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EMERGENCE OF KENYAN SOCIETIES QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

  1. a) Give five reasons, which led to the migration of the Cushites into

    Kenya before 1800.

    i)  Need for pasture for their animals ii)  Population pressure iii)  External attacks iv)  Outbreak of disease

    v) Family and clan feuds vi) Escape from drought and famine

 vii)  Adventure viii)

Search for fertile land

 b)  Describe the economic activities of the Cushites in the pre – colonial period.

  1. The Cushites practiced pastoralism. They kept camels, goats, cattle and donkeys.
  2. Some of Cushites who lived in oasis and along the river valleys practiced subsistence agriculture. They grew grain crops, vegetables,

    dates and bananas. iii) They practiced iron smelting. They made iron eg. swords, knives, bangles and arrowheads.

  3. They hunted wild game, gathered rots, vegetables and fruits.
  4. They engaged in craft industry. For example produced leather items such as handbags, belts and clothing. vi) Some of the

    Cushites who lived near rivers, and along the Indian Ocean practiced fence traps and hooks and line.

vii) They traded with their neighbours such as the Samburu and

Pokomo. They trade in iron implements and leather products.

  1. a) State five results of the settlement of the Gikuyu in the Mount Kenya

    Region during the pre colonial period

    i)  The settlement of the Agikuyu in the Mt Kenya region led to the intermarriage with their neighbours e.g Akamba and Maasai. ii)  It brought about the expansion of trade in the region, iii) Some communities were displaced by the Agikuyu e.g. the Okiek iv)

    Some communities were assimilated by the Agikuyu e.g. the

    Okiek/increase in the population in the area.

    v) It promoted cultural interaction between communities e.g. dressing and ceremonies, vi) It promoted conflicts in the region over land grazing areas and cattle.

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    b)  Describe the political organization of the Agikuyu during the precolonial period.

    1. The Agikuyu were divided into clans. Each clan was made up of several sub-clans (Mbari) with common descent, and usually living in the same ridge.
    2. Each ridge was under a Muthamaki (spokesman). He was the chairman of the council. Muthamaki emerged due to his personally and leadership potential.
    3. Each sub-clan was ruled by a council of elders/kiama. The council performed religious, It, “administrative and judicial roles.
    4. There existed two generation sets (Marika) Mwangi and Maina.

      The council performed religious administrative and judicial roles.

    5. The warrior class was responsible for defence. A council of war directed them.
    6. Other leaders such as the prophets, priests and diviners played important role in the society.
    7. Some individuals rose to top positions of political importance in the

      late 19th Century as a result of exemplary contributions to the society and wealth acquired.

  • a) State five economic activities of the Kalenjin during the pre-colonial

    period.

    • The Kalenjin practiced livestock keeping –  They practiced crop farming/agriculture.
    • They were practicing iron making.
    • Hunted and gathered wild fruits and rocks.

    b)  Explain the functions of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi during the recolonial period.

    • The Orkoiyot presided over religious functions such as offering

      sacrifices to God.

    • He advised the council on matters pertaining to the day running of

the community affairs such as ownership of land.

  • He advised and blessed the warriors before they went to war.
  • He foretold what was going to happen in the future e.g. success in war, famine and

    calamity.

  • He had the ability to make rain by communicating with the spirits

    of the ancestors.

  • He was chief medicine man.
  • State three functions of the Laibon in traditional Maasai society.
    • The Laibon of the Maasai blessed the warriors before they went to

      war.

    • He presided over religious activities/ceremonies
    • He advised councils of elders.
    • He foretold future events.
    • They practiced handicrafts/craftwork for instance they made pots, weaved baskets and

      made leather items such as sandals.

    • They hunted wild animals for food and gathered fruits, herbs and honey.
    • Cattle raiding was considered an important economic activity.

They raided their neighbours such as Agikuyu for cattle. 5. Give two functions of the council of elders among the Akamba during the precolonial period.

  1. They had powers to declare war and bring peace.
  2. They presided over religious and other ritual functions.
  3. They were the custodians of the sacred roles of

    ethics. iv) They offered advise to the community when need arose.

v) They ruled the community.

