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It is a war or Liberation forught by the Shona and Ndebele in 1896 – 1897 against the British.


Causes of Chimurnga

The Shona and Ndebele lost their land to the British

Lost of their independence e.g. long work hour

Loss of cattle

Refusal to pay tax

Their minerals were taken by the British

Police be utility

The Ndebele wanted to have their King back

Shona / Ndebele lived in reserves

Natural disasters e.g. drought, locust and Rinderpest

The role of spirit Mediums e.g. Nehanda, Sekuru Kaguvi, Mkwati, Chaminuka

Loss of trade contacts with the Portuguese Women were raped


Course of the Chimurenga


British Africans

Maxim guns spears

Seven pounders bows and arrows

Explosives axes

Rifles and laagers


Spirit Mediums

Nehanda – Mazoe

Chief Mangwende – Murehwa

Makoni – Manyame river

Mashayambombe – mupfure valley

Kaguvi – Chishawasha

Seke – Seke Chihota – Chihota Chinamhora –




Its started in Matebeleland in March

The attacked isolated areas

Whiteman who lived in outskirts of the city

a)shopkeepers b) mines c) farms

the war spread to Towns Bulawayo and Gweru white men escaped to town.

The Whiteman build larger : wagons to build defensive areas

They got supplies for Khama of Botswana and South Africa

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  1. Native Urban Areas Act: Africans were restricted to live in urban areas and paid rent to white landlord
  2. Land husbandry act: Africans restricted to own 8 herd of cattle and 5 acres fo land
  3. 1959 Unlawful Organizations Act sanctied all political organization
  4. Preventive Detention Act 1960
  5. Law and Order maintenance Act 1960


Methods used by Africans to resist colonial exploitation
As early as 1900 Africans in mines:

1. Went on strike i) worked stopped ii) reduction of production

  1. workers did not report for work they in Shamva Globe and Rhinix mine
  2. Destruction of property owned by capitalists
  3. Image From EcoleBooks.comDemonstrations carrying placard / posters
  1. Killing livestock’s which belonged to white settlers reduce production
  2. Burning crops that belonged to white farmers
  3. Workers stole form factories and forms
  4. Pretended to be ill / sick and failed to report for work. Reduction of production
  5. Formation a) Organizations b) Associations c) Trade Unions

(ICU) 1919 Industrial Commercial Workers Union


Masocha Ndlovu

Job Dumbutshena

Charles Mzingele

Clemence Kadhali




Success / failure


1. strike action in mines for in Shamva

–Globe Phoenix 2. Formation of organizations Trade Unions

Burial Societies Chunah organization Demonstration

Passive resistance

1. Improvements of working and living conditions of works ii) Reduction of working hours iii)wanted protective clothing for workers -increase in wages -representation in parliament -to buy land -opportunities in education

-they did not want to remove government form power 1920 to 1945 were the same

Methods were not effective Strike – worker might be fired -Reduction of wages -Few educated elite were in involved -People were arrested during strikes and demonstration -people were beaten up by police -leaders were imprisoned -use of violence


-loss of productions -destruction of machines

(ICU) Industrial Commercial workers Union 1919

Leaders! Masocha

Ndlovu, Job


Charles Mzingeli,

Clemence Khadhali

-reformed Industrial Comerecial Union .

leader : Chalrls Mzingeli -Bantu African voice Association. Benjamin Burombo

-Rhodesia Railway African Employees Association.

Leaders : Benjamin

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