Share this:


BALANCE OF NATURE
THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
  • The natural environment is made up of all living and non – living thing that occur naturally on earth, it includes; air, water, animals, plants, micro – organism, stones, cloud and rock soil.
IMPORTANCE OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
1) It is a source of food for organisms.
2) Provides shelter and security for organisms.
3) It provides an appropriate setting for organism to reproduce and increase in number
4) It allows living and non – living things to interact.
THE COMMONS TERMS IN STUDYING THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
BIOTIC FACTORS: Are all the living components of the environment. They are plants, animals and micro – organisms
ABIOTIC FACTORS: Are the non – living components of the environment e.g. light, water, rocks and soil.
ECOLOGY – Is the branch of biology that deals with the study of the relationship between living things and their natural environment
POPULATION – Is the total number of a certain species of organisms in a community. Example number of frogs in a pond
COMMUNITY – This refers to the populations of different organisms living in a specific area called a habitat. Example a grass land community could include grass, acacia trees, lions, antelope, giraffe and cheetah.
HABITAT – Is a specific area with a specific set of conditions that is appropriate for a certain community and where the community ties or it is the home of living organisms. Example tropical rain forest, a desert, a swamp, a pond, a grassland and ocean
ECOSYSTEM – This is a natural unit made up of living and non – living thing whose interactions lead to a self – sustaining system
  • An ecosystem is made up of communities.
BIOTIC FACTORS
Biotic factors are the living components in the environment. They can either be population factors or community factors.
1. POPULATION FACTORS – This include:
i) Population density – The number of organisms in a given area
ii) Dispersion – the geographical distribution of organism in an area
iii) Age structure – the distribution of population according to age
iv) The ratio of males to female
v) The number of births
vi) The number of deaths
vii) Population growth – The rate of growth at which the number of organism is increasing
2. COMMUNITY FACTORS – This includes food chains and food webs,
– These are feeding relationships that represent the flow of energy and recycling of nutrients in a community.
ABIOTIC FACTORS
These are non – living components of the environment. They can be climatic, soil or geological.
CLIMATIC FACTORS
1. Temperature is the degree of heat in a place
– Organisms adapt to the temperature in their habitats in various ways.
Example some plants shed their leaves or roll them when it is very hot so as to avoid excessive loss of water
– Animal in very cold place has extra fat for insulation
2. Light: it is obtained from the sun
– It affects opening of stomata
– It is important during photosynthesis
Example some animal hunt in bright daylight (e.g. hawks) while others hunt at dark or dawn when there is dim light (e.g. lions) and others hunt at night (e.g. owls and bats)
3. Wind: It increases the rate of water evaporation from water bodies as well as for living organism
– Wind is important in the formation of rain and the disposal of some plant seed.
4. Atmospheric pressure: when atmosphere pressure is high concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide are also become high so the threaten of gaseous exchange and respiration is high. The opposite is also true. This affects the distribution of both plants and animals.
5. Water serves as habitat for a large variety of organism. Water serves as solvent a medium of transportation and a temperature regulatory.
AQUATIC FACTORS
These are factors that affect water bodies and life in water
  1. Salinity: This is the quantity of salts dissolved in water.
– Aquatic plants have roots that absorb mineral salts and water depending on the concentration in the plant cells
– Some aquatic organisms are adapted to live in fresh water habitat while others live in salt water habitants.
2. WAVE ACTION: It is important for organism to live in artificial zone. These organism are covered by water during high tide and low tide
– Such organism includes shrines, different types of sea weeds, crabs and prawns.
SOIL FACTORS
1. Soil texture – this refers to the size of soil particles.
– Soil texture affects drainage of the soil, fertility and distribution of plants.
2. Soil composition: This is the proportion of components of soil including mineral salts, Air and micro – organism, water and remains of living things
– These components affect soil fertility and hence plant growth.
3. SOIL PH: This is the degree of acidity or alkalinity of soil
– Different types of plants grow into soil with different PH value. Example tomato and pineapple grow in slight acidic soil while onions and cabbage prefer slightly alkaline soil.
PRODUCERS: These are organisms that can manufacture their own food example: green plants and photosynthesis bacteria, this is the first trophic level.
  • Producers are eaten by primary consumers
  • Primary consumers are mostly herbivores such as rabbits, cows, buffaloes, wild beasts, goat and sheep.
  • Primary consumers form the second trophic level.
SECONDARY CONSUMERS:
These form the third trophic level.
  • They feed on primary consumers
  • They are mostly carnivores such as – domestic cats, dogs, hyenas, lions, leopards and cheetahs.
  • This level can be followed by tertiary consumers which feed on secondary consumer then quaternary consumer feed on tertiary consumers.
DECOMPOSERS
These are organisms that decompose dead organic matter
  • This is the final trophic level.
  • These organisms feed on dead matter and break it down there by facilitating decomposition.
  • The two main decomposers are the saprophytic fungi and saprophytic bacteria.
  • The relationship between organisms at different trophic levels can be presented diagrammatically as follows;
C:thlbcrtz__i__images__i__img53.jpg
FOOD CHAINS- a food chain is a linear relationship among the organisms of a community in which each organism feeds on the one preceding it.

  • It presents energy flow from one trophic level to the next.
  • Each organism feeds on therefore derives energy from the proceedings one in return it is eaten by the other and therefore provides energy for the one following it.
  • The arrows indicate the direction of energy flow
Example of food chain:
C:thlbcrtz__i__images__i__img63.jpg
FOOD WEBS
A food web refers to the several food chains interlinking together(A network of food chain).
  • Most herbivores consume more than one kind of plants and omnivores consume more than one kind of plant and animal and the decomposer consume more than one kind of herbivore
Example of food web
C:thlbcrtz__i__images__i__img1b11.png
C:thlbcrtz__i__images__i__img83.jpg
SIGNIFICANCE OF FOOD CHAINS AND FOOD WEBS
i) Food chains and food webs facilitate the flow of energy in the environment.
ii) Helps to maintain the balance of the total numbers of organisms in the environment




Share this:

EcoleBooks | BIOLOGY O LEVEL(FORM TWO) NOTES - BALANCE OF NATURE

subscriber

1 Comment

  • EcoleBooks | BIOLOGY O LEVEL(FORM TWO) NOTES - BALANCE OF NATURE

    neemandunguru, June 23, 2023 @ 3:30 pm Reply

    Good but why few notes

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Accept Our Privacy Terms.*