  1. a) What factors made the Cushites migrate into Kenya during the pre-

    colonial period?

 i)  Hostile neighbours in their homeland. ii)

Succession in disputes/feuds/family conflicts iii)

Search for pastures for their livestock iv)

Natural calamities such as drought,

  1. Search for settlement
  2. Population pressure
  3. Spirit of adventure.

b) Explain five results of the migration of the Cushites into Kenya during the pre-colonial period.

  1. The Cushites came with their own livestock and so ended livestock farming in areas they where settled.
  2. Their settlement led to increased rivalry and ownership of land. iii) Some Cushites who had been converted to Islam spread religion in the areas where they settled, iv) The Cushites attacked the

    Eastern Bantu Communities who had settled at Shungwaya, and forced them to move to their present homeland in Kenya.

v) The Cushites intermarried with the communities they found hence increase of population, vi) Trade developed between the Cushites and the communities they came into contact with. For example they exchanged livestock products such as milk and butter with the Bantu in return they obtained grains from Bantu. vii) The Bantu borrowed some of their cultural practice eg. circumcision, iron making, viii) Cushites acquired mixed farming from the Bantu.

  1. a) Explain the result of the migration and settlement of the Somali into

    Kenya by 1800.

    1. The Somali people intermarried with the people they came into contact with such as Pokomo and Boran.
    2. Their settlement in Kenya led to the expansion of trade in the region, iii)  Demand for agricultural produce by the Somali led to the expansion of trade in the region.
    3. Their settlement led to the increased conflicts between the communities over resources such as water and pasture.
    4. Their migration and settlement led to the displacement and redistribution of people where they settled.
    5. Led to cultural exchange between the Somali and the people they came into contact with. For example the neighbouring communities adopted Islam from the Somali.
    6. Assimilation of some communities they came into contact with eg.

      Oromo.

    7. Their settlement in high agricultural potential areas e.g. river valleys encouraged some of them to practice crop farming.

    b) Describe the political organization of the Somali in Kenya during the colonial period.

    1. The basic political unit of the Somali was the clan. Each clan had its pre – colonial period.
    2. A council of elders was inn charge of the day – to day affairs of the clan eg. making major clan decisions and settled disputes.
    3. A council maintained law and orders and was the final court of appeal, iv)  The age set system was an important institute among the Somali and all male members of the society belonged to the age – set. Each age set performed specific role/duties,

      v)  The Somali had leaders called Sultan whose role was mainly advisory, vi) There existed warriors whose main duty was to

      protect the community against external attacks and acquire possessions for the community, vii) There existed people with special responsibilities eg. Sheikhs and medicine men. They were highly regarded in the community and their opinions were sought before important decisions were made.

  2. Give TWO factors which led to the migration and settlement of the Iteso into

    Kenya by 1800.

    i) Search of land/pasture/water for their herds ii) Family/clan feuds/internal conflicts, iii) External attacks/pressure iv) Increase in population

    v) Outbreak of diseases/epidemics vi) Natural calamities e.g. drought vii) Spirit of adventure

  3. Name two sources of the History of Kenyan communities during the pre – colonial period.

    i)  Oral tradition ii)  Archaeology/artifacts iii)  Written sources/records e.g.

    books, magazines, diaries and journals.

 iv)  Linguistic genetics/anthropology

  1. In what ways did the Kenyan communities interacted during the pre – colonial
    period?

    i) Through trade ii) Through warfare iii) Through intermarriage iv) Through common festivals/ceremonies e.g. wrestling and cultural exchange e.g. language.

  2. a) Describe the migration and settlement of the Eastern Bantu speaking

    communities in Kenya up to 1800.

    i)  They migrated from the original home in the Congo basin and settled in Taita Hills area around Mt. Kilimanjaro by the 2nd Century AD. ii)  Some of them later migrated northwards along the Coast to Shungwaya in present day Somali. These were the ancestors of Mijikenda, Pokomo and Taita.

