Share this:


1.  a)  Give 5 reasons why Britain used indirect rule in Northern Nigeria.

 i)  Britain wanted to reduce administrative costs by using the local chiefs ie.

system was cheaper. ii)  Lack of adequate funds. iii)  Nigeria had organized political structure which suited indirect rule/centralized government, iv)  Britain wanted to guard against resistance by the local people through using existing local institutions and rulers.

v)  Britain lacked adequate personnel to administer the vast colony, vi)  Indirect rule had been tied in India and Uganda was found to be workable.

 b)  Why did the British improve transport and communication in

Northern Nigeria?

  1. To promote trade in the country.
  2. To facilitate the movement of colonial administrators.
  3. To facilitate the exploitation of natural resources in remote parts of the country, iv)  To promote evangelization of the colony by facilitating the movement of missionaries.

v)  To speed up communication between Nigeria and Britain, vi)  To facilitate the transportation of agricultural products and equipment, vii)  To facilitate the transportation of raw materials/minerals, viii) To raise revenue for administering the country.


  1. a) State five benefits which the people of the four communes in Senegal

    enjoyed as a result of the application of the French policy of assimilation.

    i) They were allowed to send representative to the French Chamber of deputies. < * ii)  They were enfranchised like the French people in France.

    1. They were provided with same educational rights like the French people in

    France/protected by French constitution.

    1. They were exempted from forced labour.
    2. They were allowed trading rights like the French people in France.
    3. They were allowed to operate local authority structures which were similar to those in


    1. They were allowed to serve in the French civil service.


b) Explain five factors which undermined the application of the French policy of assimilation in West Africa.
  1. Opposition by local people who did not want the French to interfere with

theory culture.

  1. Traditional African rulers who did not want to lose their authority and influence over people.
  2. The people who had been converted to Islam resisted the French attempt

to convert them to their culture/Christianity.

  1. There was opposition by French traders in West Africa who saw the assimilated Africans as a potential threat to their commercial monopoly in the region.
  2. The African land tenure system was different from that of the French. vi)  French government found it expensive to implement the policy because it required building many schools and employing teachers.

vii)  It threatened the existence of the French empire. viii)  it was opposed by the French imperialists.

  1. The vastness of the French colonies made it difficult to supervise the implementation of the policy of assimilation/inadequate personnel.
  2. The French people in France opposed of assimilation because they feared that they would be outnumbered in the chamber of deputies and that the laws would be made by representative from the colonies.


  1. Name two systems of colonial administration which were used by the British to administer their colonies in Africa.

    i) Indirect rule ii)

    Direct rule


  2. a) Describe that factors which facilitated the success of the French policy


    Assimilation in Senegal

    1. The application of the assimilation led to the promotion of French culture in Senegal e.g. dressing feeding etc.
    2. The policy of assimilation undermined African culture as many adopted the

    French culture.

    1. It undermined the authority of the traditional rulers as they were replaced by the assimilated Africans.
    2. Senegal was incorporated in French republic regarded as an overseas province of France.
    3. Africans from Senegal were allowed to participate in the political affairs of France. Some of them became deputies and minister in the French government.
    4. It undermined the spread of Islam in the same communities where many

    Africans had adopted Christianity. vii)  It created a class of privileged Africans who were regarded to be equal with the white French people. viii)
    It created division among Africans in Senegal some became citizens while others became subjects.


  1. a) What were the difference between the British policy of indirect rule to

    administer Northern Nigeria.

 i)  The existence of a well established and centralized system of government in the

region i.e. the Sokto Caliphate. ii)  Use of the Sheria (Islamic Law) in the Sokto Caliphate provided a base to be used to govern the protectorate.

