust setting on the leaves block the stomata.
  3. Occurrence of global warming as the result of trapping of heat energy from the sun by the green houses gases.
  4. Death of plants and animals due to poisonous gases.
  5. Destruction of Ozone layer.
  6. Reduction of air dirty.
  7. Occurrence of acidic rainfall when gases like carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide mix with rainfall.
  8. It can causes bad and irritating smell keeping people in residence area uncomfortable.
  9. It can causes dangerous disease like skin cancer.
MEASURES TOWARDS REDUCING AIR POLLUTION
i) Planting trees which absorb gases like carbon dioxide and prevent fast movement of air that lead to the introduction of dust into the atmosphere and destruction of Ozone layer.
ii) Improving the combination system in the engines so that fuel can burn easily.
iii) Reducing number of small cars or industries.
iv) Finding out alternative sources of energy instead of depending on the charcoal, fire wood, and fuel wood.
v) Government policies should be active and strict laws should be passed to ensure proper management of resources.
vi) Land filling when dumping the wastes so that when they decompose they cannot lead to the emission of gases like methane into the Atmosphere.
b) SOIL POLLUTION
Soil pollution is the process of introducing or adding any unwanted material in the soil.
or
Is the process of adding harmful material into the soil or earth surface which then led to the loss of soil fertility.
SOURCES OF SOIL POLLUTION
The main causes of soil pollution can be categorized as follows
a) From the atmosphere: the pollutants are introduced into the soil through the acidic rain. Acid rain leads to the increase of acidity into the soil which later on destroy the soil structure. Acidic rain is predominant in the industrialized countries like Germany Eastern Canada and USA.

b) From the industries: Some chemical such as radioactive material and metals can be introduced into the soil and render the soil units for Agriculture.
c) From the home steeds: Some waste from homes like bottles, metallic material plastics baby’s cans etc. which are dumped into the soil they lead to soil pollution.
d) From the farms: There are chemicals which include pesticides like DDT crop remains and fertilizers when all these chemicals get into the soil they lead to the soil pollution. Likewise irrigation activities can lead to soil pollution especially when applied in steep slope areas for a long period of time.
e) Mining activities: On the other hands mining activities can lead to the introduction of some rocks. Fragments into the upper layer of the soil which then leads to the soil pollution.
EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION

i) Death of animals (Biota) since some chemicals affect plant and animal cell for instance organism like bacteria which are mainly used for decomposition of some materials to form Humus.
ii) Decline in Agriculture as a results of poor production caused by poor plant growth. Poor plant growth takes place due to the decline in soil fertility in turn to the occurrence of famine which leads to the poor health and death of people.
iv) It can lead to water logging and flooding because of poor drainage caused by the soil pollution which tends to create an impermeable layer of substance in the soil.
v) Change in soil structure as some of the mineral and nutrients are dissolved by acidic materials.
vi) Migration of people to other areas which have not been affected by soil erosion.
vii) Change in soil color which causes problems in the soil classification and determination of land uses.
MEASURES TO BE TAKEN IN ORDER TO REDUCE THE RATE OF SOIL POLLUTION
i) Reducing or stopping the uses of chemicals in agriculture like DDT and used killers.
ii) Increase of manure instead of industrial fertilizers.
iii) Recycling of wastes rather than dumping them in the soil.
iv) Launching afforestation and reforestation programmers which can reduce soil erosion.
v) Control of population so as to reduce the rate of production of wastes that lead to the pollution of soil. Population control can be done through family planning.
vi) Educating people on how to undertake their activities properly.
vii) Radioactive materials should be dumped so deep in the ground. Method like crops rotation use of organic manure and switch the traditional system like shifting cultivation.
viii) Formulating strict policies that govern on how to dump the wastes. Fines and punishment should be impressed those who dump the waste randomly.


i) Spraying the trees to wash off the acids and adding of time to the soil lakes and rivers to reduce acidity . The good example is Germany, UK and Scandinavia, countries where this process has been used advice.
ii) Reduction of emission of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide by using non fossil fuel, coal which contains less sulphur, removing sulphur from coal.
iii) Introducing new boilers in power station which can burn sulphur dioxide into ash.
iv) Trapping sulphur dioxide from the waster gases and spraying it with water so that it can form sulphuric acid which can later be neutralized by adding line.
v) Using alternative sources of energy which do not pollute the air the country can turn the coal – fired power station into gas fired power.
vi) Recycle the waste to avoid unnecessary champion action that lead to the production of sulphur gas
vii) Strict policies should be formulated to restrict the case of energy that leads to emission of sulphur dioxide.


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EcoleBooks | GEOGRAPHY O LEVEL(FORM FOUR) NOTES - ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND MANAGEMENT

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