    1. The ancestors of the Mount Kenya groups moved into the interior along the Tana River.
    2. From about 1450 the communities that had settled in Shungwaya were forced to disperse from the are due to external pressure from the Cushites.
    3. The ancestors of the Mijikenda and taita moved south and established their settlement along the. Coast while those of the Pokomo migrated into the interior and settled along river Tana while the Ameru migrated to the slopes of Mt. Kenya.
    1. Discuss the result of the migration and settlement of the eastern Bantu into Kenya by 1900.

    i) The incoming Bantu communities had iron weapons which enabled them to displace some of the communities which they came into contact with for example Gumba in the slopes of Mt. Kenya, ii) They intermarried with their neighbours/those people they came into contact with such as the Cushites and Nilotes.

    iii) Their settlement led to expansion/development of trade between them and neighbours. iv) There was cultural exchange between the Bantu and their Cushitic and Nilotic neighbours.

    1. Expansion of the Bantu created pressure over land, which led to inter community conflict and wars.
    2. Inter-community conflicts led to loss of lives and destruction of property, vii) Adoption of some agricultural practices from the Bantu.
  3. What was the base of the political organization among the Cushites during the pre – colonial period?

 •  The clan

 

  1. Identify the TWO economic activities which the Maasai acquired as a result of interacting with the Agikuyu during their settlement in Kenya.
    1. Some Maasai sections eg. the kwavi became

      agriculturalist/farmers/ cultivators.

    2. Some Maasai became traders.
  2. What religious functions did the Orkoiyot of the Nandi perform during the pre – colonial period?
    1. Mediating between God and the People/acting as a priest.
    2. Offering sacrifices to God on behalf of the people.
    3. Blessing people before they undertook special activities such as going to war/raids.
  3. Give two main factors which influenced the Abaluhya to become crop farmers by the beginning of the nineteenth century.

    i)  Possession of iron and iron working skills, ii)  Settlement in areas with suitable climate, iii) Existence of indigenous crops.

  4. Name two Bantu communities in Kenya whose ancestors settled in the Mt.

    Elgon area before migrating to their present homeland.

    i)
    Abagusii ii)
    Abakuria

 iii)  Abaluyha

  1. a)  Why did the Bantu migrate from their coastal settlement at

Shungwaya in the sixteenth century i)  Invasion of the settlement by the incoming Cushites.

 ii)  Internal conflicts/feuds. iii)

Population increase.

  1. Outbreak of diseases/epidemics/natural calamities.
  2. Search for more land for settlement and pasture.
  1. Describe the political organization of the Mijikenda during pre –
    colonial period.
    1. The Mijikenda were organized into 4 to 6 clans with many sub –

      clans e.g. Giriama.

    2. Each clan lived in protected villages known as Kayas. iii)  Young men became members of age – sets after going through circumcision.

 iv)  Senior age – sets members made up the governing council – Kambi.

  1. State two ways in which the Akamba interacted with the Agikuyu in the pre – colonial period.

 i)  Through trade ii)  Through intermarriages iii)

Through wars and conflicts over ownership of land, animals.

  1. Give two economic reasons why the Cushites migrated from their original
    homestead into Kenya.

 i)  Search for pasture/drought ii)

Outbreak of animal and human disease^ iii)

Search for land for cultivation iv) Internal conflicts

 v)  Invasion by outsiders vi)

Overpopulation

  1. Identify the main reason why the Mijikenda lived in Kenya.

 –  To protect themselves against attacks by hostile neighbours.

  1. a) Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the plain

    Nilotes in Kenya.

    i)  There settlement increased conflicts and insecurity in the area as they rivaled other communities over the control of resources. ii)  They influenced the way of life of other communities they found.

    1. They displaced some of the communities they found in the area such as the Southen, Cushites.
    2. Their settlement ‘led to an increase in population in the region therefore forcing some communities to migrate.
    3. They promoted commerce in the area as they traded with their neighbours^ practice agriculture.
    4. The plain Nilotes intermarried with their neighl ours such as Meru,

      Abaluyha and Kalejin.