  1. To win the confidence and the support of all the people by giving them the impression that they were still under the governance of their leaders.
  2. Shortage of British personnel to administer the vast protectorate.
  3. Inadequate funds to facilitate administrative expenses of the protectorate/cheap/less expensive etc.
  4. Success already realized in using the policy elsewhere within the empire

e.g. Uganda and India gave Lugard the courage to try it in Nigeria. vii)  Poor transport and communication network making it difficult for British officials to effectively administer different parts of the country.


  1. Define indirect rule as a policy that was used by the British to administer their colonies in Africa.

    Indirect rule was the British colonial administration policy where they retained the existing indigenous systems and use of local rulers in pursuit of their colonial interests.


  1. State two reasons why indirect rule was unsuccessful in Southern Nigeria.
    1. Southern Nigeria lacked centralized administration which could be used to implement the indirect rule.
    2. African chiefs feared erosion and loss of the traditional authority. iii)

   The African elite resented British rule.

  1. Existence of many ethnic groups and religious made it difficult to bring the people together under one rule.
  2. The use of unpopular African rulers e.g. Obas/puppet made the people

reject British rule.


  1. a) Why did the British use direct rule in Zimbabwe?
    1. They desired to control the economy of Zimbabwe to maximize profits.
    2. The indigenous/local political institutional based on Induna system had been destroyed during the British occupation of Zimbabwe.
    3. To ensure complete control of Africans.
    4. Existence of British South Africa company personnel on the sport who were familiar with the area as well as British system of administration.

 b)  Explain the effected of British rule in Zimbabwe.

  1. It led to the alienation of African land to white settlers resulting to displacement of Africans.
  2. African traditional rulers lost their political autonomy and served as puppets of the British/loss of independence.
  3. The day to day running of the colony was vested in the hands of the

British without much reference to the African interest.

  1. Africans were subjected to heavy taxation and forced labour.
  2. The British South African company was given too much in the administration of colony. vi)  It undermined African traditional economy as some Africans worked in white farms.

    vii)  It led to the development of transport network/infrastructure, viii) It led to the introduction of new crops in the region, ix)  It undermined African culture,

  3. Establishment of white settlements subjected Africans to poverty and suffering.


  1. Africans were denied freedom of movements by being confined to reserves and required to carry identity cards.
  2. It led to rise of African nationalism.


9.  a) Why did the British use indirect rule to administer Northern Nigeria?

  1. To reduce the administrative costs of the colony because it was vast/costs.
  2. The British did not have enough trained personnel to administer the area – no – person. iii)  There existed an already accepted system of administration through the Enirs and Qadis.
  3. They did not want to provoke people of Northern Nigeria into rebellion – or rebellious by introducing the rules.
  4. Indirect rule had already succeeded in Uganda and India, so they had points of reference.
  5. the adoption of the dual Mandate policy by the British government encouraged the development of the colony for its own good and good of Britain.
  6. Poor communication.


b) Explain why the use of indirect rule in Southern Nigeria was unsuccessful.

  1. Southern Nigeria did not have centralized indigenous system of government that was necessary for the application of indirect rule.
  2. Lack of homogeneity in the South as there were many ethnic groups, language and customs to be understood.
  3. The British introduced new ideas such as forced labour and direct taxes which infuriated the people.
  4. the failure of the British administrators to fully understand how the social and economist and political system of Southern Nigeria (based on the office of the Oba) operated made them fail easily.
  5. Opposition from the educated elite who felt out of the administration of their country/leadership.
  6. The educated people in Southern Nigeria resented the chiefs appointed by the British because they were illiterate.
  7. The Obas of Southern Nigeria had defined powers such as mediation, so when they were given wide ranging powers, people became discontented. viii)  communication barriers between the British supervisors, the warrant chiefs and the people often led to misinterpretation and misunderstanding.
  8. misuse of power by the Warrant chief who raised taxes for their own benefits. They also harassed women sexually
  9. Use of excessive force to suppress any form of resistance provoked resentment e.g. the shooting of women during a demonstration against British administration.













Share this:



Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Accept Our Privacy Terms.*