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LISTERINING TO AND NDERSTANDING SIMPLE TEXTS ABOUT A VARIETY OF EVENTS AND SITUATION

Graduation day
The morning was full of drumbeats, laughter and everybody was happy. It was a graduation day for standard seven leavers. All students looked very smart including Kadoka who was always dirty. In the morning we were given a time table showing what would happen through the day. The following is the graduation time table.
GRADUATION TIME TABLE
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VOCABULARY
Graduation – a party of student who has finished school
Activities – work
Arrange – plan
e.g. The teacher said that we should arrange our chair properly
Imagine – think of it
Example: Imagine a female present in Tanzania
Exercise
Make two sentences using the words; Graduation and activities
  1. …………………..
  2. ………………….
STRUCTURE.
Prepositions of Time “At” and “in”
Examples
  1. The party started at 8:00
  2. The guest of honor arrived at 12:00
  3. We ate lunch in the evening
  4. The sleep at right
  5. We arrived at school in the morning
Exercise
White a composition at your first day at school
MY FIRST DAY AT SECONDARY SCHOOL
My name is Evelyn Livoga, my father’s name is Mr. Livoga and my mother’s name is Mrs.
Grace Livoga. I am fifteen years old. I am black in colour and tall, thin in size.
My first day at secondary school was exciting. I was very excited. When I arrived at school saw some of my friends who come to me and helped me with my luggage to the Head Mistress office for checkup. I waved by to my parents and they gave me a hug.
When I went to the office they checked my luggage and they showed me the way to the dormitory. I went to the dormitory hurriedly and keep my luggage. Then I took bath and I went to class.
When I reached to the class I made my friends and they gave me a lot of loving company. After a half an hour the bell rang and everybody followed the bell.
All the teachers come in front of us and started introducing themselves and lastly the Head Mistress introduced herself. Her name is Sis. Magreth.
When it reached seven O’clock we had our first dinner at this precious school called St. Joseph Millennium Secondary School. After one and half hour we had our evening prayers and we went to our dormitory to sleep, since then our patron come and showed everybody her room.
After that I prepared my bed and I have my bed ready to sleep. My room where very charming and the patron was very good. I pray for myself and I slept. I hope my road of success will be successful at the end.
SPORT DAY
(Story book about sports example football)
Vocabulary
  1. Suddenly – Quickly
  2. Spectator – People who are watching something
  3. Exciting – something you enjoy so much
  4. Attract – make people like to see something
EXERCISE
Make two sentences using the
words spectators and Exciting
(i) ————————– (ii) ————————–
AN ACCIDENT
(Story/texts book about accident)
VOCABLARY
Tough – difficult, hard
Restless – worried
Obviously – very true
No more – dead
EXERCISE
Make two sentences using the words Restless and No more
(i) ————— (ii) —————
Structures
Personal Pronouns
Words like I, we, he, she, ect. Are called Personal Pronouns. They are divided into singular and plural
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Structures
NOUN: Is the naming word of people, places or things.
Examples: Ally, Jack, Tanzania, Kariakoo, Arusha.
EXERCISE
1. Write down five nouns to each of the following
  1. Animals.
  2. Building
  3. Lakes
  4. Mountains
Singular and plural
  1. Sheep – sheep
  2. Halves – half
  3. Wolves – wolf (iv) Feet – foot
  1. Armies – army
  2. Inches – inch
  3. Loaves – loaf
  4. Wives – wife
Structure
Singular and Plural
  1. Plural Nouns can be formed by
Adding “s” to the singular Nouns.
Example: Circle – Circles
Day – days
Roof – roofs
Tutor – tutors
  1. Changing “y” to – ies
Example
Army – armies
Aunty – aunties
Lady – ladies
Factory – factories
Note: in nouns ending with “y” do not change”y” if it is preceded by a vowel
Example: toy – toys so simply add (“es”) but if “y” is preceded by a consonant change “y” in to “I” and then add “-es”
Example: fly – flies
  1. Add “es” to singular Nouns ending in “s”, “ss”, “x”, “z”, “ch”, “sh” and “o”
Example:
Match – matches
Gas – gases
Princess – princesses
Tax – taxes
Hero – heroes
  1. Changing “f” or “fe” in singular Nouns to “-ve”
Example:
Calf – calves
Half – halves
Knife – knives
Life – lives
Thief – thieves
Note: seven Nouns change their vowels
Man – men
Foot – feet
Goose – geese
Woman – women
Tooth – teeth
Louse – lice
Mouse – mice
Pronoun and verbs
Is – are
Was – were
He/she/it – they
Him – them
I – we
That – those
This – these
My – our
Mine – ours
His/hers – theirs
Note: Noun:
Irregular Plurals: Noun with the hissing sound
i.e -sh
-ch
-x to be in plural add -es
-z
EXERCISE
Write the plural of the following noun (i) box
  1. her
    o
  2. knife
  3. leaf
  4. church
  5. inch
  6. fly
Exercise
Make the following sentences plural (Remember to change the pronouns as well)
Example:
That chair is broken
Those chairs are broken
  1. That baby is sick
  2. He broke his foot
  3. I am a good student
  4. That thief has a knife
  5. That boy has a phone
HOW TO ASK QUESTION
There are many ways of asking questions you can ask a question using the word “is” – Is she late?
  • Is she in this class?
  • Is she sick?
Asking questions using “are” – Are they late?