    5. Some communities borrowed the political systems from the Maasai for example the development of the office of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi was due to their interaction with the Maasai.
    6. It led to the enrichment of the languages spoken in the region as they interacted with other communities.
    7. Some communities/clans were assimilated by the incoming plain

      Nilotes.

    b) Describe the political organization of the Maasai during the pre – colonial period.

    i) The council of elders ruled the Maasai. The council consisted of ritual leaders, clan heads and family heads among others. ii) The council of elders was responsible for maintaining law and order, making decisions about ceremonies, declaring war and settling disputes. iii) The age set system was an important institution among the Maasai.

There were several age sets and each had leadership roles in turns.

  1. The existed a class of warriors, the Morans, who
    used to preside over religious functions and advise the community during crises.
  2. There were ritual leaders among the Maasai. Their function was to preside over religious functions and advise the community during

    crises.

  3. The most important ritual head was the Oloiboni. By the mid 19th Century the institution of the Oloiboni had become more influential.

    Some outstanding were Mbatiani and Lenana.

  1. State one way in which the Abagusii and the Kipsigis interacted during the

    pre – colonial period.

 i)  Intermarriages ii)

Trade iii) Raids/warfare

  1. State two functions of the council of elders (Njuri Ncheke) of the Ameru.

    i)  Solve land and inheritance disputes ii)  Acted as the Court of Appeal iii)

    Presided over religious functions iv)

    Organized social functions

 v)  Advised warriors on when to go wars/raids vi)

Negotiated peace settlements

  1. a)  What were the results of the settlement of the Luo in Kenya during

    the pre – colonial period?

    1. Assimilation of some communities they found in the areas eg.

      Abasuba

    2. Intermarriage with the neighbours eg. Abagusii
    3. Displacement of some communities eg. Abagusii iv)  Increased conflicts over control of resources between the Luo and

      their neighbours.

    v)  Expansion of trade with their neighbours eg. iron tools vi)  Occupation of fertile land influenced the Luo to adopt farming in a

    large scale.

    b)  Describe the socio – political organization of the Luo during the pre – colonial period.

    1. The luo were organized into clans, each with a common ancestry.
    2. The clans were organized into larger units (Gwenge) which were self

      – governing.

    3. Each Gwenge was administered by a council of Elders. iv)  The council administered justice and served as a final court of appeal.
    4. The council coordinated religious functions.
    5. They had a system of chieftainship (Ruoth) who administered with the help of Council of Elders. vii)  There were ritual experts such as diviners, medicine men and

      healers.

    6. There existed a class of warriors for the defence of the community standing army.
    7. They believed in the existence of One God (Nyasaye). They prayed to God through priests.
    8. They evenrated / worshipped the ancestral spirits.
    9. They had sacred places set aside for worship.
    10. They practiced initiation rites eg. removal of lower teeth / front

      teeth.

    11. They celebrated important eg. harvest, marriage through drinking, eating, wrestling and dancing.

25. a) Give five reasons which led to the migration of the Cushites into

Kenya before 1800.

  1. Need for pasture for

    their animals.

  2. Population pressures iii)  External attacks iv)

    Outbreak of diseases

 v)  Family and clan feuds vi)

Escape from drought and famine vii)

Adventure viii)  Search for fertile land

b) Describe the economic activities of the Cushites in the pre – colonial period.

  1. The Cushites practised pastoralism. They kept camels, goats, cattle and donkeys.
  2. Some Cushites who lived in oasis and along the river valleys, practiced subsistence agriculture. They grew grain crops vegetables, dates and bananas. iii) They practiced iron smelting. They made iron tools eg. swords, knives, bangles and arrowheads.
  3. They hunted wild game and gathered roots, vegetables and fruits.
  4. They engaged in craft industry. For example they produced leather items such as handbags, belts and clothing.
  5. Some of the Cushites who lived near rivers and along the Indian

    Ocean practiced fishing using fence traps, hooks and line. vii)

They traded with their neighbours such as the Samburu and

Pokomo. They traded in iron implements and leather products.

 




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