  • Are they in this class?
  • Are they sick?
Asking questions using “was” – Was she late?
  • Was she in this class?
  • Was she sick?
Asking questions using “were” – Were they late?
  • Were they in this class?
  • Were they sick?
Exercise
Fill in is, was, are, were in the right space
  1. ________they punished yesterday?
  2. ________they doing maths now?
  3. ________ She suffering from malaria?
  4. _____ We going home now?
LISTENING TO DICTATIONS
  1. Tail /tale
  2. Glow /grow
  3. Sun / son
  4. Bare / bear
  5. Hair / hare/ heir
  6. Sea / see
  7. Beep / bip
  8. Deep/ dip
  9. Raise / rise
  10. Lake / like
Structure
PROPER AND COMMON NOUNS
(a) Proper Nouns:
A single reference. Example Mt. Kilimanjaro refers to one particular mountain. We normally use capital letters for the first letter of a proper Noun.
Example: Kibile and Riwa are Proper Nouns.
Chair and bus are Common Nouns.
(b) Common Nouns:
Are ordinary groups of names of persons and things such as child, gentle man students, cow, city, chair etc. There is no uniqueness in common Nouns.
For, Example, if one says “a city” it can be any city. It is different from Dar es Salaam or
Kilimanjaro which is the only city Called so. We do not capital letters for the first letter of a common Noun.
The Differences between Proper and common Nouns
Proper Nouns differ from common Nouns in three ways:
  1. They are not usually used with articles we cannot say for example:
  • A London
  • The John
  • A Nairobi
  1. Proper Nouns do not usually allow plurals
Examples:
  • Kilimanjaros Two Aminas
  • Musomas
Note: You must use articles with common Noun (unless they are uncountable)
For example:
Book is black,
But you can say a book is black
EXERCISE
Write the following sentences correctly
  1. I went to a Arusha last week
  2. Please bring me table (c) Are you a Rose?
(d) Elephant is a big animal
GIVING DIRECTIONS
The main purpose of this topic is to give compass direction mainly four cardinal points i.e. East, West, North, South
The compass
The compass is instrument for find direction. It has magnetized needle which sits on a face. The face has different directions drawn on it.The needle always points to the magnetic north.The compass sometimes called Magnetic compass.
Common words include; left, right, straight, crossing, opposite, adjacent, behind, in front of , next to, near by
Asking for and giving directions
Rehema : Excuse me could you tell me the way to the pharmacy?
Suzy : yes, it’s that the way, just go straight away after two houses turn left, it’s on the corner opposite the post office.
Rehema : Thanks, I’ have only been in town for a few days, so I really don’t know my way around yet
Suzy : Oh! I know how you feel. I was born in this town so I know where everything is.
  • Interrogative /ways to ask or show directions
  • Can you direct me to ……………… Response direction
  • Turn left/ right go straight to ……… at Zebra crossing take a bus to………………. On your left follow Hanang street then keep right.
Exercise
Look at the Map below. Imaging your one of the children asking for the direction.Practice asking for and giving directions to:
1 The mosque
  1. The dispensary
  2. The market
  3. The school
5.The agriculture office
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Locating places
Discuss the location of the school
-Where the school situated in Tanzania?(north,south, East, west or central) -Is it in town or in the countryside ?
-Are there any houses,shops or offices nearby?
– How many roads lead to the school?
-Do the roads leading to your school have name?
Structure
Comparatives and superlatives
There are three main ways of making comparisons;
  1. AS + ORDINARY FORM OF THE ADJECTIVE OR ADVERBS + AS
E.g His essay is as long as mine
This book is as interesting as were read last Monday
  1. COMPARATIVE FORM OF THE ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB +THAN
E.g That house is bigger than mine
They did the test more carefully than we did
  1. LESS + ORDINARY FORM OF THE ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB + THAN
E.g The tail of the ship is less longer than that dog
This news is less interesting than one I read last weekend There are three main pattern of making superlative .
i. definite article + superlative form of the adjective or adverb E.g The Giraffe is the tallest of all animals ii. One of +definite article + superlative form of adjective
E.g This novel is one of the most interesting we have ever read iii. Definite article + least + ordinary form of Adjective or Adverb E.g All the book we have read this one is the least interesting
Words used to compare things are called COMPARATIVES
Examples: Big bigger biggest
Note:
  1. er must go with than
Example: An Elephant is the biggest animal
If a word cannot take –est use most
Example: Suzy is more beautiful than Rhoda
  1. est must go with the
Example: An elephant is the biggest animal
  1. If a word cannot take –est use most
Example: Suzy is the most beautiful girl in the class
Exercise
Change the words in the brackets and write the whole sentence correctly!

  1. An apple is (small) a pumpkin
  2. Air planes are (fast) than cars
  3. A snail is (slow) a snake
  4. James is (tall) me
  5. Miss Tanzania is (beautiful) my sister




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EcoleBooks | ENGLISH LANGUAGE O LEVEL(FORM ONE) NOTES - LISTERINING TO AND NDERSTANDING

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